Gender Com Exam 1

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Gender Com Exam 1 - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    John Money's theory that gender is a product of social upbringing rather than biological sex is:

    Explanation
    John Money's theory that gender is a product of social upbringing rather than biological sex is known as gender identity theory. This theory suggests that individuals develop their gender identity through socialization and cultural influences, rather than being determined solely by their biological sex. Money argued that gender identity is fluid and can be shaped and influenced by external factors, such as family, society, and culture. This theory challenges the notion that gender is solely determined by biological factors and emphasizes the role of socialization in shaping an individual's gender identity.

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  • 2. 

    Psychologically, culturally and often politically constructed term that is often associated with the words man, masculine, woman, feminine and the prefix trans is:

    Explanation
    Gender is a socially constructed concept that encompasses psychological, cultural, and political aspects. It is often associated with terms such as man, masculine, woman, feminine, and the prefix trans. Gender refers to the roles, behaviors, activities, and expectations that society considers appropriate for individuals based on their assigned sex at birth. This term is used to understand and analyze the differences and inequalities between men and women, as well as the experiences of individuals who identify as transgender or non-binary.

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  • 3. 

    The tendency to reduce catagories of and/ or gender to certain charachteristics is:

    Explanation
    Essentialism refers to the tendency of reducing categories of gender or any other characteristics to certain fixed traits. It is the belief that individuals or groups possess inherent and unchanging qualities that define them. This can lead to the oversimplification and generalization of complex identities and perpetuate stereotypes. It disregards the diversity and fluidity within these categories, limiting individuality and promoting discrimination based on rigid categorizations.

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  • 4. 

    Transexual people possess and display both feminine and masculine qualities are:

    Explanation
    The term "androgynous" refers to individuals who possess and display both feminine and masculine qualities. This can include physical characteristics, behaviors, and traits that are traditionally associated with both genders. Therefore, "androgynous" is the correct answer to describe transexual people who exhibit a combination of feminine and masculine qualities.

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  • 5. 

    Essentializing masculinity describes the enactment of psychological and social dominance over women and other men

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is false. Essentializing masculinity does not necessarily describe the enactment of psychological and social dominance over women and other men. Essentializing masculinity refers to the process of reducing masculinity to a set of fixed and rigid traits, often based on societal norms and expectations. It does not inherently imply dominance or control over others.

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  • 6. 

    Hegemonic masculinity describes the enactment of psychological and social dominance over women and other men.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hegemonic masculinity refers to a form of masculinity that exerts power and control over women and other men. It involves the reinforcement of traditional gender roles and the suppression of any behaviors or traits that are perceived as feminine. This concept highlights the societal norms and expectations that promote male dominance and the subordination of women. Therefore, the given statement is true as it accurately describes the concept of hegemonic masculinity.

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  • 7. 

    Boyle used the term "dilemma" in their research to describe the participants surgical expiriences as:

    Correct Answer
    a transition from absence to presence of dilemma
    Explanation
    The term "dilemma" was used by Boyle in their research to describe the participants' surgical experiences as a transition from absence to presence of dilemma. This suggests that the participants initially did not face any dilemma regarding their surgical procedure, but as they went through the process, they started experiencing a dilemma or a difficult decision-making situation. This transition implies that the participants' perception or understanding of the dilemma changed over time during their surgical experiences.

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  • 8. 

    ____________ refers to the tendency to reduce something or someone to certain characteristics that we assume are vital to its nature:

    Correct Answer
    essentializing
    Explanation
    Essentializing refers to the tendency to reduce something or someone to certain characteristics that we assume are vital to its nature. This means that we simplify complex entities or individuals by focusing only on the most important or essential aspects, disregarding the nuances and diversity that may exist within them. By essentializing, we create generalizations and stereotypes, which can lead to misunderstandings and unfair judgments.

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  • 9. 

