Week 232 Dopamine (And Movement/Parkinsons Disease)

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Week 232 Dopamine (And Movement/Parkinsons Disease) - Quiz

To link the neurobiology of dopamine to its roles in both health and disease states


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The dopamine-producing region of the brain which dies in Parkinsons disease is called the

    • A.

      Amygdala

    • B.

      Basal nucleus of Meynert

    • C.

      Locus Coeruleus

    • D.

      Raphe Nucleus

    • E.

      Substantia Nigra

    • F.

      Medical malpractice

    • G.

      Depersonalization

    • H.

      The Hippocratic oath

    • I.

      Reverse psychology

    • J.

      A vicious circle

    Correct Answer(s)
    E. Substantia Nigra
    G. Depersonalization
    Explanation
    The substantia nigra is the correct answer because it is the region of the brain that produces dopamine and is known to degenerate in Parkinson's disease. Depersonalization, medical malpractice, the Hippocratic oath, reverse psychology, and a vicious circle are unrelated terms and do not pertain to the question.

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  • 2. 

    Dopamine regulates movement principally through projections from the substantia nigra to the

    • A.

      Dorsal Striatum

    • B.

      Globus Pallidus

    • C.

      Motor Cortex

    • D.

      Subthalamic Nucleus

    • E.

      Ventral Striatum

    Correct Answer
    A. Dorsal Striatum
    Explanation
    Dopamine regulates movement primarily through its projections from the substantia nigra to the dorsal striatum. The dorsal striatum is involved in the control of voluntary movements and is a key component of the basal ganglia circuitry. Dopamine released in the dorsal striatum modulates the activity of medium spiny neurons, which in turn influence the output from the basal ganglia to the motor cortex. This modulation of activity in the dorsal striatum by dopamine is crucial for the coordination and execution of movements.

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  • 3. 

    The striatum, globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus are all part of the

    • A.

      Basal Ganglia

    • B.

      Brainstem

    • C.

      Cranial nerves

    • D.

      Hypothalamus

    • E.

      Thalamus

    Correct Answer
    A. Basal Ganglia
    Explanation
    The striatum, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus are all structures that are part of the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei located deep within the brain that play a role in motor control, cognition, and emotion. They are involved in initiating and coordinating movements, as well as regulating muscle tone. Dysfunction of the basal ganglia can lead to movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or Huntington's disease. Therefore, the correct answer is Basal Ganglia.

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  • 4. 

    The substantia nigra is so named, and clearly visible on brain sections, because it

    • A.

      Is black

    • B.

      Is located outside of the four major lobes and looks like a 'little brain'

    • C.

      Is shaped like a seahorse

    • D.

      Is the major white matter structure linking the two hemispheres

    • E.

      Is very highly folded

    Correct Answer
    A. Is black
    Explanation
    The substantia nigra is named so because it is black in color. This is due to the presence of melanin, a pigment that gives it a dark appearance.

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  • 5. 

    Dopamine is broken down by

    • A.

      Acetylcholinesterase

    • B.

      Cyclooxygenase

    • C.

      Dopa decarboxylase

    • D.

      Dopaminase

    • E.

      Monoamine oxidase

    Correct Answer
    E. Monoamine oxidase
    Explanation
    Dopamine is broken down by the enzyme Monoamine oxidase. Monoamine oxidase is responsible for the breakdown of various monoamine neurotransmitters, including dopamine, in the brain. This enzyme plays a crucial role in regulating the levels of dopamine, ensuring that it is not excessively accumulated in the synaptic cleft. Dysfunction of Monoamine oxidase can lead to abnormal dopamine levels, which is associated with various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and depression.

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  • 6. 

    L-DOPA is converted into dopamine by

    • A.

      Acetylcholinesterase

    • B.

      Cyclooxygenase

    • C.

      Dopa decarboxylase

    • D.

      Dopaminase

    • E.

      Monoamine oxidase

    Correct Answer
    C. Dopa decarboxylase
    Explanation
    Dopa decarboxylase is responsible for converting L-DOPA into dopamine. This enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-DOPA, removing a carboxyl group and resulting in the formation of dopamine. Acetylcholinesterase is not involved in this conversion process, as it is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Cyclooxygenase is an enzyme involved in the production of prostaglandins, not the conversion of L-DOPA. Dopaminase is not a known enzyme, and monoamine oxidase is responsible for the breakdown of dopamine, not its synthesis. Therefore, the correct answer is Dopa decarboxylase.

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  • 7. 

    Patients with Parkinsons disease suffer from a lack of dopamine

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Patients with Parkinson's disease suffer from a lack of dopamine. This is because Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the dopamine-producing cells in the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in regulating movement, mood, and cognition. The loss of dopamine in the brain leads to the characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with movement. Therefore, the statement "Patients with Parkinson's disease suffer from a lack of dopamine" is true.

