Test Your Knowledge About Cosmology

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SirFernanFerriol
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Test Your Knowledge About Cosmology - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    5. The hypothesis that pulsars were spinning was excluded because __________.

    • A.

      Pulsars spin too fast

    • B.

      White dwarfs emit x-ray

    • C.

      White dwarfs have broad absorption lines

    • D.

      Pulsars always have red giant companions

    Correct Answer
    A. Pulsars spin too fast
    Explanation
    The hypothesis that pulsars were spinning was excluded because pulsars spin too fast.

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  • 2. 

    36. A human’s arm, a cat’s front leg, a dolphin’s front flipper, and a bat’s wing _______.

    • A.

      Have nothing in common

    • B.

      Are used in similar ways

    • C.

      Have similar kinds of bones

    • D.

      Share many similarities with insect's wings

    Correct Answer
    C. Have similar kinds of bones
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "have similar kinds of bones." This is because all of the mentioned body parts (human arm, cat's front leg, dolphin's front flipper, and bat's wing) have similar bone structures. They all have a similar skeletal framework with joints and bones that allow for movement and support. While they may have different functions and appearances, their underlying bone structure is similar.

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  • 3. 

    17.  How can we tell (in principle) if we live in a universe is which space is flat or in a universe in which space is positively curved 

    • A.

      Find out if the universe has a center

    • B.

      Find out if the universe has boundaries

    • C.

      Determine whether there is cosmic background radiation

    • D.

      Measurement of the sum of the angles of a very large triangle

    Correct Answer
    A. Find out if the universe has a center
    Explanation
    To determine if we live in a universe where space is flat or positively curved, we can find out if the universe has a center. If the universe has a center, it suggests that space is positively curved, as all points in the universe would be moving away from the center. On the other hand, if the universe does not have a center, it indicates that space is flat, as all points in the universe would be moving away from each other without a central point of expansion.

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  • 4. 

    24. What is a geological hazard map?

    • A.

      Map that shows the potential mining areas in different regions of the country

    • B.

      Map that shows the areas prone to hazards brought by geological events

    • C.

      Map that shows the number of geologists

    • D.

      Map that shows perfect for hiking

    Correct Answer
    B. Map that shows the areas prone to hazards brought by geological events
    Explanation
    A geological hazard map is a map that shows the areas prone to hazards brought by geological events. It is used to identify and assess the potential risks and dangers associated with natural geological processes such as earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. This map helps in planning and implementing measures to mitigate the impact of these hazards on human lives and infrastructure. It provides valuable information for land-use planning, emergency preparedness, and disaster management.

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  • 5. 

    37.  The fact that all organisms have DNA as their genetic material is evidence that ______

    • A.

      Natural selection occured

    • B.

      Genetic resistance rarely occured

    • C.

      Organisms have adapted to their environment

    • D.

      All organisms descended from a common ancestor

    Correct Answer
    D. All organisms descended from a common ancestor
    Explanation
    The fact that all organisms have DNA as their genetic material suggests that they all share a common ancestor. This is because DNA is a complex molecule that carries genetic information and is essential for the inheritance of traits. The presence of DNA in all organisms indicates a common origin and evolutionary relationship, as it is unlikely that different organisms would independently develop the same genetic material. Therefore, the correct answer is that all organisms descended from a common ancestor.

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  • 6. 

    25. What should be done to mitigate or lessen coastal erosion?

    • A.

      Build homes along the shore

    • B.

      Quarry along the coastline

    • C.

      Build breakwater along the shore

    • D.

      Dispose waste along the shoreline

    Correct Answer
    C. Build breakwater along the shore
    Explanation
    Building breakwaters along the shore is an effective measure to mitigate or lessen coastal erosion. Breakwaters are structures built parallel to the shoreline, designed to reduce the impact of waves and protect the coast from erosion. They act as barriers, absorbing the energy of the waves and creating calmer water conditions behind them. This helps to prevent the erosion of the coastline by reducing the force of the waves reaching the shore. By building breakwaters, the shoreline is better protected, and the risk of coastal erosion is significantly reduced.

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  • 7. 

    38. A/an __________ is a method of grouping organisms together according to their evolutionary history.

    • A.

      Speciation

    • B.

      Dichotomous key

    • C.

      Biological classification

    • D.

