Kuiz Psl Sem 1

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Quizzes Created: 6 | Total Attempts: 20,175
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Kuiz Psl Sem 1 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Manifestasi klinikal bagi pesakit hypernatremia adalah

    • A.

      Irriitable

    • B.

      Seizure

    • C.

      Musle weakness

    • D.

      Kurang refleks tendon

    Correct Answer
    A. Irriitable
    Explanation
    Hypernatremia is a condition characterized by high levels of sodium in the blood. One of the clinical manifestations of hypernatremia is irritability. This means that the patient may become easily agitated, restless, or excessively sensitive to stimuli. Irritability can be a result of the body's attempt to compensate for the imbalance in sodium levels. It is important to recognize and treat hypernatremia promptly to prevent further complications.

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  • 2. 

    Nasihat pemakanan kepada pesakit hypernatremia adalah 

    • A.

      Minum air sekurang-kuranya 1.5 liter sehari

    • B.

      Lebihkan pengambilan keju dan makanan kering

    • C.

      Makan sedikit tetapi kerap

    • D.

      Kurangkan pengambilan karbohidrat kompleks

    Correct Answer
    A. Minum air sekurang-kuranya 1.5 liter sehari
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "minum air sekurang-kuranya 1.5 liter sehari" because hypernatremia is a condition characterized by high levels of sodium in the blood. Drinking at least 1.5 liters of water per day helps to dilute the sodium concentration in the blood and maintain proper hydration. This can help to alleviate the symptoms and complications associated with hypernatremia.

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  • 3. 

    Keadaan yang boleh menyebabkan hypernatremia adalah 

    • A.

      SIADH

    • B.

      Dehydration

    • C.

      Malnutrition

    • D.

      Head injury

    Correct Answer
    B. Dehydration
    Explanation
    Dehydration can cause hypernatremia because it is a condition characterized by a lack of adequate fluid intake or excessive fluid loss from the body. When the body loses more water than it takes in, the concentration of sodium in the blood increases, leading to hypernatremia. This imbalance disrupts the normal functioning of cells and can result in symptoms such as thirst, dry mouth, confusion, and in severe cases, seizures or coma. Therefore, dehydration is a potential cause of hypernatremia.

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  • 4. 

    Encik X merupakan penghidap chronic kidney disease. Beliau mengalami ascites dan berisiko mendapat 

    • A.

      Hyponatremia

    • B.

      Hypokalemia

    • C.

      Hypocalcemia

    • D.

      Hypomagnesemia

    Correct Answer
    A. Hyponatremia
    Explanation
    The correct answer is hyponatremia. Chronic kidney disease can lead to the accumulation of fluid in the body, resulting in ascites. This fluid buildup can dilute the sodium levels in the blood, causing hyponatremia.

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  • 5. 

    Rawatan bagi pesakit hyponatremia adalah 

    • A.

      Thiazide diuretic

    • B.

      3% sodium chloride.

    • C.

      Magnesium trisilicate

    • D.

      Calcium carbonate.

    Correct Answer
    B. 3% sodium chloride.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 3% sodium chloride because hyponatremia is a condition characterized by low levels of sodium in the blood. Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is a common treatment option for hyponatremia as it helps to increase sodium levels in the body. Thiazide diuretic, magnesium trisilicate, and calcium carbonate are not typically used for the treatment of hyponatremia.

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  • 6. 

    Apakah yang terjadi kepada sel apabila paras sodium dalam darah berkurangan? 

    • A.

      Mengecut

    • B.

      Membengkak

    • C.

      Tidak berubah

    • D.

      Haemolysis

    Correct Answer
    B. Membengkak
    Explanation
    Apabila paras sodium dalam darah berkurangan, sel akan mengalami pembengkakan. Sodium adalah elektrolit penting yang membantu menjaga keseimbangan air dalam sel. Jika paras sodium berkurangan, air akan masuk ke dalam sel dan menyebabkan sel membengkak.

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  • 7. 

    Keadaan yang menyebabkan hyponatremia adalah 

    • A.

      Kekurangan kalsium di intravaskular

    • B.

      Pengambilan sodium yang berlebihan

    • C.

