Sem 1 : Set 9

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Sem 1 : Set 9 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Sel epitelium yang menghasilkan melanin untuk menyerap radiasi ultraviolet ialah

    • A.

      Merkel cell.

    • B.

      Melanocyte.

    • C.

      Keratinocyte.

    • D.

      Langerhans cell.

    Correct Answer
    B. Melanocyte.
    Explanation
    Melanocytes are the cells responsible for producing melanin, the pigment that gives color to the skin, hair, and eyes. Melanin helps protect the skin from the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by absorbing and dispersing it. Merkel cells are involved in the sense of touch, keratinocytes are the most common type of skin cells and provide a protective barrier, and Langerhans cells are involved in the immune response. Therefore, the correct answer is melanocyte, as they specifically produce melanin for UV radiation absorption.

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  • 2. 

    Fungsi interlacing smooth muscle myometrium ialah

    • A.

      Membantu decent of fetus head.

    • B.

      Mempercepatkan effacement cervix.

    • C.

      Mengawal pendarahan semasa proses labor.

    • D.

      Menggalakkan uterine contraction semasa proses labor.

    Correct Answer
    C. Mengawal pendarahan semasa proses labor.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "mengawal pendarahan semasa proses labor." This means that the interlacing smooth muscle of the myometrium helps to control bleeding during the labor process. The myometrium is the muscular layer of the uterus, and its contractions help to push the baby out during labor. By contracting and compressing the blood vessels in the uterus, the interlacing smooth muscle helps to prevent excessive bleeding during childbirth.

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  • 3. 

    Gangguan koordinasi pada pergerakan halus (fine motor) disebabkan oleh kecederaan pada

    • A.

      Cerebrum.

    • B.

      Cerebellum.

    • C.

      Spinal cord.

    • D.

      Pons varolli.

    Correct Answer
    B. Cerebellum.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is cerebellum. The cerebellum is responsible for coordinating fine motor movements, such as those involved in precise hand movements. When there is an injury or damage to the cerebellum, it can result in disruptions in fine motor coordination.

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  • 4. 

    Duktus limfatik kanan dan torasik mengalir secara langsung ke

    • A.

      Cistern chilli.

    • B.

      Superior vena cava.

    • C.

      Cervical lymph nodes.

    • D.

      Axillary lymph nodes.

    Correct Answer
    B. Superior vena cava.
    Explanation
    The right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct are major lymphatic vessels that drain lymphatic fluid from different parts of the body. In this case, the question is asking about the direction of flow of these ducts. The correct answer, superior vena cava, is a large vein that receives blood from the upper body. It is responsible for returning deoxygenated blood from the head, neck, and upper limbs back to the heart. The lymphatic fluid from the right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct ultimately drains into the superior vena cava, where it mixes with the blood before returning to the heart.

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  • 5. 

    Apakah struktur yang melapisi lapisan berotot dalam jantung?

    • A.

      Pericardium.

    • B.

      Myocardium.

    • C.

      Myometrium.

    • D.

      Endocardium.

    Correct Answer
    A. Pericardium.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Pericardium. The pericardium is the structure that surrounds and protects the muscular layer of the heart. It is a double-layered sac that contains fluid to reduce friction and allow the heart to move smoothly within the chest cavity. The pericardium also helps to hold the heart in place and prevent it from overfilling with blood.

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  • 6. 

    Tindakbalas homeostasis badan terhadap peningkatan kepekatan karbon dioksida dalam darah adalah

    • A.

      Penurunan kadar pernafasan.

    • B.

      Peningkatan kadar pernafasan.

    • C.

      Peningkatan ketelapan pada dinding alveoli.

    • D.

      Pengurangan ketelapan pada dinding alveoli.

    Correct Answer
    B. Peningkatan kadar pernafasan.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "peningkatan kadar pernafasan." When the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood increases, the body responds by increasing the respiratory rate. This is because carbon dioxide is a waste product of cellular respiration and needs to be removed from the body. By increasing the respiratory rate, more carbon dioxide can be exhaled, helping to restore the balance of gases in the blood and maintain homeostasis.

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  • 7. 

    Pengaliran sekresi jus gaster di fasa cephlic adalah disebabkan oleh

    • A.

      Makanan sampai ke gaster.

    • B.

      Terdapat makanan berlemak di duodenum.

    • C.

      Teringat, tercium, terlihat dan terbau makanan enak.

    • D.

      Makanan yang dihadam sampai ke dalam usus kecil.