      Evolutionary classification

    Correct Answer
    D. Evolutionary classification
    Explanation
    Evolutionary classification is a method of grouping organisms together based on their evolutionary history. It involves organizing organisms into hierarchical categories, such as kingdoms, phyla, classes, orders, families, genera, and species, based on their shared characteristics and common ancestry. This approach recognizes that species have descended from common ancestors and aims to reflect the evolutionary relationships between different organisms. By studying the similarities and differences in their physical traits, genetic makeup, and other characteristics, evolutionary classification helps scientists understand the evolutionary history and relationships of different species.

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  • 8. 

    39. The fossil record shows ______

    • A.

      How species originated

    • B.

      How evolution occured

    • C.

      How dead organisms were buried

    • D.

      How organisms changed overtime

    Correct Answer
    D. How organisms changed overtime
    Explanation
    The fossil record provides evidence of how organisms have changed over time. Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of ancient organisms, and by studying them, scientists can observe the differences between organisms from different time periods. This allows them to track the evolution and changes that have occurred in various species over millions of years. The fossil record is an important tool in understanding the history of life on Earth and how different species have adapted and evolved over time.

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  • 9. 

    6. Cosmological redshift is the results of the ________

    • A.

      Expansion of the universe

    • B.

      Supermassive black holes

    • C.

      Galaxies speeding away from you

    • D.

      Tully-fisher relation

    Correct Answer
    A. Expansion of the universe
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the expansion of the universe. Cosmological redshift refers to the phenomenon where light from distant galaxies is shifted towards longer wavelengths, indicating that the galaxies are moving away from us. This is a result of the expansion of the universe, as space itself is stretching and causing the galaxies to move apart. The redshift is a measure of the rate at which the universe is expanding.

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  • 10. 

    18. Alfred Wegener's theory of the plate tectonics is supported by what kind of evidence?

    • A.

      Similar fossils on different continents

    • B.

      Similar rocks found everywhere

    • C.

      Different magnetic properties of rocks

    • D.

      Different volcanic activity of continent

    Correct Answer
    A. Similar fossils on different continents
    Explanation
    Alfred Wegener's theory of plate tectonics is supported by the presence of similar fossils on different continents. This evidence suggests that the continents were once connected and have since drifted apart. The similarity of fossils across continents indicates that these land masses were once part of a larger supercontinent and supports the idea of continental drift.

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  • 11. 

    40. Which of the following sequences shows the correct hierarchy of classification, going from the most  inclusive to the least inclusive?

    • A.

      Genus, species, kingdom, phylum, order, family, class

    • B.

      Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

    • C.

      Phylum, kingdom, genus, species, family, order, class

    • D.

      Species, genus, family, class, order, phylum, kingdom

    Correct Answer
    B. Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
    Explanation
    The correct hierarchy of classification goes from the most inclusive to the least inclusive. In this case, the correct sequence is kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species. This is because classification starts with the broadest category, which is the kingdom, and then narrows down to more specific categories such as phylum, class, order, family, genus, and finally species. Each category represents a more specific group of organisms within the broader category.

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  • 12. 

    7. The surface of the earth is relative young as compared to the planets, Mercury, Venus and Mars, this youthful appearance results from ____________.

    • A.

      Tectonic activity is still shaping the surface of the earth.

    • B.

      The earth is farthest from the sun

    • C.

      The fact that few major impacts ever occur on Earth

    • D.

      The Earth having the largest moon of all

    Correct Answer
    C. The fact that few major impacts ever occur on Earth
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "The fact that few major impacts ever occur on Earth." This explanation suggests that the youthful appearance of the Earth's surface is due to the scarcity of major impacts. Unlike other planets such as Mercury, Venus, and Mars, which have experienced numerous impacts over time, the Earth has been relatively spared from such events. As a result, the Earth's surface has been able to retain its youthful appearance, with tectonic activity playing a role in shaping it.

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  • 13. 

    BIOLOGY (Second Quarter)26. The ultimate goal of photosynthesis is to _______

    • A.

      Make ATP from carbon dioxide

    • B.

      Convert ADP to ATP by using energy from the sun

    • C.

      Use enzymes to speed up chemical reactions

    • D.