      Pengeluaran anti diuretic hormone yang berlebihan

    • D.

      Penyalahgunaan ubatan yang mengandungi sodium

    Correct Answer
    C. Pengeluaran anti diuretic hormone yang berlebihan
    Explanation
    Hyponatremia is a condition characterized by low levels of sodium in the blood. One of the causes of hyponatremia is the excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin. ADH is responsible for regulating the body's water balance by increasing water reabsorption in the kidneys. When there is an excessive release of ADH, it leads to increased water retention and dilution of sodium in the blood, causing hyponatremia.

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  • 8. 

    Sumber sodium banyak terdapat pada makanan jenis 

    • A.

      Pisang

    • B.

      Ikan masin

    • C.

      Tomato

    • D.

      Susu

    Correct Answer
    B. Ikan masin
    Explanation
    Ikan masin is the correct answer because it is known to have a high sodium content. Sodium is a mineral that is commonly found in salt and salty foods, and ikan masin, which is a type of salted fish, is known for its high salt content. Therefore, it can be concluded that ikan masin contains a significant amount of sodium compared to the other food options listed.

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  • 9. 

    Hormon yang mengalakkan penyerapan semula sodium di renal tubul adalah 

    • A.

      Antiduretic

    • B.

      Atrial natriuretic peptide

    • C.

      Progestrone

    • D.

      Aldosterone

    Correct Answer
    D. Aldosterone
    Explanation
    Aldosterone is the correct answer because it is a hormone that stimulates the reabsorption of sodium in the renal tubules. It is produced by the adrenal glands and plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure and electrolyte balance. By increasing sodium reabsorption, aldosterone helps to retain water and increase blood volume, which in turn increases blood pressure.

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  • 10. 

    Nama lain bagi natrium adalah sodium 

    • A.

      Ya

    • B.

      Tidak

    Correct Answer
    A. Ya
    Explanation
    Nama lain bagi natrium adalah sodium. Sodium adalah nama dalam bahasa Inggris untuk natrium. Natrium adalah unsur kimia dengan simbol Na dan nomor atom 11 dalam tabel periodik. Dalam bahasa Indonesia, natrium umumnya dikenal dengan nama sodium. Jadi, jawaban "Ya" adalah benar karena sodium adalah nama lain bagi natrium.

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  • 11. 

    Keadaan kekoyakan ligament yang mengikat sendi kaki dipanggil

    • A.

      Joint dislocation

    • B.

      Avulsion fracture

    • C.

      Sprain

    • D.

      Subluxation

    Correct Answer
    C. Sprain
    Explanation
    Sprain adalah keadaan kekoyakan ligament yang mengikat sendi kaki.

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  • 12. 

    Strain bermaksud 

    • A.

      Kekoyakan otot akibat trauma

    • B.

      Kekoyakan ligamen akibat trauma

    • C.

      Keregangan tendon akibat berada pada posisi yang terlalu lama

    • D.

      Keregangan ligamen akibat berada pada posisi yang terlalu lama

    Correct Answer
    C. Keregangan tendon akibat berada pada posisi yang terlalu lama
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Keregangan tendon akibat berada pada posisi yang terlalu lama." This means that strain refers to the stretching or overuse of a tendon due to being in a prolonged position. It does not refer to muscle tear due to trauma or ligament strain due to trauma or prolonged position.

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  • 13. 

    Sprain bermaksud 

    • A.

      Kekoyakan otot

    • B.

      Kecederaan ligament di sekeliling otot

    • C.

      Kecederaan otot berdekatan sendi secara tiba-tiba

    • D.

      Kecederaan pada struktur ligament di sekeliling sendi

    Correct Answer
    D. Kecederaan pada struktur ligament di sekeliling sendi
    Explanation
    Sprain refers to an injury to the ligaments surrounding a joint. It is not a muscle tear or sudden injury to the muscles near the joint. Therefore, the correct answer is "kecederaan pada struktur ligament di sekeliling sendi" which means injury to the ligament structures surrounding the joint.

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  • 14. 

    Komplikasi yang kerap berlaku akibat immobility yang lama berikutan fraktur tulang tibia 

    • A.