    Relating to, or concerned with:   expressed in terms intended to persuad or impress:

    Correct Answer
    rhetorical
    Explanation
    The word "rhetorical" is used to describe something that is related to or concerned with persuasive or impressive language. It suggests that the language is used to influence or persuade the audience rather than convey factual information.

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  • 10. 

    A common treatment for intersex conditions that renders an individual sexed as male or female:

    Correct Answer
    genital reconstruction surgery
    Explanation
    Genital reconstruction surgery is a common treatment for intersex conditions that aims to assign a clear male or female sex to the individual. This surgical procedure involves modifying the genitalia to align with the assigned sex, helping to alleviate any physical ambiguity. By undergoing this surgery, individuals can have a more defined sexual identity and potentially reduce any psychological distress associated with their intersex condition.

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  • 11. 

    The partial or total removal of genetalia is:

    Correct Answer
    genital mutilation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "genital mutilation" because it refers to the partial or total removal of genitalia. This practice is often carried out for cultural, religious, or traditional reasons, but it is widely condemned as a violation of human rights and can cause severe physical and psychological harm.

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  • 12. 

    The supreme court of the United States has upheld certain rights of private that pertain to the human body:

    Correct Answer
    bodily autonomy
    Explanation
    The Supreme Court of the United States has recognized and affirmed the concept of bodily autonomy, which refers to an individual's right to make decisions about their own body without interference or coercion from others. This includes the right to refuse medical treatment, the right to privacy in matters related to reproductive health, and the right to make decisions about one's own physical integrity. This ruling acknowledges the fundamental importance of personal autonomy and self-determination in matters concerning the human body.

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  • 13. 

    Innate biological characteristics of an individual, including genetalia, chromosomes, hormones:

    Correct Answer
    sex
    Explanation
    The given answer "sex" is correct because innate biological characteristics such as genitals, chromosomes, and hormones are used to determine an individual's sex. These characteristics are typically categorized as male or female based on the presence of certain reproductive organs, the arrangement of sex chromosomes (XX for females and XY for males), and the levels of specific hormones. Sex is a fundamental aspect of human biology and is typically assigned at birth based on these biological characteristics.

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  • 14. 

    A theory that suggests that within any society / culture there are groups who are silenced or not heard:

    Correct Answer
    muted group theory
    Explanation
    Muted Group Theory is a theory that proposes that certain groups within a society or culture are marginalized and their voices are silenced or not given equal importance. These groups, often minorities or marginalized individuals, face difficulties in expressing their ideas and experiences because the dominant language and communication systems are designed by and for the dominant group. This theory highlights the power dynamics and the challenges faced by these muted groups in effectively communicating their perspectives and shaping the discourse within society.

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  • 15. 

    Individuals who are born with ambiguous sex traits are:

    Correct Answer
    intersex
    Explanation
    Individuals who are born with ambiguous sex traits are referred to as intersex. Intersex is a term used to describe a variety of conditions in which a person's reproductive or sexual anatomy does not fit typical definitions of male or female. This can include variations in chromosomes, hormones, or genitalia. Intersex individuals may have a combination of both male and female characteristics, or their physical traits may not align with their assigned gender at birth. It is important to note that intersex is a natural and normal biological variation, and it is estimated that around 1 in 2,000 individuals are born intersex.

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  • 16. 

    Refers to a persons internal and interpretation of self in relationship to gender - this may or may not depend on the persons biological sex:

    Correct Answer
    gender identity
    Explanation
    Gender identity refers to a person's internal sense of their own gender, which may or may not align with their biological sex. It is how individuals perceive and interpret themselves in relation to their gender, and it can be different from the sex assigned to them at birth. Gender identity is a deeply personal and subjective experience, and it may vary from person to person.

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  • 17. 