      Construct carbon-containing molecules that serves as energy source

    Correct Answer
    D. Construct carbon-containing molecules that serves as energy source
    Explanation
    The ultimate goal of photosynthesis is to construct carbon-containing molecules that serve as an energy source. During photosynthesis, plants use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to produce glucose, which is a carbon-containing molecule. This glucose can be stored as starch or broken down through cellular respiration to release energy in the form of ATP. Therefore, the correct answer is that photosynthesis constructs carbon-containing molecules that serve as an energy source.

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  • 14. 

    8. Which of the following is a dwarf planet?

    • A.

      Pluto

    • B.

      Mercury

    • C.

      Earth

    • D.

      Saturn

    Correct Answer
    A. Pluto
    Explanation
    Pluto is classified as a dwarf planet because it meets the criteria set by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). It is in orbit around the Sun, it has sufficient mass to assume a nearly round shape, and it has not cleared its orbit of other debris. These characteristics distinguish it from the other options listed, Mercury, Earth, and Saturn, which are all considered full planets.

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  • 15. 

    41. The more similarities two organisms share, the more recently they shared a/an _____

    • A.

      Habitat

    • B.

      Ancestors

    • C.

      Structure

    • D.

      Derived characters

    Correct Answer
    B. Ancestors
    Explanation
    The more similarities two organisms share, the more recently they shared ancestors. This is because organisms that share more similarities are likely to have diverged from a common ancestor more recently than organisms that have fewer similarities. The concept of shared ancestry is fundamental in understanding the evolutionary relationships between different organisms.

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  • 16. 

    9. The cosmic microwave background radiation comes from _______.

    • A.

      Big Bang

    • B.

      Quasars

    • C.

      Radio galaxies

    • D.

      Solar nebula

    Correct Answer
    A. Big Bang
    Explanation
    The cosmic microwave background radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation that fills the entire universe. It is believed to be a remnant of the Big Bang, the event that is thought to have marked the beginning of the universe. As the universe expanded and cooled down after the Big Bang, the radiation that was initially in the form of high-energy photons gradually shifted to lower energy levels, eventually becoming the microwave radiation that we observe today. Therefore, the correct answer is Big Bang.

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  • 17. 

    EARTH SCIENCE (FIRST QUARTER) Modern cosmology supposes that the universe came from a Big Bang event about 13 billion years ago.. Evidence for this is __________.

    • A.

      Excessive amount of gas found in the galaxy

    • B.

      Hubble expansion

    • C.

      Cosmic background radiation

    • D.

      Uniformity of the abundance of hydrogen and helium

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Hubble expansion
    C. Cosmic background radiation
    D. Uniformity of the abundance of hydrogen and helium
    Explanation
    Evidence for the Big Bang event in modern cosmology includes:
    Hubble expansion: The observation that galaxies are moving away from each other, indicating the expansion of the universe. This expansion was first proposed by Edwin Hubble.
    Cosmic background radiation: The detection of a faint background radiation throughout the universe, known as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This radiation is considered a remnant of the early stages of the universe.
    Uniformity of the abundance of hydrogen and helium: The consistent distribution of the two most abundant elements, hydrogen and helium, supports the idea that these elements were formed during the early moments of the universe.
    These pieces of evidence collectively contribute to the widely accepted Big Bang theory, providing a framework for understanding the origin and evolution of the universe. 

    The excessive amount of gas found in the galaxy is not typically listed as evidence for the Big Bang theory. The first three options you provided are the key pieces of evidence that support the Big Bang theory. 

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  • 18. 

    10. Which of the following is NOT included in the Earth's subsystem?

    • A.

      Protosphere

    • B.

      Geosphere

    • C.

      Atmosphere

    • D.

      Hydrosphere

    Correct Answer
    A. Protosphere
    Explanation
    The Earth's subsystems include the geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. The protosphere is not a recognized subsystem of the Earth.

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  • 19. 

    2. Evidence that the universe contains much unobserved dark matter is the _________.

    • A.

      Excessive amount of gas found in spiral galaxies

    • B.

      Powerful radio emission from the center of spirals

    • C.

      Flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies

    • D.