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  • 8. 

    Carbidopa is a

    • A.

      Dopa decarboxylase inhibitor

    • B.

      Dopamine receptor agonist

    • C.

      Dopamine reuptake inhibitor

    • D.

      Monoamine oxidase inhibitor

    • E.

      Stimulator of dopamine release

    Correct Answer
    A. Dopa decarboxylase inhibitor
    Explanation
    Carbidopa is a dopa decarboxylase inhibitor. Dopa decarboxylase is an enzyme that converts levodopa (L-dopa) into dopamine. Carbidopa inhibits this enzyme, preventing the conversion of L-dopa to dopamine outside the brain. By doing so, it increases the amount of L-dopa that reaches the brain, where it can be converted into dopamine and help alleviate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Carbidopa is commonly used in combination with L-dopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease to enhance its effectiveness and reduce side effects.

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  • 9. 

    A dopa decaroxylase inhibitor (such as Carbidopa), which inhibits the conversion of L-DOPA into dopamine, should not be given to patients with Parkinsons disease

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Dopamine has roles thoughout the body. Both Carbidopa and L-DOPA are given systemically. Carbidopa does not cross the blood-brain barrier. L-DOPA does cross the blood brain barrier. Therefore Carbidopa inhibits the conversion of L-DOPA into dopamine in the periphery and so increases the concentration of L-DOPA which reaches the brain

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  • 10. 

    Selegiline is a

    • A.

      Dopa decarboxylase inhibitor

    • B.

      Dopamine receptor agonist

    • C.

      Dopamine reuptake inhibitor

    • D.

      Monoamine oxidase inhibitor

    • E.

      Stimulator of dopamine release

    Correct Answer
    D. Monoamine oxidase inhibitor
    Explanation
    Selegiline is classified as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors work by inhibiting the enzyme monoamine oxidase, which is responsible for breaking down neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. By inhibiting this enzyme, selegiline increases the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, particularly dopamine. This can help alleviate symptoms of certain conditions such as depression and Parkinson's disease, which are associated with low levels of dopamine.

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  • 11. 

    Entacapone is a

    • A.

      Dopa decarboxylase agonist

    • B.

      Catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor

    • C.

      Dopamine receptor antagonist

    • D.

      Monoamine oxidase agonist

    • E.

      Stimulator of dopamine breakdown

    • F.

      Cruelty

    • G.

      Assiduity

    • H.

      Determination

    • I.

      Delusions of grandeur

    • J.

      Work ethic

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor
    H. Determination
    Explanation
    Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) is another enzyme which breaks down dopamine, thus inhibition of this enzyme will boost dopamine levels

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  • 12. 

    Ropinirole is a

    • A.

      Dopa decarboxylase inhibitor

    • B.

      Dopamine receptor agonist

    • C.

      Dopamine reuptake inhibitor

    • D.

      Monoamine oxidase inhibitor

    • E.

      Stimulator of dopamine release

    Correct Answer
    B. Dopamine receptor agonist
    Explanation
    Ropinirole is classified as a dopamine receptor agonist because it acts on dopamine receptors in the brain, specifically the D2 and D3 receptors. By binding to these receptors, ropinirole mimics the effects of dopamine and helps to stimulate dopamine activity in the brain. This can be beneficial in treating conditions such as Parkinson's disease, restless legs syndrome, and other movement disorders.

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  • 13. 

    Pramipexole is a

    • A.

      Dopa decarboxylase inhibitor

    • B.

      Dopamine receptor agonist

    • C.

      Dopamine reuptake inhibitor

    • D.

      Monoamine oxidase inhibitor

    • E.

      Stimulator of dopamine release

    Correct Answer
    B. Dopamine receptor agonist
    Explanation
    Pramipexole is classified as a dopamine receptor agonist because it activates dopamine receptors in the brain. This means that it mimics the effects of dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in regulating movement and emotions. By stimulating dopamine receptors, pramipexole helps to improve symptoms of Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, conditions characterized by dopamine deficiency. It does not inhibit the enzymes involved in dopamine synthesis or reuptake, nor does it inhibit monoamine oxidase, which breaks down dopamine. Instead, it directly interacts with dopamine receptors to produce its therapeutic effects.

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  • 14. 

    Possible side effects of dopamine agonists such as ropinirole and prampipexole include (tick all that apply)

    • A.

      Constipation

    • B.

      Hallucinations

    • C.

      Hypersexuality

    • D.

      Nausea

    • E.