    Correct Answer
    D. Makanan yang dihadam sampai ke dalam usus kecil.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "makanan yang dihadam sampai ke dalam usus kecil." This is because the cephalic phase of gastric secretion is stimulated by the thought, smell, sight, and taste of food. However, the actual secretion of gastric juice occurs when the food is digested and reaches the small intestine. Therefore, the presence of food in the small intestine is what triggers the secretion of gastric juice.

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  • 8. 

    Aurikel  berfungsi  

    • A.

      Mengimbangkan tekanan internal ear. 

    • B.

      Mengarahkan gelombang bunyi ke middle ear.

    • C.

      Menghalang kemasukkan udara ke internal ear.

    • D.

      Menghubungkan middle ear dengan kerongkong

    Correct Answer
    B. Mengarahkan gelombang bunyi ke middle ear.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "mengarahkan gelombang bunyi ke middle ear." This is because the auricle, also known as the outer ear, helps to collect sound waves from the environment and direct them towards the middle ear. The shape and structure of the auricle help to amplify and funnel sound waves into the ear canal, where they then travel to the middle ear. From there, the sound waves are further transmitted to the inner ear for processing and interpretation.

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  • 9. 

    Struktur sel ini terdapat pada sel eukariot dan prokariot.

    • A.

      Silia.

    • B.

      Kapsul.

    • C.

      Nukleus.

    • D.

      Ribosom.

    Correct Answer
    D. Ribosom.
    Explanation
    The given statement states that this structure is found in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Among the options provided, only ribosomes are present in both types of cells. Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis and can be found in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells and on the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotic cells. Therefore, ribosomes are the correct answer.

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  • 10. 

    Pemerhatian utama yang perlu dilakukan untuk sebarang komplikasi bagi klien yang diberi infusi morphine ialah  

    • A.

      Kehadiran diarrhea.

    • B.

      Monitor carta intake output.

    • C.

      Nilai gangguan corak pernafasan.

    • D.

      Periksa tahap kesedaran setiap jam sekali

    Correct Answer
    C. Nilai gangguan corak pernafasan.
    Explanation
    The main observation that needs to be done for any complications in clients given morphine infusion is to assess the disturbance in respiratory pattern. This is because morphine is a potent opioid analgesic that can cause respiratory depression as a side effect. Monitoring the client's respiratory rate, depth, and pattern is crucial to ensure their safety and detect any signs of respiratory distress or impairment.

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  • 11. 

    Puan L mengambil tablet Digoxin 0.25mg daily. Berikut adalah tanggungjawab jururawat sebelum pemberian ubat ini, kecuali

    • A.

      Periksa apical pulse.

    • B.

      Periksa tekanan darah.

    • C.

      Semak keputusan serum elektrolit.

    • D.

      Semak keputusan serum digoxin level.

    Correct Answer
    B. Periksa tekanan darah.
    Explanation
    The nurse's responsibility before administering Digoxin includes checking the apical pulse, checking the serum electrolyte levels, and checking the serum Digoxin level. However, checking the blood pressure is not directly related to the administration of Digoxin and therefore is not a responsibility of the nurse in this context.

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  • 12. 

    Berdasarkan kepada pengiraan body mass index (BMI) adik K,  didapati BMInya  adalah 15kg/m².  Apakah jenis makanan  yang dicadangkan untuk adik K?

    • A.

      Liquid diet.

    • B.

      Low fat diet.

    • C.

      High kalori diet.

    • D.

      High protein diet.

    Correct Answer
    C. High kalori diet.
    Explanation
    Based on the calculation of the body mass index (BMI) of adik K, which is 15kg/m², it indicates that adik K has a low body weight. To increase their weight, a high-calorie diet is recommended. This type of diet provides more calories than the body needs for daily activities, helping adik K to gain weight.

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  • 13. 

    Keluarga Puan A tidak mempercayai rawatan moden. Beliau dibawa berjumpa dengan bomoh. Sikap ini dipengaruhi oleh faktor

    • A.

      Agama. 

    • B.

      Ekonomi.

    • C.

      Kebudayaan.

    • D.

      Pengetahuan.

    Correct Answer
    C. Kebudayaan.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is kebudayaan. The family's belief in traditional medicine and consulting a bomoh is influenced by their cultural beliefs and practices. In some cultures, traditional healing methods are highly valued and trusted, leading individuals to seek alternative treatments rather than relying on modern medicine.

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  • 14. 

    Merujuk kepada teori Keperluan Hierarki Maslow, individu yang sedang melanjutkan pelajaran ke tahap tertinggi berada dalam peringkat keperluan

    • A.

      Keselamatan.

    • B.

      Kasih sayang.

    • C.

      Penghargaan kendiri.

    • D.

      Kesempurnaan kendiri.