      Excessive amount of dark dust in spiral galaxies

    Correct Answer
    C. Flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies
    Explanation
    The flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies suggest the presence of dark matter in the universe. Rotation curves describe how the speed of stars or gas in a galaxy changes with distance from the center. According to the laws of gravity, the outer regions of a galaxy should rotate slower than the inner regions. However, observations have shown that the rotation curves remain flat, indicating that there must be additional mass present in the outer regions of galaxies. This unseen mass is believed to be dark matter, as it does not emit or interact with light, making it difficult to directly observe.

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  • 20. 

    11.The rock cycle is used  to illustrate the ___________.

    • A.

      Journey of a rock

    • B.

      Different types of rocks

    • C.

      Relationship of rocks to other rocks

    • D.

      Process of rocks changing from one type to another

    Correct Answer
    D. Process of rocks changing from one type to another
    Explanation
    The rock cycle is a model that explains how rocks can change from one type to another over time. It demonstrates the various processes that rocks undergo, such as weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction, and cementation. These processes can transform sedimentary rocks into metamorphic rocks and metamorphic rocks into igneous rocks. The rock cycle helps us understand the dynamic nature of Earth's geology and how different types of rocks are interconnected through continuous changes.

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  • 21. 

    12. _______ rocks are formed by heating and squeezing existing rocks.

    • A.

      Detrital

    • B.

      Igneous

    • C.

      Metamorphic

    • D.

      Sedimentary

    Correct Answer
    C. Metamorphic
    Explanation
    Metamorphic rocks are formed through the process of heating and squeezing existing rocks, causing them to undergo changes in their composition, texture, and structure. This transformation occurs due to high temperatures and pressures deep within the Earth's crust, which causes the minerals in the original rock to recrystallize and form new minerals. This process can result in the formation of various types of metamorphic rocks, such as marble, slate, and quartzite.

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  • 22. 

    27. Which of these provides evidence of the common ancestry of life

    • A.

      Structure of cilia

    • B.

      Structure of the nucleus

    • C.

      Structure of the chloroplast

    • D.

      Universality of the genetic code

    Correct Answer
    D. Universality of the genetic code
    Explanation
    The universality of the genetic code provides evidence of the common ancestry of life. The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded within DNA or RNA sequences is translated into proteins. This code is almost identical in all living organisms, from bacteria to humans, suggesting a common origin. The fact that the same genetic code is used by all organisms supports the idea that they share a common ancestor and have evolved from a single common source.

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  • 23. 

    28. How cellular respiration and photosynthesis related in terms of energy?

    • A.

      The energy captured in photosynthesis is used to power respiration

    • B.

      Energy is not involved in either photosynthesis or respiration

    • C.

      The energy transformed in cellular respiration is used to power photosynthesis

    • D.

      Photosynthesis and respiration perform the same task in terms of energy transformation

    Correct Answer
    A. The energy captured in photosynthesis is used to power respiration
    Explanation
    In photosynthesis, plants capture sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in the form of glucose. This glucose is then broken down in cellular respiration to release energy that is used by the cell for various metabolic processes. Therefore, the energy captured in photosynthesis is indeed used to power respiration.

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  • 24. 

    13. Which of the following characteristics is NOT used to identify unique minerals?

    • A.

      Hardness

    • B.

      Magmetism

    • C.

      Fizzes on contact with acids

    • D.

      Presence of double image

    Correct Answer
    D. Presence of double image
    Explanation
    The presence of a double image is not used to identify unique minerals. This characteristic refers to the property of certain minerals to produce a double image when viewed through a transparent material called a polarizing filter. This property is known as birefringence and is used to identify specific minerals under a polarizing microscope. However, it is not a characteristic that is commonly used to uniquely identify minerals, unlike hardness, magnetism, and the ability to fizz on contact with acids, which are more widely used in mineral identification.

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  • 25. 

    14. Which mineral can scratch apiece pf glass?

    • A.

      Fluorite

    • B.

      Gypsum

    • C.

      Talc

    • D.

      Feldspar

    Correct Answer
    D. Feldspar
    Explanation
    Feldspar is the correct answer because it is a mineral that has a hardness level of 6 on the Mohs scale. Glass, on the other hand, has a hardness level of 5. This means that feldspar is harder than glass and can therefore scratch it. Fluorite, gypsum, and talc have lower hardness levels than glass and would not be able to scratch it.

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  • 26. 

    19. The principle of original horizontality states that ____________

    • A.