    A theory from a feminists perspective that socially locates women in the center as a political starting point for how women see the world and are seen:

    Correct Answer
    feminist standpoint theory
    Explanation
    The correct answer is feminist standpoint theory. Feminist standpoint theory is a theoretical framework that emphasizes the experiences and perspectives of women as a starting point for understanding social and political issues. It argues that women, due to their marginalized position in society, have unique knowledge and insights that can challenge dominant power structures. This theory seeks to highlight the importance of considering women's voices and experiences in order to achieve a more equitable and inclusive society.

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  • 18. 

    A transgendered person is someone who internalizes, feels, and or expresses and presents a gender identity that differs from traditional gender biological sex allignment:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A transgendered person is someone who identifies with a gender that does not align with their assigned biological sex at birth. This means that they may feel and express themselves as a gender different from what is traditionally associated with their biological sex. This can include individuals who were assigned female at birth but identify as male, or vice versa. Therefore, the statement "A transgendered person is someone who internalizes, feels, and or expresses and presents a gender identity that differs from traditional gender biological sex alignment" is true.

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  • 19. 

    Gender identity is a verb that refers to a persons internal definition and interpretation of self in relationship to gender:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Gender identity is indeed a verb that refers to a person's internal definition and interpretation of self in relation to their gender. It is an individual's deeply-held sense of their own gender, which may or may not align with the sex they were assigned at birth. This internal understanding of one's gender is an important aspect of an individual's self-identity and can vary from person to person.

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  • 20. 

    Martin observed that girls were told to be quiet and to use "nicer" voices _____________:

    Correct Answer
    more frequently than boys
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "more frequently than boys" because the sentence indicates that girls were instructed to be quiet and use "nicer" voices more often compared to boys. This suggests that there was a higher frequency of such instructions given to girls as opposed to boys.

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  • 21. 

    One of the themes identified in the Boyle article is that:

    Correct Answer
    doctor knows best
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given answer, "doctor knows best," is that the Boyle article discusses the theme of doctors being the ultimate authority and decision-makers in healthcare. This theme implies that doctors have superior knowledge and expertise, and their opinions and recommendations should be unquestionably followed. The article might explore the potential consequences of this belief, such as patient disempowerment or the overlooking of patient perspectives and preferences. Overall, the theme suggests a traditional hierarchical approach to healthcare where doctors hold the ultimate authority.

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  • 22. 

    Fouco is the theorist most closely related to the notion of gender performance:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Foucault is not the theorist most closely related to the notion of gender performance. While Foucault's work on power and sexuality is influential, it is Judith Butler who is most closely associated with the concept of gender performance. Butler argues that gender is not a fixed or innate identity, but rather a social construct that is performed and enacted through repeated actions and behaviors. This idea of gender as a performance has had a significant impact on feminist and queer theory.

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  • 23. 

    Butler is the theorist most closely related to the notion of gender performance:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Butler is indeed the theorist most closely associated with the concept of gender performance. This refers to the idea that gender is not something inherent or fixed, but rather a social construct that individuals actively perform and embody through their actions, behaviors, and appearances. Butler's work, particularly her book "Gender Trouble," has been influential in challenging traditional notions of gender identity and highlighting the performative nature of gender.

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  • 24. 

    Interpersonal theories as to the process of gender development includes psychodynamic and psychological theories:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Interpersonal theories of gender development focus on the role of social interactions and relationships in shaping individuals' understanding and expression of gender. Psychodynamic theories, such as Freud's psychoanalytic theory, suggest that gender development is influenced by unconscious desires and conflicts. Psychological theories, such as social learning theory, propose that gender development occurs through observation, imitation, and reinforcement of gender-related behaviors. Therefore, it is true that interpersonal theories, including psychodynamic and psychological theories, are considered in the process of gender development.

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  • 25. 

    Interpersonal theories as to the process of gender development includes which two types of  theories?