    Correct Answer
    C. Penghargaan kendiri.
    Explanation
    According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory, individuals who are pursuing higher education are likely to be in the self-esteem needs category. This category includes the need for self-respect, self-confidence, and recognition from others. Pursuing higher education can be seen as a way for individuals to enhance their self-esteem and gain recognition for their achievements. Therefore, the correct answer is "penghargaan kendiri" which translates to "self-esteem" in English.

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  • 15. 

    Ketua Penyelia Jururawat A sedang memberi laporan bulanan kepada Pengarah Hospital. Keadaan ini merujuk kepada aliran komunikasi

    • A.

      Sesama orang atasan.

    • B.

      Sesama orang bawahan.

    • C.

      Orang atasan kepada orang bawahan.

    • D.

      Orang bawahan kepada orang atasan.

    Correct Answer
    D. Orang bawahan kepada orang atasan.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "orang bawahan kepada orang atasan." This is because the scenario described in the question is the head nurse giving a monthly report to the hospital director. In this situation, the flow of communication is from the subordinate (head nurse) to the superior (hospital director).

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  • 16. 

    Elemen dalam budaya korporat yang berkaitan dengan komitmen adalah

    • A.

      Assertive.

    • B.

      Professionalism.

    • C.

      Kerja berpasukan.

    • D.

      Perkhidmatan penyayang.

    Correct Answer
    B. Professionalism.
    Explanation
    The element in corporate culture that is related to commitment is professionalism. Professionalism refers to the behavior and attitude of individuals in a professional setting, where they display competence, reliability, and dedication to their work. It involves adhering to ethical standards, being accountable for one's actions, and maintaining a high level of integrity. In a corporate culture that values professionalism, employees are committed to their roles and responsibilities, and they strive to perform their tasks to the best of their abilities.

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  • 17. 

    Untuk menunjukkan anda seorang pendengar yang baik, tindakan yang perlu anda tunjukkan semasa memberikan rawatan ialah 

    • A.

      Mencatat aduan pesakit.

    • B.

      Menyentuh bahu pesakit.

    • C.

      Mengekalkan eye contact.

    • D.

      Memberi senyuman kepada pesakit.

    Correct Answer
    B. Menyentuh bahu pesakit.
    Explanation
    To show that you are a good listener, one action you should demonstrate while providing treatment is to touch the patient's shoulder. This physical contact can help convey empathy, comfort, and support to the patient, making them feel heard and understood. It can also create a sense of connection and trust between the healthcare provider and the patient, enhancing the therapeutic relationship.

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  • 18. 

    Pengumpulan maklumat secara subjektif boleh dilakukan melalui cara

    • A.

      Temubual.

    • B.

      Pemerhatian.

    • C.

      Pemeriksaan fizikal.

    • D.

      Penyelidikan makmal.

    Correct Answer
    A. Temubual.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "temubual" because it refers to the method of gathering information subjectively by conducting interviews or conversations with individuals. This method allows researchers to obtain firsthand accounts and opinions from people, providing valuable insights and perspectives on a particular topic. Other options such as observation, physical examination, and laboratory research involve objective data collection methods rather than subjective information gathering.

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  • 19. 

    Anda diarahkan untuk memberi oksigen melalui nasal prong kepada Encik J. Untuk memastikan amaun oksigen yang diberikan adalah betul, alat yang mesti anda sediakan ialah 

    • A.

      Humidifier.

    • B.

      Flowmeter.

    • C.

      Cylinder oxygen.

    • D.

      Pressure gauge.

    Correct Answer
    B. Flowmeter.
    Explanation
    To ensure the correct amount of oxygen is given to Encik J, a flowmeter is required. A flowmeter is a device used to regulate and measure the flow rate of oxygen being delivered to a patient. It allows healthcare providers to adjust and monitor the oxygen flow accurately, ensuring the appropriate amount of oxygen is administered to the patient. A humidifier is used to add moisture to the oxygen, a cylinder oxygen is the source of the oxygen, and a pressure gauge is used to measure the pressure of the oxygen, but they do not regulate the flow rate.

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  • 20. 

    Fasa yang memerlukan jururawat merangka masalah perawatan yang sedang dialami oleh pesakit adalah

    • A.

      Asesmen.

    • B.

      Perancangan.

    • C.

      Penilaian semula.

    • D.

      Diagnosis perawatan.

    Correct Answer
    D. Diagnosis perawatan.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "diagnosis perawatan." In the context of the question, the phase that requires a nurse to formulate the ongoing care problems experienced by the patient is the diagnosis of treatment. This involves identifying and analyzing the patient's health issues and determining the appropriate course of action for their care.

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  • 21. 

    Anda akan melakukan asesmen ke atas pesakit dengan melakukan pemeriksaan fizikal. Tujuan pemeriksaan fizikal adalah  

    • A.