      Most rocks in the earth's surface are layered horizontally

    • B.

      Igneous rocks form essentially horizontal layers

    • C.

      Metamorphic gradients are essentially horizontal before deformation

    • D.

      Sediments are deposited as essentially horizontal layers

    Correct Answer
    A. Most rocks in the earth's surface are layered horizontally
    Explanation
    The principle of original horizontality states that sediments are deposited as essentially horizontal layers. This means that when new layers of sediment are formed, they tend to be deposited in a horizontal or nearly horizontal position. Over time, these layers can become tilted or folded due to tectonic forces, but the initial deposition is typically horizontal. This principle is important in the study of geology as it helps scientists understand the history and formation of rock layers.

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  • 27. 

    15. A/an_______is rare and beautiful

    • A.

      Gem

    • B.

      Mineral

    • C.

      Rock

    • D.

      Ore

    Correct Answer
    A. Gem
    Explanation
    A gem is considered rare and beautiful because it is a precious stone that has been cut and polished to enhance its appearance. Gems are often used in jewelry and are valued for their clarity, color, and durability. They are formed deep within the Earth under intense pressure and heat, making them relatively scarce. Additionally, gems can come in a variety of colors and types, such as diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and sapphires, each possessing its own unique beauty.

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  • 28. 

    16. Metamorphic rocks are classified by _______.

    • A.

      Intrusive or extrusive formation

    • B.

      Evaporation or precipitation

    • C.

      Color and crystal size

    • D.

      Foliation and non foliation

    Correct Answer
    D. Foliation and non foliation
    Explanation
    Metamorphic rocks are classified based on the presence or absence of foliation. Foliation refers to the alignment of minerals in a rock, which gives it a layered or banded appearance. Rocks with foliation have minerals arranged in parallel layers, while rocks without foliation have minerals randomly distributed. This classification is important because it provides information about the conditions under which the rock formed and the processes it has undergone. Therefore, the correct answer is foliation and non-foliation.

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  • 29. 

    42. Speciation is a process by which ___________

    • A.

      Two different species interbreed

    • B.

      Organisms reproduce their own kind

    • C.

      Populations of one species get isolated

    • D.

      A new species is formed as a result of isolation

    Correct Answer
    D. A new species is formed as a result of isolation
    Explanation
    Speciation is a process by which a new species is formed as a result of isolation. This means that when populations of a species become physically or reproductively isolated from each other, they can undergo genetic changes over time that lead to the development of distinct traits and characteristics. Eventually, these changes can accumulate to the point where individuals from the isolated populations can no longer interbreed and produce fertile offspring with individuals from the original population, resulting in the formation of a new species.

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  • 30. 

    43. Geographic isolation occurs when __________

    • A.

      Males compete with females for space

    • B.

      No interbreeding occurs within the species

    • C.

      Members of a species interbreed with another species

    • D.

      Members of a population become isolated due to changes in the environment

    Correct Answer
    D. Members of a population become isolated due to changes in the environment
    Explanation
    Geographic isolation occurs when members of a population become isolated due to changes in the environment. This means that physical barriers such as mountains, rivers, or other geographic features separate a population, preventing gene flow between individuals. Over time, these isolated populations may undergo genetic changes and diverge from the original population, potentially leading to the formation of new species.

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  • 31. 

    44. A particular species can better survive changing conditions in their habitats due to ______

    • A.

      Presence of food

    • B.

      Their ability to adapt

    • C.

      Their reproductive ability

    • D.

      Their ability to obtain food

    Correct Answer
    C. Their reproductive ability
    Explanation
    A particular species can better survive changing conditions in their habitats due to their reproductive ability. This means that the species has the capability to reproduce and produce offspring, ensuring the continuation of the species even in challenging environments. Reproduction allows for genetic diversity and adaptation to occur, increasing the chances of survival and successful adaptation to changing conditions.

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  • 32. 

    29. Two different species of bacteria are examined. Scientists find that species X always produces CO2 and H2O during cellular respiration. Species Y always produces ethyl alcohol and CO2. Which conclusion can be made from these observations?

    • A.

      Only species Y is aerobic

    • B.

      Only species Y is anaerobic

    • C.

      Both species X and Y are aerobic

    • D.

