GST 105

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History & Philosophy of Sciecne


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The word ‘science’   is   derived from the Latin  word, ‘.................’ which means ‘..................

    • A.

      Scientist, sense

    • B.

      Sciential, knowledge

    • C.

      Scientia, Knowledge

    • D.

      Knowledge, scientia

    Correct Answer
    C. Scientia, Knowledge
    Explanation
    The word "science" is derived from the Latin word "scientia" which means "knowledge".

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is not true about the definition of Science

    • A.

      Method for acquiring knowledge

    • B.

      Body of knowledge

    • C.

      Studying and understanding the world

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
    Explanation
    The statement "None of the above" is the correct answer because all of the options listed - method for acquiring knowledge, body of knowledge, studying and understanding the world - are true about the definition of Science. Science involves using specific methods to acquire knowledge, it encompasses a vast body of knowledge, and its main goal is to study and understand the world around us. Therefore, none of the given options are false about the definition of Science.

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  • 3. 

    The bodies of knowledge generally regarded as  science include  chemistry, biology, physics, ................., ..........................., ..........................

    • A.

      Philosophy, psychology, medicine, literature

    • B.

      Pharmacy, agriculture, geography, science

    • C.

      Medicine, Biology, physics, phylosophy

    • D.

      Mathematics, microbiology, pharmacy, medicine

    Correct Answer
    D. Mathematics, microbiology, pharmacy, medicine
    Explanation
    The given answer is "mathematics, microbiology, pharmacy, medicine". This answer is correct because it includes disciplines that are commonly considered part of the scientific field. Mathematics is a fundamental science that deals with the study of numbers, quantities, and shapes. Microbiology is a branch of biology that focuses on the study of microorganisms. Pharmacy is a scientific field that involves the preparation and dispensing of medication. Medicine is a scientific discipline that involves the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. Therefore, these four options align with the bodies of knowledge generally regarded as science.

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  • 4. 

    The two branches of  science, which are ............... & .................. sciences, use what is called the scientific  method

    • A.

      Formal and extrinsic

    • B.

      Empirical and formal

    • C.

      Empirical and intrinsic

    • D.

      Intrinsic and extrinsic

    Correct Answer
    B. Empirical and formal
    Explanation
    The two branches of science, empirical and formal sciences, use what is called the scientific method. The empirical sciences rely on observation, experimentation, and evidence to gather knowledge and make conclusions. The formal sciences, on the other hand, use logic, mathematics, and theoretical models to study abstract concepts and systems. Both branches contribute to the advancement of scientific knowledge by applying the scientific method in their respective fields.

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  • 5. 

    Formal sciences include mathematics, ................, ..........................., and statistics

    • A.

      Logic, theoretical methodology

    • B.

      Theoretical physics, logic

    • C.

      Logic, biology

    • D.

      Theoretical physics,

    Correct Answer
    B. Theoretical physics, logic
    Explanation
    Formal sciences are characterized by their use of formal systems, abstract reasoning, and logical analysis. Mathematics is a fundamental formal science that deals with numbers, quantities, and shapes. Theoretical physics is also a formal science that uses mathematical models and logical reasoning to study the fundamental laws of nature. Logic, as the study of reasoning and inference, is another formal science that is essential in mathematics and theoretical physics. Therefore, the correct answer is theoretical physics, logic.

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  • 6. 

    Select 2 answers that fits best to the question below: Formal sciences have 2 types of character, which are

    • A.

      Formal character

    • B.

      Informal character

    • C.

      Inductive character

    • D.

      Deductive character

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Formal character
    D. Deductive character
    Explanation
    Formal sciences refer to disciplines that use formal systems, such as mathematics and logic, to study abstract concepts. These sciences rely on formal character, which involves the use of precise definitions, rules, and symbols to analyze and prove theories. Deductive character is also a characteristic of formal sciences, as they often use deductive reasoning to draw conclusions from established principles or premises. Therefore, the answers "formal character" and "deductive character" best fit the question as they accurately describe the types of character associated with formal sciences.

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  • 7. 

