Chapter 51: Animal Behavior

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Chapter 51: Animal Behavior - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    During a field trip, an instructor touched a moth resting on a tree trunk. The moth raised its forewings to reveal large eyespots on its hind wings. The instructor asked by the moth lifted its wings. One student answered that sensory receptors had fired and triggered a neuronal reflex culminating in the contraction of certain muscles. A second student responded that the behavior might frighten predators. Which statement best describes these explanations?

    • A.

      The first explanation is correct, but the second is incorrect

    • B.

      The first explanation refers to proximate causation, whereas the second refers to ultimate causation

    • C.

      The first explanation is biological, whereas the second is philosophical

    • D.

      The first explanation is testable as a scientific hypothesis, whereas the second is not

    • E.

      Both explanations are reasonable and simply represent a difference of opinion

    Correct Answer
    B. The first explanation refers to proximate causation, whereas the second refers to ultimate causation
    Explanation
    The first explanation refers to proximate causation, which is the immediate cause of a behavior or physiological response. It explains the specific mechanisms and processes involved in the behavior. The second explanation, on the other hand, refers to ultimate causation, which is the evolutionary reason or function behind a behavior. It explains why the behavior evolved and how it benefits the organism in terms of survival and reproduction. Therefore, the statement "the first explanation refers to proximate causation, whereas the second refers to ultimate causation" best describes these explanations.

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  • 2. 

    A female cat in heat urinates more often and in many places. Male cats congregate near the urine deposits and fight with each other. Which of the following is a proximate cause of this behavior of increased urination?

    • A.

      It announces to the males that she is in heat

    • B.

      Female cats that did this in the past attracted more males

    • C.

      It is a result of hormonal changes associated with her reproductive cycle

    • D.

      The female cat learned the behavior from observing other cats

    Correct Answer
    C. It is a result of hormonal changes associated with her reproductive cycle
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that increased urination in a female cat in heat is a result of hormonal changes associated with her reproductive cycle. During the heat cycle, the female cat's body releases hormones that stimulate the production of urine. This increased urination serves as a way for the female cat to mark her territory and communicate her availability to potential mates. The hormonal changes trigger this behavior, which is a natural and instinctive response during the reproductive cycle of a female cat.

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  • 3. 

    A female cat in heat urinates more often and in many places. Male cats congregate near the urine deposits and fight with each other. Which of the following would be an ultimate cause of the male cats' response to the female's urinating behavior?

    • A.

      The males have learned to recognize the specific odor of the urine of a female in heat

    • B.

      When the males smelled the odor, various neurons in their brains were stimulated

    • C.

      Male cats respond to the odor because it is a means of locating females in heat

    • D.

      Male cats' hormones are triggered by the odor released by the female

    • E.

      The odor serves as a releaser for the instinctive behavior of the males

    Correct Answer
    C. Male cats respond to the odor because it is a means of locating females in heat
    Explanation
    Male cats respond to the odor because it is a means of locating females in heat. This is the ultimate cause of their response because the odor acts as a signal for the males to identify and locate potential mates. By responding to the scent, the males increase their chances of finding a female in heat and reproducing. This behavior is driven by the natural instinct of male cats to seek out and mate with receptive females.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is a behavioral pattern that results from a proximate cause?

    • A.

      A cat kills a mouse to obtain food

    • B.

      A male sheep fights with another male because it helps it to improve its social position and find a mate

    • C.

      A female bird lays its eggs because the amount of daylight is decreasing slightly each day

    • D.

      A goose squats and freezes motionless because that behavior helps it to escape a predator

    • E.

      A cockroach runs into a crack in the wall and avoids being stepped on

    Correct Answer
    C. A female bird lays its eggs because the amount of daylight is decreasing slightly each day
    Explanation
    A female bird laying its eggs because the amount of daylight is decreasing slightly each day is a behavioral pattern that results from a proximate cause. This behavior is influenced by the changing amount of daylight, which serves as a cue for the bird to initiate egg-laying. The proximate cause in this case is the specific environmental cue of decreasing daylight, which triggers the bird's reproductive behavior.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is a behavioral pattern resulting from an ultimate cause?

    • A.

      A male robin attacks a red tennis ball because it resembles the breast of another male

    • B.

      A male robin attacks a red tennis ball because hormonal changes in spring increase its aggression

    • C.