      Both species X and Y are anaerobic

    Correct Answer
    D. Both species X and Y are anaerobic
    Explanation
    Based on the observations that species X produces CO2 and H2O, and species Y produces ethyl alcohol and CO2 during cellular respiration, we can conclude that both species X and Y are anaerobic. This is because anaerobic respiration produces ethyl alcohol as a byproduct, while aerobic respiration does not. Since both species X and Y produce ethyl alcohol, it indicates that they both undergo anaerobic respiration.

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  • 33. 

    45. The biome with the greatest diversity is a _________

    • A.

      Grassland

    • B.

      Coniferous forest

    • C.

      Tropical rainforest

    • D.

      Temperate deciduous forest

    Correct Answer
    C. Tropical rainforest
    Explanation
    Tropical rainforests have the greatest diversity of any biome due to their unique combination of factors such as high temperatures, abundant rainfall, and consistent sunlight. These conditions support a wide variety of plant and animal species, making tropical rainforests one of the most biodiverse ecosystems on Earth. The dense vegetation provides numerous niches and habitats for different organisms to thrive, resulting in a rich and complex web of life.

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  • 34. 

    If you use the theory of plate tectonics to predict the most likely place for the next earthquake or volcanic eruption, you should predict that it is most similar likely to occur ______

    • A.

      In the interior of any continent

    • B.

      Where two plates are diverging from one another

    • C.

      Along boundaries colliding lithospheric plates

    • D.

      Where one has not happened in last 10 million years

    Correct Answer
    C. Along boundaries colliding lithospheric plates
    Explanation
    The theory of plate tectonics suggests that earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur along plate boundaries where the lithospheric plates interact with each other. These boundaries can be classified as convergent, divergent, or transform. However, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are less likely to occur in the interior of continents, as there are no active plate boundaries in these areas. Therefore, the most likely place for the next earthquake or volcanic eruption, according to the theory of plate tectonics, would be along boundaries where two plates are colliding.

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  • 35. 

    46. The biotic potential of a species depends on which of the following factors?

    • A.

      Number of offspring produced and had survived

    • B.

      Size of the ecosystems which provided enough space

    • C.

      Frequency with which reproduction occurs causing population growth

    • D.

      Availability of resources and absence of environmental hazards enabling organisms

    Correct Answer
    C. Frequency with which reproduction occurs causing population growth
    Explanation
    The biotic potential of a species refers to its ability to reproduce and increase its population size. The frequency with which reproduction occurs is a crucial factor in determining population growth. The more frequently a species reproduces, the faster its population can increase. This is because each reproductive event can result in the birth of multiple offspring, leading to exponential population growth. Therefore, the frequency of reproduction directly influences the biotic potential of a species.

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  • 36. 

    21. Seafloor spreading occurs at _______

    • A.

      Subduction zones

    • B.

      Transform faults

    • C.

      Terrain boundaries

    • D.

      Divergent boundaries

    Correct Answer
    D. Divergent boundaries
    Explanation
    Seafloor spreading occurs at divergent boundaries. Divergent boundaries are areas where tectonic plates are moving away from each other. As the plates separate, magma rises from the mantle to fill the gap, creating new crust on the seafloor. This process of seafloor spreading leads to the formation of mid-ocean ridges and the continuous growth of the oceanic crust.

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  • 37. 

    30. Which of the following sequence shows the correct order of events that occur after an insect pollinates a flower?

    • A.

      Germination, fertilization, pollination

    • B.

      Fertilization, germination, pollination

    • C.

      Pollination, germination, fertilization

    • D.

      Pollination, fertilization, germination

    Correct Answer
    D. Pollination, fertilization, germination
    Explanation
    After an insect pollinates a flower, the first event that occurs is pollination. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive organs (stamen) to the female reproductive organs (pistil) of the flower. Once pollination has taken place, fertilization occurs. Fertilization is the fusion of the sperm cell from the pollen with the egg cell in the ovary of the flower, resulting in the formation of a seed. Finally, after fertilization, germination occurs. Germination is the process by which a seed sprouts and begins to grow into a new plant. Therefore, the correct order of events is pollination, fertilization, and germination.

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  • 38. 

    47. Growth in plants occurs in regions of active cell division called ______

    • A.

      Ovule

    • B.

      Meristems

    • C.

      Epiderms

    • D.