      Menilai status kesihatan pesakit.

    • B.

      Mengelakkan kecederaan kepada pesakit.

    • C.

      Melakukan perawatan untuk melegakan masalah pesakit.

    • D.

      Mengambil maklumat yang berkaitan dengan masalah pesakit.

    Correct Answer
    D. Mengambil maklumat yang berkaitan dengan masalah pesakit.
    Explanation
    The purpose of a physical examination is to gather information related to the patient's health problems. By performing a physical examination, the healthcare provider can assess the patient's condition, identify any abnormalities or symptoms, and gather important data that can help in diagnosing and treating the patient. This information is crucial in understanding the patient's medical history, current health status, and determining the appropriate course of action for their treatment.

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  • 22. 

    Pergerakan molekul air dari intravascular ke intracellular dipanggil

    • A.

      Filtration.

    • B.

      Diffusion.

    • C.

      Osmosis.

    • D.

      Absorption.

    Correct Answer
    C. Osmosis.
    Explanation
    Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration through a semipermeable membrane. In this case, the movement of water molecules from intravascular (lower solute concentration) to intracellular (higher solute concentration) can be explained by osmosis.

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  • 23. 

    Semasa membaca Central Vena Pressure ( CVP) anda dapati paras cecair dalam manometer menaik dan menurun semasa pesakit bernafas. Ini menunjukkan

    • A.

      Infusi vena sentral berfungsi. 

    • B.

      Kateter vena sentral tersekat. 

    • C.

      Kadar infusi intravena terlalu lambat. 

    • D.

      Kateter vena sental berada di right atrium. 

    Correct Answer
    B. Kateter vena sentral tersekat. 
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "kateter vena sentral tersekat." This is indicated by the fact that the fluid level in the manometer rises and falls with the patient's breathing. This suggests that there is obstruction or blockage in the central venous catheter, causing the fluctuation in fluid pressure.

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  • 24. 

    Patofisiologi edema yang berlaku dalam congestive cardiac failure adalah akibat

    • A.

      Peningkatan oncotic pressure.

    • B.

      Peningkatan hydrostatic pressure.

    • C.

      Pengambilan makanan tinggi sodium.

    • D.

      Tidak compliances dengan ubat diuretik.

    Correct Answer
    B. Peningkatan hydrostatic pressure.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "peningkatan hydrostatic pressure." In congestive cardiac failure, there is a decrease in the pumping efficiency of the heart, which leads to an accumulation of fluid in the body. This accumulation occurs due to an increase in hydrostatic pressure, which is the pressure exerted by the fluid on the blood vessel walls. As the heart fails to effectively pump blood out of the heart, the pressure in the blood vessels increases, causing fluid to leak out into the surrounding tissues, resulting in edema.

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  • 25. 

    Encik U mengalami  hypokalemia akibat diarrhea and vomiting yang teruk.  Cecair infusi intravena yang paling sesuai diberikan kepada beliau adalah

    • A.

      Dextrose 5%.

    • B.

      Ringer lactate.

    • C.

      Normal saline.

    • D.

      Dextrose saline.

    Correct Answer
    B. Ringer lactate.
    Explanation
    Encik U mengalami hypokalemia akibat diarrhea and vomiting yang teruk. Ringer lactate adalah cecair infusi intravena yang mengandungi larutan elektrolit seperti natrium, kalium, kalsium, dan laktat. Pemberian Ringer lactate akan membantu menggantikan elektrolit yang hilang akibat diare dan muntah yang berlebihan. Dextrose 5% hanya mengandungi glukosa dan tidak menggantikan elektrolit yang hilang. Normal saline juga tidak mengandungi elektrolit yang mencukupi untuk menggantikan kehilangan elektrolit yang signifikan. Dextrose saline mengandungi glukosa dan garam, tetapi tidak mencukupi untuk menggantikan elektrolit yang hilang dengan cukup. Oleh itu, Ringer lactate adalah pilihan yang paling sesuai.

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  • 26. 

    Intervensi kejururawatan untuk mengatasi masalah pesakit yang tidak dapat rehat dan tidur dengan sempurna ialah

    • A.

      Berkomunikasi dua hala.

    • B.

      Amalkan sikap penyayang.

    • C.

      Galakkan terapi diversional.

    • D.

      Rancang tindakan perawatan.

    Correct Answer
    D. Rancang tindakan perawatan.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "rancang tindakan perawatan" because it suggests that the nursing intervention to address the patient's inability to rest and sleep properly is to plan a care action. This implies that the nurse should come up with a specific plan or strategy to provide the necessary care and support to help the patient rest and sleep better. This could involve creating a conducive environment, administering appropriate medications, or implementing relaxation techniques, among other things. The other options of "berkomunikasi dua hala," "amalkan sikap penyayang," and "galakkan terapi diversional" are not directly related to addressing the patient's rest and sleep problems.