    Science is said to be formal if its contents, arguments   and procedures obey certain rules, then the result and conclusions   of   such sciences are valid and authentic only if they conform to those rules. This statement is 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given answer is that science is considered formal when it follows specific rules regarding its contents, arguments, and procedures. If these rules are adhered to, then the results and conclusions obtained from such scientific studies are considered valid and authentic. Therefore, the statement that the result and conclusions of formal sciences are valid and authentic only if they conform to those rules is true.

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  • 8. 

    Empirical sciences include

    Correct Answer
    physics
    chemistry
    biology
    psychology
    botany
    zoology
    biochemistry
    microbiology
    geology
    medical
    Explanation
    Empirical sciences are based on observations and experiments to gather evidence and knowledge about the natural world. Physics, chemistry, biology, psychology, botany, zoology, biochemistry, microbiology, geology, and medical sciences all fall under this category. These disciplines rely on empirical data and methods to study and understand various aspects of the physical and biological world, human behavior, and medical conditions. They involve systematic observations, measurements, and experimentation to test hypotheses and theories, leading to the advancement of scientific knowledge in these fields.

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  • 9. 

    Sense  perception objects, which are the subject of empirical sciences, include the

    Correct Answer
    human body
    bodies of other animals
    goats
    cows
    dogs
    natural objects
    weather
    diseases
    plants
    insects
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes a list of objects that can be perceived through the senses and studied in empirical sciences. This list encompasses the human body, bodies of other animals (including goats, cows, and dogs), natural objects, weather, diseases, plants, and insects. These objects can be observed, measured, and analyzed to gain knowledge and understanding in various scientific fields.

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  • 10. 

    Objects which cannot be perceived by the senses include values such as 

    Correct Answer
    goodness
    badness
    rightness
    virtue
    beauty
    holiness
    truth
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes values such as goodness, badness, rightness, virtue, beauty, holiness, and truth. These values are considered to be abstract concepts that cannot be perceived by the senses. They are not physical objects that can be seen, heard, touched, tasted, or smelled. Instead, they are qualities or characteristics that exist in the realm of ideas or beliefs.

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  • 11. 

    All but one of these are sub-branches of Natural sciences

    • A.

      Economics

    • B.

      Microbiology

    • C.

      Physical sciences

    • D.

      Pharmacognosy

    Correct Answer
    A. Economics
    Explanation
    Economics is not a sub-branch of Natural sciences. Natural sciences typically include branches such as biology, chemistry, physics, and geology, which study the natural world and its phenomena. Economics, on the other hand, is a social science that focuses on the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. While it may incorporate elements of mathematics and statistics, it primarily deals with human behavior and societal systems rather than the natural world.

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  • 12. 

    The discipline under Social sciece include

    • A.

      Pharmaceutics

    • B.

      Anthropology

    • C.

      Biophysics

    • D.

      Economics and physiology

    Correct Answer
    B. Anthropology
    Explanation
    Anthropology is a discipline under Social Science. It is the study of human societies, cultures, and their development. It involves examining various aspects of human life such as language, beliefs, social structures, and physical characteristics. Through anthropology, researchers gain insights into the diversity and evolution of human behavior and societies across different time periods and geographical locations.

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  • 13. 

    The Israeli Curriculum have been able to integrate or articulate both science and other subjects as one theme called 

    • A.

      Refraction, Reflection and Dispersion

    • B.

      Light an Darkness

    • C.

      Light and Shadow

    • D.

      Geometrical transformation

    Correct Answer
    C. Light and Shadow
    Explanation
    The Israeli Curriculum have been able to integrate or articulate both science and other subjects as one theme called "light and Shadow". This theme allows students to explore the scientific concepts of light and shadow while also incorporating elements of art, history, and literature. By studying the properties of light and how it interacts with objects to create shadows, students can develop a deeper understanding of both the scientific principles and the cultural significance of light and shadow in various contexts. This approach promotes interdisciplinary learning and helps students make connections between different subjects.

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  • 14. 

    Among those things called non-science are religion, imagination, ...... ,.......... & .......