      Root caps and leaves

    Correct Answer
    B. Meristems
    Explanation
    Growth in plants occurs in regions of active cell division called meristems. Meristems are specialized tissues found in the tips of roots and shoots, as well as in the cambium layer of stems and roots. These regions contain undifferentiated cells that continuously divide, leading to the production of new cells. As these new cells mature and differentiate, they contribute to the growth and development of the plant. Therefore, meristems are crucial for the formation of new tissues and organs in plants.

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  • 39. 

    48. Auxins are plant hormones that enable plants to ________

    • A.

      Attract pollinators

    • B.

      Bend towards light

    • C.

      Flower during the winter

    • D.

      Transport sugar through shoots

    Correct Answer
    B. Bend towards light
    Explanation
    Auxins are plant hormones that play a crucial role in the process of phototropism, which is the ability of plants to bend or grow towards a light source. This bending response is due to the differential distribution of auxins on the shaded and illuminated sides of the plant, causing cells to elongate more on the shaded side and resulting in the bending of the plant towards the light. Therefore, auxins enable plants to bend towards light.

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  • 40. 

    31. Asexual reproduction in plants involves ______

    • A.

      Planting seeds

    • B.

      Pollination in flowers

    • C.

      Producing runners and tubers

    • D.

      Both pollination and fertilization

    Correct Answer
    C. Producing runners and tubers
    Explanation
    Asexual reproduction in plants involves producing runners and tubers. This is a form of vegetative propagation where new plants are generated from specialized stems called runners or underground storage organs called tubers. This process does not involve the formation of seeds or the need for pollination and fertilization. Instead, new plants are produced from the parent plant through the growth and development of these specialized structures.

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  • 41. 

    49. Animals that are hermaphrodites _______

    • A.

      Can regenerate

    • B.

      Have separate sexes

    • C.

      Fertilize their eggs internally

    • D.

      Have both male and female reproductive systems

    Correct Answer
    D. Have both male and female reproductive systems
    Explanation
    Animals that are hermaphrodites have both male and female reproductive systems. This means that they possess both male and female reproductive organs, allowing them to produce both eggs and sperm. This adaptation enables hermaphroditic animals to reproduce with any other individual of their species, increasing their chances of finding a mate and successfully reproducing.

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  • 42. 

    22. Which of the following rocks are formed from preexisting rocks exposed to extreme heat and pressure in the Earth's interior?

    • A.

      Metamorphic

    • B.

      Igneous

    • C.

      Sedimentary

    • D.

      Rock Salt

    Correct Answer
    B. Igneous
    Explanation
    Igneous rocks are formed from preexisting rocks exposed to extreme heat and pressure in the Earth's interior. This process involves the melting of existing rocks, followed by cooling and solidification. As a result, new rocks with a crystalline structure are formed. Metamorphic rocks, on the other hand, are formed from existing rocks that undergo intense heat and pressure, causing them to change in texture and composition. Sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation and compaction of sediments, while rock salt is a type of sedimentary rock composed mainly of halite.

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  • 43. 

    32. Animals that can reproduced by fragmentation are ________.

    • A.

      Frogs

    • B.

      Hydra

    • C.

      Jellyfish

    • D.

      Starfish

    Correct Answer
    D. Starfish
    Explanation
    Starfish can reproduce by fragmentation, which is a form of asexual reproduction. In this process, a part of the starfish's body breaks off and develops into a new individual. This ability allows starfish to regenerate lost or damaged body parts and also increase their population rapidly. Frogs, hydra, and jellyfish do not reproduce by fragmentation.

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  • 44. 

    33. Genetically engineered plants will ______

    • A.

      Not need insecticides

    • B.

      Not improve their yield

    • C.

      Reduce the use of fertilizers

    • D.

      Be resistant to chemicals that kill insects

    Correct Answer
    D. Be resistant to chemicals that kill insects
    Explanation
    Genetically engineered plants are modified to possess traits that make them resistant to chemicals that are used to kill insects. This means that these plants will not be affected by insecticides and will be able to withstand their harmful effects. This resistance to insecticides is one of the benefits of genetically engineered plants, as it reduces the need for the use of insecticides in agriculture. Therefore, the correct answer is "be resistant to chemicals that kill insects."

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  • 45. 