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  • 27. 

    Anda diarahkan untuk melakukan nasogastric aspiration ke atas Encik Y kerana beliau disyaki mengalami masalah intestinal obstruction.  Apakah keadaan yang boleh berlaku kepada beliau?  

    • A.

      Metabolic acidosis.

    • B.

      Metabolic alkalosis.

    • C.

      Respiratory acidosis.

    • D.

      Respiratory alkalosis.

    Correct Answer
    B. Metabolic alkalosis.
    Explanation
    When a person experiences intestinal obstruction, it can lead to vomiting. Nasogastric aspiration is a procedure to remove the contents of the stomach through a tube inserted through the nose. This can result in the loss of gastric acid, leading to a decrease in hydrogen ion concentration in the body. This loss of acid can cause metabolic alkalosis, which is characterized by an increase in blood pH and bicarbonate levels. Therefore, the correct answer is metabolic alkalosis.

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  • 28. 

    Encik Y berumur 60 tahun mengalami diarrhea yang teruk.  Keputusan ABG beliau menunjukkan bacaan pH 7.25, HCO3 18mEq/L, Paco2 32mmHg, Pao2 90mmHg dan BE – 3.  Keputusan ini menunjukkan keadaan

    • A.

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • B.

      Respiratori alkalosis

    • C.

      Metabolic asidosis

    • D.

      Respiratori alkolosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Metabolic asidosis
    Explanation
    The given ABG results indicate metabolic acidosis. The pH value of 7.25 is lower than the normal range, indicating acidosis. The HCO3 level of 18mEq/L is also lower than the normal range, further supporting the diagnosis of metabolic acidosis. The Paco2 level of 32mmHg is within the normal range, ruling out respiratory alkalosis. The Pao2 level of 90mmHg is also within the normal range, ruling out respiratory acidosis. The BE value of -3 indicates a negative base excess, which is consistent with metabolic acidosis. Therefore, the correct answer is metabolic acidosis.

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  • 29. 

    Puan S mengalami kebakaran di anterior abdominal.  Berdasarkan  Wallaces Rulles of Nine,jumlah keluasan kebakaran yang dialami oleh Puan S ialah

    • A.

      9%.

    • B.

      18%.

    • C.

      28%.

    • D.

      36%.

    Correct Answer
    A. 9%.
    Explanation
    Based on Wallace's Rule of Nines, the anterior abdominal area accounts for 9% of the total body surface area. This rule is used to estimate the extent of burns on different body regions.

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  • 30. 

    Topical agents yang digunakan untuk merawat luka kebakaran dan kelecuran bertindak sebagai

    • A.

      Antidote.

    • B.

      Antibiotic.

    • C.

      Antiseptic.

    • D.

      Antimicrobial.

    Correct Answer
    D. Antimicrobial.
    Explanation
    Topical agents used to treat burns and scalds act as antimicrobials. This means that they are effective in killing or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses on the affected area. By preventing the growth of these microorganisms, antimicrobial agents help to prevent infections and promote healing of the burn or scald. Antidotes are substances used to counteract the effects of toxins or poisons, antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections, and antiseptics are used to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms on living tissues.

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  • 31. 

    Sel yang  menghasilkan kolagen semasa fasa proliferative adalah

    • A.

      Basophil

    • B.

      Neutrofil

    • C.

      Fibroblast

    • D.

      Erythrocyte

    Correct Answer
    C. Fibroblast
    Explanation
    Fibroblast cells are responsible for producing collagen during the proliferative phase. Collagen is a structural protein that provides strength and support to tissues and organs. Fibroblasts are found in connective tissues and play a crucial role in wound healing and tissue repair. They produce and secrete collagen, which helps in the formation of new tissue and the remodeling of damaged tissue. Basophils, neutrophils, and erythrocytes do not produce collagen and have different functions in the body.

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  • 32. 

    Keadaan di mana terdapat rembesan endotoksin di dalam salur darah dikenali sebagai

    • A.

      Toxaemia 

    • B.

      Bacteremia 

    • C.

      Leukopenia 

    • D.

      Septicaemia 

    Correct Answer
    A. Toxaemia 
    Explanation
    Toxaemia is the correct answer because it refers to the condition where endotoxins are leaking into the bloodstream. Bacteremia refers to the presence of bacteria in the blood, leukopenia refers to a decrease in white blood cells, and septicaemia refers to a severe infection in the blood. However, none of these options specifically address the presence of endotoxins in the bloodstream.