    • A.

      Arts, muslim, biology

    • B.

      Mysticism, common sense, arts

    • C.

      Physics, metaphysics, arts

    • D.

      Science, mysticism, no sense

    Correct Answer
    B. Mysticism, common sense, arts
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "mysticism, common sense, arts". The question asks for examples of things that are considered non-science. Mysticism refers to spiritual practices and beliefs that are not based on scientific evidence. Common sense refers to practical knowledge and reasoning that may not always align with scientific principles. Arts encompass various creative and expressive forms that are not strictly scientific in nature.

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  • 15. 

    The difference between religion and science is that, the formal is concerned with worship of the supernatural;while latter is ........

    • A.

      Traditional believes

    • B.

      Culture of the society

    • C.

      Nature and its existence of man

    • D.

      Nature and natural phenomena and objects

    Correct Answer
    D. Nature and natural phenomena and objects
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "nature and natural phenomena and objects." This is because science focuses on studying and understanding the natural world, including the various phenomena and objects found in nature. Science uses empirical evidence and the scientific method to explain and predict natural events, while religion is centered around beliefs in a higher power or supernatural entities.

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  • 16. 

    ........... are said to be subjective, unverifiable, non-factual, not objective, not systematic and not quantifiable (that is measurable)

    • A.

      Subjective science

    • B.

      Pure sciense

    • C.

      No -science

    • D.

      Non-sciences

    Correct Answer
    D. Non-sciences
    Explanation
    The given statement describes characteristics of certain fields of study that are subjective, unverifiable, non-factual, not objective, not systematic, and not quantifiable. These fields do not adhere to the principles of science, which emphasizes objectivity, systematic observation, and the use of measurable data. Therefore, they can be classified as non-sciences.

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  • 17. 

    Check any two (2) that is correct. In general, science is said to be objective, .......... & ..............

    • A.

      Subjective & objective

    • B.

      Subjective

    • C.

      Reliable

    • D.

      Systematic

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Reliable
    D. Systematic
    Explanation
    Science is considered reliable because it is based on evidence and rigorous testing. It aims to produce consistent and replicable results, which increases confidence in its findings. Additionally, science is systematic as it follows a structured and organized approach to investigate and understand phenomena. This involves formulating hypotheses, conducting experiments, analyzing data, and drawing conclusions. This systematic approach ensures that scientific research is logical, transparent, and can be replicated by other researchers, which contributes to the credibility and validity of scientific knowledge.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is sequentially correct about scientific method

    • A.

      Observation, problem definition, hypothesis, experimentation, conclusion & theory

    • B.

      Observation, problem definition, experimentation, hypothesis, conclusion & theory

    • C.

      Observation, problem definition, experimentation, theory, hypothesis, & conclusion

    • D.

      Problem definition, observation, experimentation, theory, hypothesis, & conclusion

    Correct Answer
    A. Observation, problem definition, hypothesis, experimentation, conclusion & theory
    Explanation
    The correct sequence for the scientific method is as follows: observation, problem definition, hypothesis, experimentation, conclusion, and theory. This sequence represents the logical progression of the scientific process. It begins with making observations and identifying a problem or question to be addressed. Then, a hypothesis is formulated as a possible explanation for the observed phenomenon. This is followed by conducting experiments to test the hypothesis and gather data. The conclusion is drawn based on the results of the experiments, and finally, a theory is developed to explain the observed phenomenon based on the accumulated evidence.

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  • 19. 

    Observations can also be classified

    • A.

      Passive and active

    • B.

      Induced and passive

    • C.

      Spontaneous and passive

    • D.

      Induced and active

    Correct Answer
    A. Passive and active
    Explanation
    The correct answer is passive and active. Observations can be classified as passive when they are made without any deliberate intervention or manipulation of the variables being observed. These observations are simply recorded as they naturally occur. On the other hand, observations can be classified as active when they are made through deliberate intervention or manipulation of the variables being observed. In active observations, the observer actively influences the conditions or variables in order to gather specific data or information.

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  • 20. 

