Reduce toxic effects of LA solution
Decreases depth & duration of LA
Increase toxic effects of LA
Has no effect on efficacy LA solution
Posterior superior alveolar nerve
Middle superior alveolar nerve
Infra orbital nerve
Intra venous regional anesthesia
No such technique exists.
To be palpable both intra- and extraorally
To be palpable intraorally
To be palpable extraorally.
Only to be detectable by radiographical examination.
Anterior and lateral to medial pterygoid
Posterior and medial to medial pterygoid.
Through medial pterygoid
Inferior to medial pterygoid.
Hard palate, upper lip, upper central incisor and lower first molar
Hard palate and upper lip.
Hard palate, upper lip and upper central incisor.
The incisive nerve
The buccal nerve
The lingual nerve
Left and right submental lymph nodes
Left submental lymph node.
Left submandibular lymph node.
Left and right submandibular lymph nodes.
Lower lip, mandibular teeth and labial gingivae of the anterior mandibular teeth
Lower lip and mandibular teeth.
Lower lip, mandibular teeth and labial gingivae of the anterior and buccal gingivae of the posterior mandibular teeth.
Keratinised and has submucosa and minor salivary glands posterolaterally
Non-keratinised and has submucosa and minor salivary glands posteromedially
Keratinised and lacks submucosa and minor salivary glands.
Non-keratinised and lacks submucosa and minor salivary glands.
Maxillary anterior teeth, their labial gingivae and the upper lip
Maxillary anterior teeth.
Maxillary anterior teeth and their labial gingivae.
Maxillary anterior teeth, their labial gingivae, the upper lip and anterior hard palate
Ed below the mucogingival junction and light pink above it
Light pink in colour on both sides of the mucogingigival junction.
Light pink below the mucogingival junction and red above it.
Red on both sides of the mucogingival junction
No local irritation, even absorption and no systemic toxicity
No local irritation
No systemic toxicity
Higher melting point of combined drug than either lidocaine (Xylocaine) or prilocaine (Citanest) alone
Direct local anesthetic action on nerve roots and spinal cord following local anesthetic diffusion across the dura and diffusion of local anesthetic into paravertebral regions through the intervertebral foramina
Direct local anesthetic action on nerve roots and spinal cord following local anesthetic diffusion across the dura
Diffusion of local anesthetic into paravertebral regions through the intervertebral foramina
Reduced local anesthetic systemic absorption and increased anesthetic concentration near nerve fibers
Reduced local anesthetic systemic absorption
Increased anesthetic concentration near nerve fibers
Reduced duration of conduction blockade
All of the above
Epidural and Spinal
Allergic reactions and systemic toxicity
Pregnancy, presence of calcium channel blockers, arterial hypoxemia, acidosis and hypercarbia
Presence of calcium channel blockers
Acidosis and hypercarbia
Epinephrine, phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine) and dextran
Epidural and spinal
Lidocaine (Xylocaine), ropivacaine (Naropin) and bupivacaine (Marcaine)