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  • 33. 

    Kesakitan yang dialami oleh pesakit carbuncle adalah disebabkan oleh

    • A.

      Peningkatan ketelapan kapilari

    • B.

      Tisu subcutaneous menjadi keras

    • C.

      Tindak balas mikroorganisma ke atas tubuh

    • D.

      Bengkak yang menekan ke atas hujung saraf

    Correct Answer
    D. Bengkak yang menekan ke atas hujung saraf
    Explanation
    The pain experienced by patients with carbuncles is caused by swelling that puts pressure on nerve endings.

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  • 34. 

    Manifestasi klinikal bagi pesakit yang mengalami systemic infection adalah

    • A.

      Bradycardia 

    • B.

      Tachypnoea 

    • C.

      Numbness 

    • D.

      Febrile

    Correct Answer
    D. Febrile
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "febrile". Febrile refers to having a fever, which is a common clinical manifestation in patients with systemic infection. Systemic infection can cause an increase in body temperature as the immune system responds to the infection. This can lead to symptoms such as chills, sweating, and an elevated heart rate. Other options like bradycardia (slow heart rate), tachypnea (rapid breathing), and numbness may be seen in certain conditions but are not specific to systemic infection.

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  • 35. 

    Prinsip yang perlu dipatuhi semasa melakukan dressing adalah

    • A.

      Cuci luka dari dalam ke luar

    • B.

      Guna satu swab untuk satu sapuan

    • C.

      Guna spirit 70% untuk mencuci luka

    • D.

      Pegang forceps dengan hujungnya menghala ke atas

    Correct Answer
    B. Guna satu swab untuk satu sapuan
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "guna satu swab untuk satu sapuan" which means "use one swab for one swipe". This principle is important to prevent cross-contamination and maintain cleanliness while dressing a wound. Using a new swab for each swipe ensures that any bacteria or debris from the previous swipe does not get transferred back onto the wound, reducing the risk of infection.

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  • 36. 

    Tujuan pembebatan menggunakan magnesium sulphate pada abscess adalah untuk

    • A.

      Mematangkan abscess.

    • B.

      Menurunkan suhu badan.

    • C.

      Mengurangkan kesakitan.

    • D.

      Menghapuskan mikroorganisma.

    Correct Answer
    A. Mematangkan abscess.
    Explanation
    The purpose of using magnesium sulphate on abscesses is to promote maturation of the abscess. This means that the magnesium sulphate helps to draw out the infection and pus from the abscess, allowing it to heal more effectively. This process can help to reduce pain and inflammation associated with the abscess and ultimately aid in the healing process.

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  • 37. 

    Kaedah pemberian anaesthesia ini menyebabkan pesakit  hilang sensori dari bahagian punggung ke aggota bawah.

    • A.

      Local

    • B.

      Spinal

    • C.

      Topical

    • D.

      General 

    Correct Answer
    B. Spinal
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "Spinal". The explanation for this answer is that the method of anesthesia described in the statement causes the patient to lose sensation from the back to the lower extremities. This is a characteristic of spinal anesthesia, which involves the injection of anesthetic medication into the spinal canal to numb the nerves in that area.

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  • 38. 

    Tujuan rawatan demahan sejuk bagi pesakit yang mengalami sprain di ankle dalam masa 24 jam pertama adalah untuk

    • A.

      Mengecutkan salur darah

    • B.

      Menggalakkan pemulihan

    • C.

      Meningkatkan venous return

    • D.

      Mengurangkan kebengkakan

    Correct Answer
    A. Mengecutkan salur darah
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "mengurangkan kebengkakan" (to reduce swelling). This is because when a person sprains their ankle, there is usually inflammation and swelling in the affected area. By constricting the blood vessels, the flow of blood to the injured area is reduced, which in turn helps to decrease the swelling.

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  • 39. 

    Encik S mengalami fracture femur dan plaster of paris (POP) telah dipasang keatasnya. Tujuan melakukan senaman isometric adalah untuk mengelakkan

    • A.

      Infeksi

    • B.

      Kebengkakan

    • C.

      Muscle atrophy

    • D.

      Compartment syndrome

    Correct Answer
    C. Muscle atrophy
    Explanation
    The purpose of performing isometric exercises after applying a plaster of paris (POP) on a fractured femur is to prevent muscle atrophy. When a person is immobilized due to a fracture and a cast, the muscles surrounding the injured area can weaken and shrink, leading to muscle atrophy. Isometric exercises involve contracting the muscles without any movement at the joints, which helps maintain muscle strength and prevent atrophy. By performing these exercises, Encik S can minimize the loss of muscle mass and maintain muscle function while his fracture heals.