    ................... is the scientific stage that involves in seemingly quite unscientific procedure of guessing

    • A.

      Observation

    • B.

      Problem definition

    • C.

      Experimentation

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
    Explanation
    The given options do not include the scientific stage that involves guessing. Therefore, the correct answer is "None of the above".

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is by far the hardest part of the scientific method

    • A.

      Hypothesis formulation

    • B.

      Experimentation

    • C.

      Observation

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Experimentation
    Explanation
    Experimentation is considered the hardest part of the scientific method because it involves designing and conducting experiments to test the hypothesis. This requires careful planning, attention to detail, and the ability to control variables and collect accurate data. Experimentation also often involves complex equipment, specialized techniques, and a deep understanding of the subject matter. Additionally, experiments can be time-consuming and may require multiple iterations to yield meaningful results. Therefore, experimentation is typically regarded as the most challenging aspect of the scientific method.

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  • 22. 

    When a hypothesis is confirmed through experimentation, it becomes a ...............

    • A.

      Theory

    • B.

      Experimentation

    • C.

      Hypothsis

    • D.

      Conclusion

    Correct Answer
    A. Theory
    Explanation
    When a hypothesis is confirmed through experimentation, it becomes a theory. This is because a theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is based on a body of evidence and has been repeatedly tested and confirmed through experimentation. Therefore, when a hypothesis is supported by experimental evidence, it gains more credibility and is elevated to the status of a theory.

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  • 23. 

    Theories that have proved to be universally valid and have a high degree of probability are called  

    • A.

      Universal law

    • B.

      Natural laws

    • C.

      Gravitational law

    • D.

      First law

    Correct Answer
    B. Natural laws
    Explanation
    Theories that have been proven to be universally valid and have a high degree of probability are referred to as "natural laws." These laws are fundamental principles that describe the behavior of the natural world and are consistent across different contexts and observations. They are based on extensive empirical evidence and have withstood rigorous testing and scrutiny. Natural laws are considered to be reliable and applicable in various scientific disciplines.

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  • 24. 

    The progressive change of living things through time is known as

    • A.

      Revolution

    • B.

      Resolution

    • C.

      Evaluation

    • D.

      Evolution

    Correct Answer
    D. Evolution
    Explanation
    Evolution refers to the gradual change and development of living organisms over time. It encompasses the processes of genetic variation, natural selection, and adaptation, leading to the emergence of new species. This concept is supported by extensive scientific evidence from various fields such as paleontology, genetics, and comparative anatomy. Revolution, resolution, and evaluation do not accurately describe the continuous and cumulative nature of biological change observed in living things.

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  • 25. 

    Among the scientist, who clearly declared his belief that each kind of animal and plant had remained unchanged from the day it was created

    • A.

      John Dalton

    • B.

      Johnson and Raven

    • C.

      John Darwin

    • D.

      John Ray

    Correct Answer
    D. John Ray
    Explanation
    John Ray is the correct answer because he was a scientist who believed in the concept of fixity of species, which states that each kind of animal and plant has remained unchanged since the day it was created. This belief is in contrast to the theory of evolution proposed by Charles Darwin, who suggested that species change over time through the process of natural selection. John Dalton was a chemist, Johnson and Raven were not known for their beliefs on species, and John Darwin is not a well-known scientist.

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  • 26. 

    Fields of inquiry which have contributed to a better understanding of the mechanism of evolution include:

    • A.

      Palaeontology, genetics, chemeontology, science

    • B.

      Palaeontology, genetics, biochemistry & geology

    • C.

      Religion, natural science, physiology & science

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Palaeontology, genetics, biochemistry & geology
    Explanation
    The fields of palaeontology, genetics, biochemistry, and geology have all contributed to a better understanding of the mechanism of evolution. Palaeontology provides evidence of past life forms and their changes over time, genetics helps explain how traits are passed down through generations, biochemistry explores the chemical processes involved in evolution, and geology helps determine the age and history of the Earth. Together, these fields have provided valuable insights into the mechanisms behind the process of evolution.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jun 22, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Timetconcepts

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