      A male robin attacks a red tennis ball because a part of its brain is stimulated by red objects

    • D.

      A male robin attacks a red tennis ball because several times in the past red tennis balls have been thrown at it, and it has learned that they are dangerous

    • E.

      A male robin attacks a red tennis ball because it confuses it with an encroaching male who will steal its territory

    Correct Answer
    E. A male robin attacks a red tennis ball because it confuses it with an encroaching male who will steal its territory
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a male robin attacks a red tennis ball because it confuses it with an encroaching male who will steal its territory. This is a behavioral pattern resulting from an ultimate cause because the male robin's instinct to defend its territory and protect its breeding site is triggered by the presence of a perceived threat, which in this case is the red tennis ball. The confusion arises because the robin mistakes the ball for another male robin, leading to the aggressive behavior.

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  • 6. 

    The proximate causes of behavior are interactions with the environment, but behavior is ultimately shaped by

    • A.

      Hormones

    • B.

      Evolution

    • C.

      Sexuality

    • D.

      Pheromones

    • E.

      The nervous system

    Correct Answer
    B. Evolution
    Explanation
    Behavior is ultimately shaped by evolution because it refers to the process of natural selection acting on behaviors over generations. Evolutionary processes have led to the development of certain behaviors that have proven to be advantageous for survival and reproduction. These behaviors are passed down through genes, allowing individuals with these behaviors to have a higher chance of passing on their genes to the next generation. Therefore, evolution plays a crucial role in shaping behavior by selecting for traits that enhance an organism's fitness in its environment.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following group of scientists is closely associated with ethology?

    • A.

      Watson, Crick, and Franklin

    • B.

      McClintock, Goodall, and Lyon

    • C.

      Fossey, Hershey, and Chase

    • D.

      Von Frisch, Lorenz, and Tinbergen

    • E.

      Hardy, Weinberg, and Castle

    Correct Answer
    D. Von Frisch, Lorenz, and Tinbergen
    Explanation
    The group of scientists closely associated with ethology is von Frisch, Lorenz, and Tinbergen. Ethology is the scientific study of animal behavior, and these three scientists made significant contributions to this field. Karl von Frisch is known for his research on honeybee communication and the waggle dance. Konrad Lorenz is famous for his work on imprinting and ethological studies of geese and other animals. Nikolaas Tinbergen is known for his research on instinctive behavior and the study of animal behavior in natural settings. Together, these scientists have greatly advanced our understanding of animal behavior and the field of ethology.

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  • 8. 

    In the territorial behavior of the stickleback fish, the red belly of one male elicits attack from another male by functioning as

    • A.

      A pheromone

    • B.

      A sign stimulus

    • C.

      A fixed action pattern

    • D.

      A search image

    • E.

      An imprint stimulus

    Correct Answer
    B. A sign stimulus
    Explanation
    In the territorial behavior of stickleback fish, the red belly of one male elicits an attack from another male by functioning as a sign stimulus. A sign stimulus is a specific cue or signal that triggers a particular behavior in another animal. In this case, the red belly acts as a visual signal that communicates aggression or territoriality to other males, prompting them to attack. This behavior is a result of the innate response to the sign stimulus, rather than being learned or conditioned.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following statements is(are) true of fixed action patterns?

    • A.

      They are highly stereotyped, instinctive behaviors

    • B.

      They are triggered by sign stimuli in the environment and, once begun, are continued to completion

    • C.

      An inappropriate stimulus can sometimes trigger them

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. They are highly stereotyped, instinctive behaviors
    B. They are triggered by sign stimuli in the environment and, once begun, are continued to completion
    C. An inappropriate stimulus can sometimes trigger them
    Explanation
    Fixed action patterns are highly stereotyped, instinctive behaviors that are triggered by sign stimuli in the environment. Once these behaviors are initiated, they are carried out to completion. It is also true that an inappropriate stimulus can sometimes trigger fixed action patterns.

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  • 10. 

    Animal communication involves what type of sensory information?

    • A.

      Visual

    • B.

      Auditory

    • C.