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  • 40. 

    Wrist drop pada pesakit yang mengalami fracture shaft of humerus adalah disebabkan kecederaan pada saraf

    • A.

      Ulna.

    • B.

      Radial.

    • C.

      Axillary.

    • D.

      Median.

    Correct Answer
    C. Axillary.
    Explanation
    Wrist drop is a condition where a person is unable to extend their wrist and fingers due to weakness or paralysis of the muscles responsible for these movements. In the case of a fracture shaft of the humerus, the axillary nerve can be injured. The axillary nerve innervates the deltoid muscle and the teres minor muscle, which are responsible for shoulder abduction and external rotation. Damage to the axillary nerve can lead to weakness or paralysis of these muscles, causing wrist drop. Therefore, the correct answer is axillary.

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  • 41. 

    Edema pada stump biasa berlaku dalam masa 24 jam selepas amputation dilakukan. Intervensi kejururawatan bagi mengelakkan berlakunya edema pada stump adalah dengan 

    • A.

      Mengaplikasi demahan sejuk

    • B.

      Melakukan pembalutan dengan ketat

    • C.

      Memberi ubat antibiotic mengikut preskripsi

    • D.

      Meninggikan dengan meletakkannya diatas bantal

    Correct Answer
    D. Meninggikan dengan meletakkannya diatas bantal
    Explanation
    Meninggikan dengan meletakkannya di atas bantal (elevating with placing it on a pillow) is the correct answer. Elevating the stump helps to reduce swelling by promoting venous return and reducing fluid accumulation. This intervention is commonly used to prevent edema after amputation. Applying cold compression, tight bandaging, and administering antibiotics are not specifically effective in preventing edema in the stump.

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  • 42. 

    Pemerhatian pesakit yang mengalami fat embolism akibat fracture femur ialah

    • A.

      Hematuria

    • B.

      Difficulty in breathing dan hypoxia

    • C.

      Sudden onset bradycardia dan hypotension 

    • D.

      Seizure diikuti dengan loss of consciousness

    Correct Answer
    B. Difficulty in breathing dan hypoxia
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "difficulty in breathing and hypoxia." When a patient experiences fat embolism due to a femur fracture, they may have difficulty breathing because the fat globules can block the blood vessels in the lungs, leading to a decrease in oxygen supply. This can result in hypoxia, which is a condition characterized by low oxygen levels in the body. The other options mentioned, such as hematuria, sudden onset bradycardia and hypotension, and seizure followed by loss of consciousness, are not typically associated with fat embolism.

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  • 43. 

    Manifestasi klinikal yagn ditunjukkan oleh pesakit yang mengalami aplastik anemia adalah  

    • A.

      Cergas 

    • B.

      Kesakitan 

    • C.

      Bradikardia

    • D.

      Exertional dyspnea

    Correct Answer
    D. Exertional dyspnea
    Explanation
    Exertional dyspnea is a clinical manifestation commonly observed in patients with aplastic anemia. This symptom refers to difficulty in breathing or shortness of breath during physical exertion or exercise. Aplastic anemia is a condition characterized by a decrease in the production of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in the bone marrow. This leads to a reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, causing the individual to experience breathlessness during activities that require increased oxygen demand, such as exercise.

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  • 44. 

    Pesakit yang mengalami kesakitan akibat sickle cell crisis adalah disebabkan oleh

    • A.

      Pemecahan sickle cell

    • B.

      Kesekatan arteri oleh sickle cell

    • C.

      Mendapan sickle cell di sum-sum tulang

    • D.

      Kekejangan sel semasa menukar bentuk sickle

    Correct Answer
    B. Kesekatan arteri oleh sickle cell
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "kesekatan arteri oleh sickle cell." This means that the patient experiences pain due to the blockage of arteries by sickle cells. Sickle cell crisis occurs when the sickle-shaped red blood cells become stiff and sticky, causing them to get trapped in small blood vessels. This blockage restricts blood flow and oxygen supply to tissues and organs, leading to severe pain.

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  • 45. 

    Tanggungjawab jururawat bagi mengelakkan ubat merebak ke tisu subcutenous semasa pemberiaan suntikan I/M iron-dexran ialah  

    • A.

      Melakukan demahan panas

    • B.

      Memberi suntikan sekali sehari

    • C.

      Tidak mengosok pada tempat suntikan

    • D.

      Mengunakan jarum suntikan yang bersaiz kecil

    Correct Answer
    C. Tidak mengosok pada tempat suntikan
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Tidak mengosok pada tempat suntikan" which means "Not rubbing the injection site". Rubbing the injection site can cause the medication to spread to the subcutaneous tissue, leading to potential complications. Therefore, it is important for nurses to avoid rubbing the injection site to prevent the medication from spreading to the subcutaneous tissue during the administration of an I/M iron-dexran injection.