      Pathological gambling

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Constipation
    B. Hallucinations
    C. Hypersexuality
    D. Nausea
    E. Pathological gambling
    Explanation
    Dopamine agonists such as ropinirole and pramipexole can have various side effects. Constipation is a possible side effect as these medications can affect the gastrointestinal system. Hallucinations can occur as dopamine plays a role in regulating perception and cognition. Hypersexuality may be a side effect as dopamine is involved in the reward system and can affect sexual behavior. Nausea can occur as dopamine agonists can affect the digestive system. Pathological gambling can also be a side effect as dopamine is involved in the brain's reward system and can affect impulse control.

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  • 15. 

    Metoclopramide is primarily used as an

    • A.

      Anticoagulant

    • B.

      Antidepressant

    • C.

      Antiemetic

    • D.

      Antihistamine

    • E.

      Antipsychotic

    Correct Answer
    C. Antiemetic
    Explanation
    Metoclopramide is primarily used as an antiemetic. This means that it is used to prevent or treat nausea and vomiting. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce nausea and increase the movement of food through the stomach. Metoclopramide is commonly used in conditions such as chemotherapy-induced nausea, postoperative nausea, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. It is not used as an anticoagulant, antidepressant, antihistamine, or antipsychotic.

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  • 16. 

    Haloperidol is primarily used as an

    • A.

      Anticoagulant

    • B.

      Antidepressant

    • C.

      Antiemetic

    • D.

      Antihistamine

    • E.

      Antipsychotic

    • F.

      A spiritual awakening

    • G.

      Crippling remorse

    • H.

      Mixed emotions

    • I.

      False dilemm

    • J.

      Homesickness

    Correct Answer(s)
    E. Antipsychotic
    H. Mixed emotions
    Explanation
    Haloperidol is primarily used as an antipsychotic medication. It is commonly prescribed to treat symptoms of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. The medication works by blocking the effects of dopamine in the brain, which helps to reduce hallucinations, delusions, and other symptoms associated with psychosis. "Mixed emotions" is not a correct answer choice for the question.

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  • 17. 

    The use of haloperidol and metoclopramide in Parkinsons disease is potentially problematic because they

    • A.

      Block dopamine receptors

    • B.

      Block dopamine reuptake

    • C.

      Block dopamine synthesis

    • D.

      Stimulate dopamine receptors

    • E.

      Stimulate dopamine breakdown

    Correct Answer
    A. Block dopamine receptors
    Explanation
    The use of haloperidol and metoclopramide in Parkinson's disease is potentially problematic because they block dopamine receptors. Parkinson's disease is characterized by a deficiency of dopamine in the brain, leading to motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia. Medications that block dopamine receptors further reduce the availability of dopamine, worsening these symptoms. Therefore, using haloperidol and metoclopramide, which block dopamine receptors, can be counterproductive in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

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  • 18. 

    The clinical potency of 'typical' antipsychotics shows good correlation with their ability to

    • A.

      Block dopamine release

    • B.

      Block dopamine D1 receptors

    • C.

      Block dopamine D2 receptors

    • D.

      Stimulate dopamine breakdown

    • E.

      Stimulate dopamine reuptake

    Correct Answer
    C. Block dopamine D2 receptors
    Explanation
    The clinical potency of 'typical' antipsychotics shows good correlation with their ability to block dopamine D2 receptors. This suggests that blocking these receptors is an important mechanism of action for these medications in treating psychosis. By blocking dopamine D2 receptors, these antipsychotics can help to reduce the overactivity of dopamine in the brain, which is believed to contribute to the symptoms of psychosis.

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  • 19. 

    Dyskinesia is best described as

    • A.

      Awareness of position and movement

    • B.

      Excessive, abnormal, random fidgety movements

    • C.

      Rhythmic oscillatory movement

    • D.

      Slow or sustained abnormal movement of limb

    • E.

      Stereotyped brief movement

    Correct Answer
    B. Excessive, abnormal, random fidgety movements
    Explanation
    Dyskinesia is characterized by excessive, abnormal, and random fidgety movements. This means that individuals with dyskinesia experience involuntary movements that are not purposeful or controlled. These movements can be jerky, twitchy, or spasmodic in nature, and they often occur unpredictably. This description of dyskinesia aligns with the symptoms commonly observed in conditions such as Parkinson's disease or tardive dyskinesia, where individuals may exhibit uncontrollable movements that can be disruptive to their daily activities.

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  • 20. 

    Dopamine hydrochloride administered via the intravenous route does not cross the blood-brain barrier

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This is the reason why L-DOPA is used to treat Parkinsons disease instead of directly giving dopamine. It is means that IV administration dopamine can/may be used to treat certain peripheral conditions (heart failure, shock) since dopamine has a number of roles outside the central nervous system.

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