      Chemical

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Visual
    B. Auditory
    C. Chemical
    Explanation
    Animal communication involves the use of visual, auditory, and chemical sensory information. Visual communication includes the use of body language, facial expressions, and coloration to convey messages. Auditory communication involves the use of sounds, such as vocalizations or calls, to communicate with other animals. Chemical communication involves the use of pheromones or chemical signals to communicate information about reproductive status, territory, or danger. These three types of sensory information are essential for animals to communicate effectively with each other in their natural environments.

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  • 11. 

    What type of signal is long-lasting and works at night?

    • A.

      Olfactory

    • B.

      Visual

    • C.

      Auditory

    • D.

      Tactile

    • E.

      Electrical

    Correct Answer
    A. Olfactory
    Explanation
    Olfactory refers to the sense of smell. Smell signals, or olfactory signals, can be long-lasting as certain scents can linger in the environment for extended periods of time. Additionally, smell can be perceived at night as it does not rely on visual cues or light. Therefore, olfactory signals can be considered long-lasting and effective during nighttime.

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  • 12. 

    What type of signal is brief and can work at night or among obstructions?

    • A.

      Olfactory

    • B.

      Visual

    • C.

      Auditory

    • D.

      Tactile

    • E.

      Electrical

    Correct Answer
    C. Auditory
    Explanation
    An auditory signal is a type of signal that can work at night or among obstructions. Auditory signals refer to sounds or noises that can be heard by the human ear. Unlike visual signals, which rely on light and may be hindered by darkness or obstructions, auditory signals can penetrate through darkness and obstructions, making them effective in such situations. Therefore, an auditory signal is the correct answer in this context.

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  • 13. 

    What type of signal is fast and requires daylight with no obstructions

    • A.

      Olfactory

    • B.

      Visual

    • C.

      Auditory

    • D.

      Tactile

    • E.

      Electrical

    Correct Answer
    B. Visual
    Explanation
    A visual signal is fast and requires daylight with no obstructions because it relies on the sense of sight. Visual signals can be quickly processed by the brain and are most effective when there is ample light and no obstacles blocking the line of sight.

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  • 14. 

    A chemical produced by an animal that serves as a communication to another animal of the same species is called

    • A.

      A marker

    • B.

      An inducer

    • C.

      A pheromone

    • D.

      An imprinter

    • E.

      An agonistic chemical

    Correct Answer
    C. A pheromone
    Explanation
    A chemical produced by an animal that serves as a communication to another animal of the same species is called a pheromone. Pheromones are chemical signals that are released into the environment and are used for various purposes such as attracting mates, marking territories, or signaling danger. They play a crucial role in communication and social behavior among animals of the same species.

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  • 15. 

    Which scientist formulated four questions that motivate the modern study of animal behavior?

    • A.

      E.O. Wilson

    • B.

      Jane Goodall

    • C.

      J.B.S. Haldane

    • D.

      Niko Tinbergen

    • E.

      William Hamilton

    Correct Answer
    D. Niko Tinbergen
    Explanation
    Niko Tinbergen formulated four questions that motivate the modern study of animal behavior. These questions include understanding the causation, development, function, and evolution of behavior. Tinbergen's work has been influential in the field of ethology and has provided a framework for investigating and understanding animal behavior.

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  • 16. 

    Which scientist determined that digger wasps used landmarks to locate nest entrances?

    • A.

      Karl von Frisch

    • B.

      Niko Tinbergen

    • C.

      Konrad Lorenz

    • D.

      William Hamilton

    • E.

      Ivan Pavlov

    Correct Answer
    B. Niko Tinbergen
    Explanation
    Niko Tinbergen determined that digger wasps used landmarks to locate nest entrances.

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  • 17. 

    Which scientist studied imprinting of greylag geese?

    • A.

      Karl von Frisch

    • B.

      Niko Tinbergen

    • C.

      Konrad Lorenz

    • D.

      William Hamilton

    • E.

      Ivan Pavlov

    Correct Answer
    C. Konrad Lorenz
    Explanation
    Konrad Lorenz is the correct answer because he was a scientist who extensively studied the phenomenon of imprinting in greylag geese. Imprinting refers to the process by which young animals develop a strong attachment to their caregiver or a specific object during a critical period early in their life. Lorenz conducted experiments and observations on greylag geese, which led to significant insights into the mechanisms and effects of imprinting. His work in this field earned him a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973.

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  • 18. 