      Fat embolism

    • B.

      Disuse muscle

    • C.

      Joint contracture

    • D.

      Deep venous thrombosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Deep venous thrombosis
    Explanation
    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common complication that occurs due to prolonged immobility following a fracture of the tibia bone. DVT is the formation of blood clots in the deep veins, usually in the legs. When a person is immobile for a long period, blood flow slows down, increasing the risk of clot formation. These clots can then travel to the lungs and cause a life-threatening condition called pulmonary embolism. Therefore, DVT is a likely complication in this case due to immobility following a tibia fracture.

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  • 15. 

    Perawatan konservatif Pavlik harness untuk bayi Congenital Hip Dislocation dimulakan apabila bayi berumur 

    • A.

      Hari pertama kelahiran

    • B.

      Dua minggu

    • C.

      Tiga bulan

    • D.

      Tiga tahun

    Correct Answer
    B. Dua minggu
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Dua minggu" because the Pavlik harness is typically initiated for the treatment of Congenital Hip Dislocation in infants when they are around two weeks old. This treatment involves the use of a harness that helps to hold the baby's hips in the correct position, allowing for proper development of the hip joint. Starting the treatment at this age allows for early intervention and increases the chances of successful treatment.

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  • 16. 

    Berikut adalah rawatan pertolongan cemas kepada Ah Seng yang mengalami sprains di pergelangan kakitangan kanan KECUALI 

    • A.

      Nasihat Ah Seng rehat kaki kanannya

    • B.

      Lakukan bandaging ke atas pesakit

    • C.

      Tinggikan kaki kanan dengan bantal

    • D.

      Beri warm compression di pergelangan kanannya

    Correct Answer
    D. Beri warm compression di pergelangan kanannya
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Beri warm compression di pergelangan kanannya" because warm compression can help reduce pain and swelling in the sprained ankle. It can also promote blood circulation to the injured area, which can aid in the healing process. Resting the injured leg and elevating it with a pillow can also help reduce swelling. Bandaging the leg can provide support and stability to the sprained ankle, but it is not specifically mentioned in the given information.

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  • 17. 

    Rawatan konservatif yang diberi untuk pesakit dengan fracture of the clavicle adalah 

    • A.

      Arm sling

    • B.

      Hanging cast

    • C.

      Collar and cuff

    • D.

      Shoulder immobilizer

    Correct Answer
    C. Collar and cuff
    Explanation
    The collar and cuff is the correct answer for the given question. It is a type of conservative treatment given to patients with a fracture of the clavicle. This treatment involves wearing a collar around the neck and a cuff around the affected arm to immobilize the shoulder and promote healing. The collar and cuff help to support the fractured clavicle and prevent further injury or displacement of the bone. This treatment allows the fracture to heal naturally without the need for surgery.

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  • 18. 

    Tindakan kejururawatan segera untuk mengurangkan kesakitan ke atas anggota yang fracture ialah 

    • A.

      Tinggikan anggota dengan bantal

    • B.

      Immobilization anggota dengan splint

    • C.

      Berikan ubat analgesik seperti diarahkan

    • D.

      Betulkan aligmen tulang dengan closed manipulation reduction

    Correct Answer
    B. Immobilization anggota dengan splint
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "immobilization anggota dengan splint." When a person has a fracture, it is important to immobilize the affected limb with a splint to prevent further damage and reduce pain. Immobilization helps to stabilize the fractured bone and prevent any movement that could cause further injury or pain. This allows the bone to heal properly.

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  • 19. 

    Apabila seseorang indidividu mengalmi perasaan takut, badan akan memberi tindak balas dengan meningkatkan 

    • A.

      Motility stomach

    • B.

      Penghasilan urin

    • C.

      Kontraksi otot skeletal

    • D.

      Kadar degupan jantung

    Correct Answer
    D. Kadar degupan jantung
    Explanation
    When an individual experiences fear, their body responds by increasing the heart rate. This is because fear triggers the release of stress hormones, such as adrenaline, which prepares the body for a fight or flight response. Increasing the heart rate ensures that oxygen and nutrients are delivered to the muscles more efficiently, enabling the individual to respond quickly to the perceived threat.