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  • 46. 

    Tujuan deferoxamine (Desferal) dipreskripsikan kepada pesakit yang mengalami thalassemia major secara berkala selepas transfusi darah adalah untuk

    • A.

      Mengekalkan paras zat besi

    • B.

      Meningkatkan eksresi zat besi

    • C.

      Merencatkan pembentukan zat besi

    • D.

      Mengurangkan penyerapan zat besi

    Correct Answer
    B. Meningkatkan eksresi zat besi
    Explanation
    Deferoxamine (Desferal) adalah sejenis agen kelompok chelator yang digunakan untuk mengeluarkan kelebihan zat besi dari tubuh. Pada pesakit yang mengalami thalassemia major, mereka menerima transfusi darah secara berkala yang menyebabkan peningkatan paras zat besi dalam tubuh. Oleh itu, tujuan deferoxamine adalah untuk meningkatkan eksresi zat besi, iaitu mengeluarkan kelebihan zat besi dari tubuh pesakit.

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  • 47. 

    Penyiasatan untuk mendiagnos jangkitan pada injap jantung ialah  

    • A.

      Ultrasound.

    • B.

      Chest x-ray.

    • C.

      Echocardiogram.

    • D.

      Cardiac enzymes.

    Correct Answer
    C. Echocardiogram.
    Explanation
    An echocardiogram is a diagnostic test that uses ultrasound waves to create images of the heart. It is commonly used to investigate and diagnose various heart conditions, including infections affecting the heart valves (injap jantung). This test allows healthcare professionals to visualize the structure and function of the heart, including the valves, chambers, and blood flow. By examining the images produced by an echocardiogram, doctors can identify any abnormalities or infections present in the heart valves, making it the most appropriate investigation for diagnosing heart valve infections.

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  • 48. 

    Satu jam selepas pemberian IV  frusemide kepada klien dengan kegagalan jantung, cardiac monitor menunjukkan terdapat  takikardia ventrikel. Ketidakseimbangan elektrolit yang mungkin dialami oleh beliau ialah

    • A.

      Hypokalemia.

    • B.

      Hypernatremia.

    • C.

      Hypocalcemia.

    • D.

      Hypermagnesemia.

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypokalemia.
    Explanation
    One hour after the administration of IV frusemide to a client with heart failure, the cardiac monitor shows ventricular tachycardia. This suggests that the client may be experiencing hypokalemia. Frusemide is a loop diuretic that works by increasing the excretion of water and electrolytes, including potassium, from the body. Hypokalemia, or low potassium levels, can lead to abnormal heart rhythms, such as ventricular tachycardia. Therefore, it is likely that the client's ventricular tachycardia is a result of hypokalemia caused by the frusemide administration.

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  • 49. 

    Di antara intervensi berikut yang manakah perlu diberi keutamaan ketika merawat klien mengalami chest pain semasa berjalan?

    • A.

      Bantu klien balik ke katil.

    • B.

      Lakukan elektrokardiogram segera.

    • C.

      Berikan sublingual nitroglycerin.

    • D.

      Bantu klien duduk dengan serta-merta.

    Correct Answer
    D. Bantu klien duduk dengan serta-merta.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Bantu klien duduk dengan serta-merta." When a client experiences chest pain while walking, it is important to prioritize assisting the client to sit down immediately. This is because sitting down can help relieve the strain on the heart and reduce the workload. It also allows the client to rest and reduces the risk of falls or further injury. While an electrocardiogram and sublingual nitroglycerin may be necessary interventions, helping the client sit down should be the first priority in this situation.

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  • 50. 

    Encik A dijadualkan untuk menjalani pembedahan right femoral cardiac catheterization. Intervensi kejururawatan yang dilakukan selepas prosedur ialah

    • A.

      Menilai neurovascular  status klien.

    • B.

      Lakukan senaman pasif range-of-motion.

    • C.

      Kekalkan klien dalam posisi high fowler’s.

    • D.

      Menilai gag reflex sebelum membenarkan klien makan.

    Correct Answer
    A. Menilai neurovascular  status klien.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "menilai neurovascular status klien" because after a right femoral cardiac catheterization procedure, it is important to assess the neurovascular status of the client. This involves checking the circulation, sensation, and movement of the affected leg to ensure that there are no complications such as decreased blood flow or nerve damage. By assessing the neurovascular status, the healthcare team can identify any potential issues and intervene promptly to prevent further complications.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 28, 2018
    Quiz Created by
    Naa Ali
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