    Correct Answer
    psychodynamic and psychological
    Explanation
    The question asks for the two types of theories included in interpersonal theories of gender development. The correct answer is psychodynamic and psychological. Psychodynamic theories focus on unconscious desires and conflicts that shape gender identity, while psychological theories emphasize cognitive and social factors in gender development. Both of these theories examine how individuals develop their understanding and expression of gender through interpersonal interactions and internal processes.

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  • 26. 

    Shirley and Edwin Ardener are the theorists who came up with muted group theory:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Shirley and Edwin Ardener are indeed the theorists who developed the muted group theory. This theory suggests that certain marginalized groups, such as women or minorities, are often unable to fully express their thoughts and experiences due to the dominant language and communication norms of society. These groups are "muted" because their perspectives are not adequately represented or understood in mainstream discourse. The Ardener's work has been influential in highlighting the power dynamics and inequalities present in communication processes.

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  • 27. 

    John money is considered a great advocate for intersexual rights:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    John Money is not considered a great advocate for intersexual rights. While he was a psychologist known for his work on gender identity, his controversial practices and theories, such as the case of David Reimer, have been widely criticized. Money's approach to intersex individuals focused on gender assignment surgery and socialization, often without considering the long-term psychological and emotional effects on the individuals involved. Therefore, it would be incorrect to consider him a great advocate for intersexual rights.

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  • 28. 

    Little t truth suggests that there is an objective:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Little t truth suggests that there is not necessarily an objective truth. It refers to individual or subjective truths that may vary from person to person. Little t truth recognizes that truth can be influenced by personal experiences, beliefs, and perspectives, leading to multiple valid truths. This stands in contrast to Big T truth, which implies an absolute and universal truth that is independent of individual perspectives. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 29. 

    Qualitative studies focus on numbers and statistics:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Qualitative studies actually focus on non-numerical data and do not rely on statistics. These studies aim to understand and interpret social phenomena, behaviors, and experiences through methods like interviews, observations, and analysis of texts. Unlike quantitative studies, qualitative research does not involve numerical measurements or statistical analysis. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 30. 

    Researchers have found that views of gender generally remain consistent over the average persons lifespan:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given answer is true because research has shown that people's views of gender tend to remain consistent throughout their lives. This suggests that individuals generally hold onto their beliefs and attitudes about gender, which can be influenced by socialization, cultural norms, and personal experiences. This consistency in views of gender may contribute to the persistence of gender inequalities and stereotypes in society.

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  • 31. 

    According to Haas there is a plethora (or abundance) of research that shows that intersexed individuals benefit psychologically from genital reconstruction surgery performed on them as infants and toddlers:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The explanation for the answer being False is that there is actually a lack of research supporting the claim that intersexed individuals benefit psychologically from genital reconstruction surgery performed on them as infants and toddlers. Haas's statement is not accurate as there is limited evidence and controversy surrounding this topic.

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  • 32. 

    Which theory views children as relatively passive learners who absorb gender identity from role models surrounding them?

    Correct Answer
    social learning theory
    Explanation
    Social learning theory suggests that children are passive learners who acquire gender identity by observing and imitating the behaviors and attitudes of role models in their environment. According to this theory, children learn about gender roles and norms through reinforcement, observation, and imitation of the behaviors they see in their parents, siblings, peers, and media. This theory emphasizes the importance of socialization and the influence of external factors in shaping children's gender identity and behavior.

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  • 33. 

    Because of her position in society an economically poor woman should have a feminist standpoint:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    This statement is not necessarily true. While it is important for individuals in positions of power and privilege to support feminist ideals, it is not a requirement for economically poor women to have a feminist standpoint. Feminism is a belief system that advocates for gender equality and empowerment of women, and it is up to each individual to decide whether they align with this ideology or not, regardless of their economic status.

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  • 34. 

    In her discussion of the United States laws concerning the rights of intersexuals Haas includes the constitutional right of privacy and bodily autonomy by the 12th Amendment:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
  • 35. 