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  • 20. 

    Apabila seseorang individu mengambil makanan, rasa yang diperolehi daripada makanan tersebut adalah dipengaruhi oleh saraf 

    • A.

      Facial

    • B.

      Abducens

    • C.

      Trigeminal

    • D.

      Hypoglossal

    Correct Answer
    D. Hypoglossal
    Explanation
    The hypoglossal nerve is responsible for controlling the muscles of the tongue. When we eat food, the tongue plays a crucial role in the process of tasting and swallowing. The taste buds on the tongue help us perceive different tastes such as sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. Therefore, the hypoglossal nerve is directly involved in transmitting the sensations of taste from the tongue to the brain, influencing the taste experience of the individual when consuming food.

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  • 21. 

    Apabila seseorang menyentuh objek yang panas, tangan akan ditarik secepat mungkin dari objek tersebut. Berikut adalah komponen yang terlibat dengan tindakan pantulan tersebut KECUALI 

    • A.

      Brain

    • B.

      Spinal cord

    • C.

      Afferent neuron

    • D.

      Efferent neuron

    Correct Answer
    A. Brain
    Explanation
    When someone touches a hot object, the brain sends signals to the muscles in the hand to quickly withdraw it from the object. The brain is responsible for processing the sensory information from the afferent neurons, which detect the heat, and coordinating the appropriate motor response through the efferent neurons. The spinal cord also plays a role in relaying the signals between the brain and the rest of the body, but it is not directly involved in the reflex action of withdrawing the hand. Therefore, the correct answer is brain.

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  • 22. 

    Cranial nerve yang menurunkan kadar degupan jantung ialah

    • A.

      Vagus

    • B.

      Abducens

    • C.

      Accessory

    • D.

      Hypoglossal

    Correct Answer
    A. Vagus
    Explanation
    The cranial nerve that decreases heart rate is the vagus nerve.

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  • 23. 

    Saraf cranial manakah yang berfungsi untuk menghidu?

    • A.

      Saraf cranial I

    • B.

      Saraf cranial II

    • C.

      Saraf cranial III

    • D.

      Saraf cranial IV

    Correct Answer
    A. Saraf cranial I
    Explanation
    Saraf cranial I, also known as the olfactory nerve, is responsible for the sense of smell. It carries sensory information from the olfactory receptors in the nasal cavity to the brain, allowing us to detect and differentiate various smells.

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  • 24. 

    Struktur peripheral nervous system adalah 

    • A.

      Brain

    • B.

      Spinal cord

    • C.

      Cranial nerves

    • D.

      Sympathetic nerve

    Correct Answer
    C. Cranial nerves
    Explanation
    The correct answer is cranial nerves because the peripheral nervous system is made up of the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord. The cranial nerves are a set of 12 pairs of nerves that originate from the brain and control various functions in the head and neck, such as vision, hearing, and facial movements. They are an essential part of the peripheral nervous system and play a crucial role in transmitting information between the brain and the rest of the body.

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  • 25. 

    Sistem saraf periferi terdiri daripada 

    • A.

      Nuclei

    • B.

      Nerve tract

    • C.

      Spinal cord

    • D.

      Spinal nerve

    Correct Answer
    D. Spinal nerve
    Explanation
    The peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that extend from the spinal cord to various parts of the body. These nerves are called spinal nerves, and they carry sensory information from the body to the spinal cord and transmit motor commands from the spinal cord to the muscles. Therefore, the spinal nerve is a correct answer as it is a crucial component of the peripheral nervous system.

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  • 26. 

    Saraf cranial yang membekali mata ialah 

    • A.

      I

    • B.

      II

    • C.

      III

    • D.

      V

    Correct Answer
    C. III
    Explanation
    The correct answer is III because the question is asking which cranial nerve supplies the eye. The cranial nerves are numbered, and the third cranial nerve, also known as the oculomotor nerve, is responsible for controlling most of the eye's movements, including raising the eyelid, constricting the pupil, and controlling the shape of the lens for focusing. Therefore, option III is the correct answer.

