# Introduction To Research - Test 1

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Safa.marwan2000
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Quizzes Created: 4 | Total Attempts: 2,816
Questions: 10 | Attempts: 1,097  Settings  • 1.

### Reliability of a screening test means getting the correct results while validity of the screening test means getting the same results every time.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
Validity of a screening test means getting the correct results while reliability of the screening test means getting the same results every time.

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• 2.

### Sensitivity and specificity have an inverse relationship.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to evaluate the performance of a diagnostic test. Sensitivity measures the proportion of true positives correctly identified by the test, while specificity measures the proportion of true negatives correctly identified by the test. These two measures have an inverse relationship because as sensitivity increases, specificity tends to decrease, and vice versa. This is because there is often a trade-off between correctly identifying true positives and true negatives. Therefore, it is true that sensitivity and specificity have an inverse relationship.

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• 3.

### In a population, a screening test for corona was done. If the sensitivity of the test was 90% and the specificity was 95% and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 9%. What is the prevalence of corona?

• A.

0.0054 (0.54%)

• B.

0.0053 (0.53%)

• C.

0.0055 (0.55%)

• D.

0.0052 (0.55%)

A. 0.0054 (0.54%)
Explanation
Use Bayes' rule, and solve for P(D)

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• 4.

### The fasting plasma glucose test is used in screening for DM. Based on the results below, what is the probability of the test to give a positive result if the person doesn't have the disease?   Positive test Negative Test DM positive 50 30 DM negative 40 20

• A.

2/3

• B.

5/8

• C.

3/8

• D.

5/9

A. 2/3
Explanation
Find the probability of the false positive test results.

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• 5.

### Amniocentesis is a screening test for NTD. Based on the following table, what is the probability of the test to be positive if the patient has the disese?   NTD positive NTD negative Positive Amniocentesis 400 60 Negative Amniocentesis 400 140

• A.

1/2

• B.

3/10

• C.

20/27

• D.

20/23

A. 1/2
Explanation
Find the positive predictive value (PPV)

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• 6.

### Parameter and statistic are types of:

• A.

Statistical measures

• B.

Data collection techniques

• C.

Statistical methods

• D.

Sampling methods

A. Statistical measures
Explanation
Parameter and statistic are types of statistical measures. In statistics, a parameter is a numerical value that describes a population, while a statistic is a numerical value that describes a sample. Both parameters and statistics are used to summarize and analyze data in order to make inferences about a population. They are important tools in statistical analysis and help researchers draw conclusions and make predictions based on data collected.

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• 7.

### Descriptive statistics is the reaching of decisions about a large body of data by examining only a small part of the data.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
This the definition of inferential statistics.
Descriptive statistics only organizes and summerizes data.

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• 8.

### All kinds of measurements are observations.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
This statement is true because measurements involve the process of observing and quantifying a physical quantity or attribute. Whether it is measuring the length of an object, the temperature of a room, or the weight of an item, all measurements require observation. Thus, it can be concluded that all kinds of measurements are observations.

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• 9.

### Ethical issues regarding confidality may arise in which of the following data collection methods?

• A.

Observing

• B.

Interviewing

• C.

Focus Group Discussions

• D.

A. Observing
Explanation
Ethical issues regarding confidentiality may arise in the method of observing. When researchers observe individuals or groups without their knowledge or consent, it can infringe upon their privacy and confidentiality. Observing people without their permission can lead to the disclosure of sensitive information or behaviors that they may not want to be made public. Therefore, it is important for researchers to obtain informed consent and ensure that the privacy and confidentiality of the participants are protected when using the method of observation.

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• 10.

### Which of the following statements about probabilistic sampling is not correct?

• A.

Multistage sampling has a low cost.

• B.

Systemic random sampling are easy to verify.

• C.

Stratified sampling divides the population into 2 or more differnt groups.

• D.

Multistage sampling is effective. Back to top