    According to Woods discussion on standpoint theory the experience of double conciousness that many marginalized individuals experienced is called the outsider within:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    According to Woods' discussion on standpoint theory, marginalized individuals often experience a sense of double consciousness, which is referred to as the "outsider within." This term encapsulates the feeling of being both a part of and apart from the dominant culture, resulting in a unique perspective that can challenge prevailing norms and power structures. This concept highlights the complex experiences of marginalized individuals and their ability to offer valuable insights from their position on the margins of society.

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  • 36. 

    The group that was most often diagnosed with neuresthenia between 1880 and 1910 were:

    Correct Answer
    middle and upper class white business men
    Explanation
    During the period between 1880 and 1910, neuresthenia, a condition characterized by fatigue, irritability, and nervousness, was commonly diagnosed. The group that was most frequently diagnosed with neuresthenia during this time were middle and upper class white business men. This can be attributed to the high levels of stress and pressure that these individuals experienced in their professional lives. The demands of their jobs, coupled with societal expectations and the rapid changes occurring during the industrialization era, likely contributed to the development of neuresthenia in this particular group.

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  • 37. 

    Arguably according to standpoint theory subordinate social locations are more likely than priveledged social locations to generate knowledge that is more accurate:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    According to standpoint theory, individuals in subordinate social locations have a unique perspective and lived experiences that allow them to see and understand certain aspects of the world that individuals in privileged social locations may not be aware of. This different vantage point can lead to a more accurate understanding of social issues and generate knowledge that is often overlooked or ignored by those in positions of power. Therefore, it can be argued that subordinate social locations are more likely to generate knowledge that is more accurate.

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  • 38. 

    Haas suggests that intersexed children may have a claim for medical malpractice based on a violation of which condition?

    Correct Answer
    genital mutilation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is genital mutilation. Haas suggests that intersexed children may have a claim for medical malpractice based on a violation of their rights to bodily integrity and autonomy. Genital mutilation refers to the non-consensual alteration or removal of healthy genital tissue, which can cause physical and psychological harm. In the case of intersex individuals, medical interventions performed without their consent or without medical necessity can be considered a violation of their rights, leading to potential claims for medical malpractice.

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  • 39. 

    Judith Butler is the theorist most closely related to the notion of diciplining bodies:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Judith Butler is not the theorist most closely related to the notion of disciplining bodies. While Butler is known for her work on gender and performativity, she is not specifically associated with the concept of disciplining bodies. Other theorists, such as Michel Foucault, are more closely linked to this idea. Therefore, the answer is false.

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  • 40. 

    Michel Fouco is the theorist most closely related to the notion of diciplining bodies:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Michel Foucault is a theorist who extensively explored the concept of disciplining bodies in his work. He argued that modern societies have developed various mechanisms and practices to control and regulate individual bodies, such as institutions like prisons, schools, and hospitals. Foucault's ideas on discipline and power have had a significant influence on various fields, including sociology, philosophy, and cultural studies. Therefore, it is accurate to say that Foucault is the theorist most closely associated with the notion of disciplining bodies.

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  • 41. 

    Women instictively will protect and nurture their own children:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Women instinctively will protect and nurture their own children. This statement is not entirely true as not all women have the instinct to protect and nurture their own children. While it is true that many women have a strong maternal instinct, there are also women who may not have children or may not feel a strong maternal bond. Additionally, there are cases where women may not have the opportunity or ability to protect and nurture their children due to various circumstances. Therefore, it is incorrect to assume that all women will instinctively protect and nurture their own children.

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  • 42. 

    The term Patriarchy literally means:

    Correct Answer
    rule by fathers
    Explanation
    The term "Patriarchy" literally means "rule by fathers." This refers to a social system or structure in which men hold primary power and authority, both in the family and in broader society. It is a system that is characterized by male dominance, where men typically occupy positions of power and decision-making, while women are often marginalized and have limited access to resources and opportunities. Patriarchy is deeply rooted in many cultures and has been the norm for centuries, although there have been ongoing efforts to challenge and dismantle it in pursuit of gender equality.