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  • 27. 

    Dalam spinal cord, grey matter terletak di bahagian yang dipanggil

    • A.

      Horns

    • B.

      Nuclei

    • C.

      Column

    • D.

      Ganglia

    Correct Answer
    A. Horns
    Explanation
    Grey matter refers to the regions of the central nervous system that contain cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons. In the spinal cord, grey matter is found in the horns. The horns are specific regions within the spinal cord where the grey matter is located. Therefore, the correct answer is "horns."

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  • 28. 

    Saraf spina terdiri daripada

    • A.

      30 pasang

    • B.

      31 pasang

    • C.

      32 pasang

    • D.

      33 pasang

    Correct Answer
    B. 31 pasang
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 31 pairs.

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  • 29. 

    Padanan yang tepat mengenai lokasi meninges ialah 

    • A.

      Dalam : pia mater

    • B.

      Middle : pia mater

    • C.

      Tengah : dura mater

    • D.

      Luar : arachnoid membrane

    Correct Answer
    C. Tengah : dura mater
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "tengah : dura mater". The question is asking for the correct match regarding the location of meninges. The meninges are the protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. The dura mater is the outermost layer of the meninges, located in the middle.

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  • 30. 

    Komponen otak yang mengawal suhu badan dan sistem saraf autonomik ialah 

    • A.

      Thalamus

    • B.

      Cerebrum

    • C.

      Hypothalamus

    • D.

      Medulla oblongata

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypothalamus
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus is a component of the brain that controls body temperature and the autonomic nervous system. It regulates body temperature by sending signals to various parts of the body to either increase or decrease heat production and loss. It also plays a crucial role in regulating functions such as hunger, thirst, sleep, and hormone production. The thalamus is responsible for relaying sensory information to the cerebral cortex, the cerebrum is the largest part of the brain responsible for higher cognitive functions, and the medulla oblongata controls involuntary functions such as breathing and heart rate.

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  • 31. 

    Komponen otak yang mengawal kadar degupan jantung dan tekanan darah ialah 

    • A.

      Cerebrum

    • B.

      Cerebellum

    • C.

      Hypothalamus

    • D.

      Medulla oblongata

    Correct Answer
    D. Medulla oblongata
    Explanation
    The medulla oblongata is a component of the brainstem that controls vital functions such as heart rate and blood pressure. It contains centers that regulate the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary actions in the body. The medulla oblongata receives signals from the hypothalamus and other parts of the brain, and it sends out signals to control the heart and blood vessels. Therefore, it is responsible for regulating the heart rate and blood pressure. The cerebrum is responsible for higher cognitive functions, the cerebellum is involved in motor coordination, and the hypothalamus regulates various bodily functions, but they are not specifically responsible for controlling heart rate and blood pressure.

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  • 32. 

    Cerebellum dipisahkan dari cerebrum oleh lipatan dura mater yang dipanggil 

    • A.

      Falx cerebri

    • B.

      Falx cerebelli

    • C.

      Tetorium cerebelli

    • D.

      Longitudinal fissure

    Correct Answer
    C. Tetorium cerebelli
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "tetorium cerebelli." The cerebellum is separated from the cerebrum by a fold of the dura mater called the tentorium cerebelli. This structure acts as a partition between the two regions of the brain, helping to protect and support the cerebellum. The other options mentioned are incorrect as they do not accurately describe the structure that separates the cerebellum from the cerebrum.

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  • 33. 

    Berikut adalah komponen yang membentuk otak KECUALI 

    • A.

      Cerebrum

    • B.

      Brain stem

    • C.

      Cerebellum

    • D.

      Corpus collosum

    Correct Answer
    D. Corpus collosum
    Explanation
    Corpus collosum adalah bagian yang terletak di tengah otak yang menghubungkan kedua sisi otak, yaitu otak kanan dan otak kiri. Komponen ini berperan penting dalam mengoordinasikan komunikasi antara kedua sisi otak dan memungkinkan informasi dan sinyal saraf untuk dipindahkan dari satu sisi otak ke sisi lainnya. Cerebrum adalah bagian terbesar dari otak yang mengontrol berbagai fungsi kognitif seperti berpikir, berbicara, dan mengingat. Brain stem adalah bagian otak yang mengatur fungsi-fungsi dasar seperti pernapasan dan detak jantung. Cerebellum adalah bagian otak yang mengontrol keseimbangan dan gerakan tubuh.