    34. Leaves are structures specialized to ________

    • A.

      Protect seeds

    • B.

      Absorb minerals

    • C.

      Transport water

    • D.

      Carryout photosynthesis

    Correct Answer
    D. Carryout photosynthesis
    Explanation
    Leaves are structures specialized to carry out photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water into glucose and oxygen. Leaves have a large surface area and contain chlorophyll, which captures sunlight and uses it to produce energy for the plant. The leaves also have tiny openings called stomata, which allow for the exchange of gases during photosynthesis. Therefore, leaves are specifically adapted to carry out the crucial process of photosynthesis in plants.

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  • 46. 

    50. The genetic code contain directions for ______

    • A.

      Copying DNA

    • B.

      Removing proteins

    • C.

      Constructing a double helix

    • D.

      Ordering amino acids

    Correct Answer
    D. Ordering amino acids
    Explanation
    The genetic code is a set of instructions that determines the order in which amino acids are assembled to form proteins. These instructions are encoded in DNA and are responsible for the synthesis of proteins, which play crucial roles in various biological processes. Therefore, the correct answer is "ordering amino acids."

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  • 47. 

    35. Photoperiodism occurs when the plant responds to ______

    • A.

      Light

    • B.

      Moisture

    • C.

      Fertilizers

    • D.

      Changes in day's length

    Correct Answer
    D. Changes in day's length
    Explanation
    Photoperiodism is a plant's response to changes in day length. It refers to the physiological or developmental changes in a plant that are triggered by the duration of light and darkness in a 24-hour period. Plants use photoperiodism to regulate various processes such as flowering, dormancy, and growth. By sensing the changes in day length, plants can adapt their growth and development to different seasons and environmental conditions. This allows them to optimize their chances of survival and reproduction.

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  • 48. 

    3. Which of the following is NOT one Kepler's three laws?

    • A.

      Planets sweep out equal areas in equal times

    • B.

      The square of the period of a planet's orbit equals the cube of its semi major axis

    • C.

      The shapes of the planetary orbits are ellipse

    • D.

      Objects of different masses fall at the same rate

    Correct Answer
    D. Objects of different masses fall at the same rate
    Explanation
    Kepler's three laws of planetary motion describe the motion of planets in their orbits around the sun. The first law states that the planets sweep out equal areas in equal times, meaning that a planet moves faster when it is closer to the sun and slower when it is farther away. The second law states that the square of the period of a planet's orbit is proportional to the cube of its semi-major axis, which means that planets closer to the sun have shorter orbital periods. The third law states that the shapes of the planetary orbits are ellipses, not perfect circles. However, the statement "Objects of different masses fall at the same rate" is not one of Kepler's laws. This statement is actually a part of Galileo's principle of falling bodies, which states that in the absence of air resistance, objects of different masses will fall at the same rate.

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  • 49. 

    23. Which of the following is not a human activity that triggers landslides?

    • A.

      Claercutting

    • B.

      Heavy rainfall

    • C.

      Quarrying

    • D.

      Overloading slope

    Correct Answer
    B. Heavy rainfall
    Explanation
    Heavy rainfall is not a human activity that triggers landslides. Landslides are typically triggered by human activities such as clearcutting, quarrying, and overloading slopes. Clearcutting refers to the removal of trees and vegetation, which can destabilize the soil and increase the likelihood of landslides. Quarrying involves the extraction of rocks and minerals from the earth's surface, which can weaken the stability of slopes. Overloading slopes refers to placing excessive weight or load on slopes, which can cause them to collapse. However, heavy rainfall, although it can contribute to landslides, is a natural phenomenon rather than a human activity.

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  • 50. 

    4. Which of the following theories suggests that the universe originated from a singularity that expanded continuously?

    • A.

      Big Bang

    • B.

      Pulsating

    • C.

      Steady State

    • D.

      Oscillating Universe

    Correct Answer
    A. Big Bang
    Explanation
    The Big Bang theory suggests that the universe originated from a singularity, a point of infinite density and temperature, which expanded continuously. This theory is supported by various pieces of evidence, such as the observed expansion of the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation, and the abundance of light elements. According to the Big Bang theory, the universe began around 13.8 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Feb 01, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 19, 2017
    Quiz Created by
    SirFernanFerriol
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