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  • 43. 

    In the Lorber article she sites Mckinnin who suggests that in western society universal humanness is female:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given answer, False, is that in the Lorber article, she references McKinnon who argues that in western society, universal humanness is not female. This implies that the statement suggesting universal humanness is female is incorrect.

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  • 44. 

    Women and men both have hormonal cycles that can affect their behavior:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Women and men both have hormonal cycles that can affect their behavior. This is true because both genders experience fluctuations in hormone levels throughout their lives. In women, the menstrual cycle is characterized by changes in estrogen and progesterone levels, which can influence mood, emotions, and behavior. Men also experience hormonal fluctuations, although not as pronounced as in women, which can impact their behavior as well. These hormonal changes can contribute to mood swings, irritability, and other behavioral changes in both women and men.

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  • 45. 

    According to Haas most children who undergo genital reconstruction surgery are given male genitals:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    According to Haas, most children who undergo genital reconstruction surgery are not given male genitals.

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  • 46. 

    According to Karen Martins analysis of gender in preschool ____________ are covert lessons that schools teach often as a means of social control:

    Correct Answer
    hidden curriculum
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "hidden curriculum." In Karen Martins' analysis of gender in preschool, she suggests that the hidden curriculum refers to covert lessons that schools teach as a means of social control. These lessons are not explicitly taught but are embedded in the school environment and activities, influencing students' understanding of gender roles and expectations.

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  • 47. 

    Children learn who they are and what that means in their culture through interactions with parents, teachers, and friends. Through this they learn gender roles for men and women and may internalize them. Which theory does this definition best describe?

    Correct Answer
    social learning theory
    Explanation
    The given definition best describes the social learning theory because it emphasizes the role of interactions with parents, teachers, and friends in the process of children learning about their identity and cultural norms, including gender roles. Social learning theory suggests that individuals learn by observing and imitating others, and through reinforcement and punishment. In this case, children observe and imitate the behaviors and attitudes of those around them, including their parents, teachers, and friends, which shapes their understanding of who they are and what is expected of them in their culture.

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  • 48. 

    Rachel was born with ovaries and a penis, what term describes rachel as a person with biological properties of a male and female?

    Correct Answer
    intersex
    Explanation
    The term "intersex" is used to describe individuals who are born with biological characteristics of both male and female. In Rachel's case, being born with ovaries and a penis indicates that she possesses both male and female reproductive organs. This condition is known as intersex, which is a natural variation in human biology. Intersex individuals may have a combination of chromosomal, hormonal, and anatomical differences that do not fit typical definitions of male or female.

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  • 49. 

    In the Martin article during the process of bodily instruction womens bodies are thought to be sights of:

    Correct Answer
    anxiety and tentativeness
    Explanation
    The Martin article suggests that during the process of bodily instruction, women's bodies are believed to be sites of anxiety and tentativeness. This implies that there is a societal expectation for women to be unsure and anxious about their bodies, possibly due to the pressure to conform to certain beauty standards or societal norms. This perception may contribute to women feeling insecure or self-conscious about their bodies, which can have negative effects on their overall well-being.

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  • 50. 

    Feminist standpoint theory developed out of marxist theorizing:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Feminist standpoint theory emerged from Marxist theorizing because both theories share a similar understanding of power dynamics and social inequality. Marxist theory focuses on class struggle and the exploitation of the working class, while feminist standpoint theory examines how gender shapes knowledge and experiences. Both theories aim to challenge dominant ideologies and highlight the perspectives of marginalized groups. Feminist standpoint theory builds upon Marxist ideas by incorporating a gendered lens and emphasizing the importance of women's experiences in understanding social structures. Therefore, it is true that feminist standpoint theory developed out of Marxist theorizing.

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  • Jul 25, 2023
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