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  • 34. 

    Third ventricle terletak di 

    • A.

      Bawah lateral ventricle

    • B.

      Hadapan fourth ventricle

    • C.

      Antara subarachnoid space

    • D.

      Antara cerebrum dan cerebellum

    Correct Answer
    B. Hadapan fourth ventricle
    Explanation
    The third ventricle is located in front of the fourth ventricle.

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  • 35. 

    Ruang di antara lapisan meninges dura mater dan arachnoids mater dipanggil 

    • A.

      Epidural

    • B.

      Subdural

    • C.

      Subarachnoid

    • D.

      Central canal

    Correct Answer
    C. Subarachnoid
    Explanation
    The correct answer is subarachnoid. The space between the dura mater and arachnoid mater is called the subarachnoid space.

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  • 36. 

    Tekanan cecair cerebrospinal apabila seseorang duduk ialah 

    • A.

      10 cm H2O

    • B.

      20 cm H2O

    • C.

      30 cm H2O

    • D.

      35 cm H2O

    Correct Answer
    C. 30 cm H2O
    Explanation
    When a person is sitting, the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid in the brain and spinal cord is typically around 30 cm H2O. This pressure is necessary for maintaining the proper functioning of the central nervous system and protecting the brain and spinal cord from injury.

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  • 37. 

    Lanjutan lapisan dura mater yang memisahkan cerebrum kepada hemisfera kanan dan kiri ialah 

    • A.

      Falx cerebri

    • B.

      Falx cerebelli

    • C.

      Tetorium cerebelli

    • D.

      Longitudinal fissure

    Correct Answer
    B. Falx cerebelli
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "falx cerebelli." The falx cerebelli is a continuation of the dura mater that separates the two hemispheres of the cerebellum. It is a fold of the dura mater that runs vertically between the two cerebellar hemispheres, providing structural support and helping to maintain the separation between them. This structure is important for protecting and supporting the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordinating movement and balance.

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  • 38. 

    Berikut adalah komponen yang membentuk otak KECUALI 

    • A.

      Cerebrum

    • B.

      Brain stem

    • C.

      Cerebellum

    • D.

      Corpus collasum

    Correct Answer
    D. Corpus collasum
    Explanation
    The corpus collasum is a component of the brain that connects the left and right hemispheres. It allows for communication and coordination between the two hemispheres, enabling them to work together effectively. The other components mentioned, such as the cerebrum, brain stem, and cerebellum, are all parts of the brain, but they do not specifically play a role in connecting the hemispheres like the corpus collasum does.

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  • 39. 

    Rangkaian kapilari darah yang membentuk cecair serebrospinal ialah 

    • A.

      Sinusoid

    • B.

      Glomerulus

    • C.

      Bulatan Willis

    • D.

      Choroid plexus

    Correct Answer
    D. Choroid plexus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "choroid plexus." The choroid plexus is a network of blood vessels in the brain that produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is a clear fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. It is formed by the filtration of blood plasma through the capillaries of the choroid plexus. Therefore, the choroid plexus is responsible for the formation of CSF, not sinusoid, glomerulus, or bulatan Willis.

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  • 40. 

    Apakah struktur yang mempercepatkan konduksi impuls saraf ?

    • A.

      Axon

    • B.

      Dendrite

    • C.

      Cell body

    • D.

      Myelin sheath

    Correct Answer
    D. Myelin sheath
    Explanation
    Myelin sheath is a structure that accelerates the conduction of nerve impulses. It is a fatty substance that surrounds and insulates the axon of a neuron, allowing for faster transmission of electrical signals. The myelin sheath acts as an insulator, preventing the leakage of electrical currents and promoting the efficient propagation of nerve impulses along the axon. This speeds up the transmission of information between neurons, enabling quick and efficient communication within the nervous system.

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