    A cage containing male mosquitos has a small earphone placed on top, through which the sound of a female mosquito is played. All the males immediately fly to the earphone and thrust their abdomen through the fabric of the cage. What is the best explanation for this behavior?

    • A.

      The males learn to associate the sound with females.

    • B.

      Copulation is a fixed action pattern, and the female flight sound is a sign stimulus that initiates it.

    • C.

      The sound from the earphone irritates the male mosquitoes, causing them to attempt to sting it.

    • D.

      The reproductive drive is so strong that when males are deprived of females, they will attempt to mate with anything that has even the slightest female characteristic.

    • E.

      Through classical conditioning, the male mosquitoes have associated the inappropriate stimulus from the earphone with the normal response of copulation

    Correct Answer
    B. Copulation is a fixed action pattern, and the female flight sound is a sign stimulus that initiates it.
    Explanation
    The behavior of male mosquitoes flying to the earphone and thrusting their abdomen through the fabric of the cage can be best explained by the fact that copulation is a fixed action pattern, and the female flight sound serves as a sign stimulus that triggers this behavior. This means that the male mosquitoes have an innate response to the specific stimulus of the female flight sound, which initiates their mating behavior. This behavior is not a result of irritation or confusion, but rather a natural and instinctive response to the sign stimulus.

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  • 19. 

    If mayflies lay eggs on roads instead of in water, this behavior could involve which of the following?

    • A.

      A defective gene

    • B.

      Trail-and-error learning

    • C.

      Misdirected response to a sign stimulus

    • D.

      Natural behavioral variation in the mayfly population

    • E.

      Insecticide poisoning

    Correct Answer
    C. Misdirected response to a sign stimulus
    Explanation
    Mayflies typically lay their eggs in water, so if they were to lay their eggs on roads instead, it suggests a misdirected response to a sign stimulus. The sign stimulus for mayflies to lay eggs is likely something present in water, such as the presence of certain chemicals or the reflection of light. The mayflies are mistakenly responding to a similar sign stimulus on roads, leading to the misplacement of their eggs. This behavior could be a result of their innate instincts being triggered by the wrong environmental cues.

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  • 20. 

    The time during imprinting when specific behaviors can be learned is called the

    • A.

      Window of imprinting

    • B.

      Major period

    • C.

      Sensitive period

    • D.

      Timing imprint

    • E.

      Significant window

    Correct Answer
    C. Sensitive period
    Explanation
    The time during imprinting when specific behaviors can be learned is called the sensitive period. This period is a critical phase in an animal's development where it is most receptive to learning and forming attachments. During this time, the animal is highly sensitive to environmental stimuli and can quickly acquire and retain certain behaviors or characteristics. It is a crucial period for imprinting, as the animal's brain is more plastic and adaptable, allowing for the formation of strong bonds and the acquisition of important skills.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is true about imprinting?

    • A.

      It may be triggered by visual or chemical stimuli

    • B.

      It happens to many adult animals, but not to their young

    • C.

      It is a type of learning that does not involve innate behavior

    • D.

      It occurs only in birds

    • E.

      It causes behaviors that last for only a short time (the sensitive period)

    Correct Answer
    A. It may be triggered by visual or chemical stimuli
    Explanation
    Imprinting is a type of learning that occurs during a sensitive period and involves the formation of strong bonds between an animal and its caregiver or a specific object. It can be triggered by visual or chemical stimuli, such as the sight or smell of the caregiver. This process is not limited to birds and can occur in various species. Imprinting is an important adaptive behavior that helps animals recognize and bond with their parents or caregivers, ensuring their survival and social development.

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  • 22. 

    A type of learning that can occur only during a brief period of early life and results in a behavior that is difficult to modify through later experiences is called

    • A.

      Insight

    • B.

      Imprinting

    • C.

      Habituation

    • D.

      Operant conditioning

    • E.

      Trial-and-error learning

    Correct Answer
    B. Imprinting
    Explanation
    Imprinting is a type of learning that occurs during a critical period early in an organism's life and results in a behavior that is difficult to change later on. This process involves forming a strong and lasting attachment to a specific object or individual, typically the mother or caregiver. Imprinting is important for the survival and development of many species, as it helps young animals recognize and bond with their parents, learn important skills, and navigate their environment. Once imprinting occurs, it is challenging to modify or reverse the learned behavior through later experiences.

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  • 23. 

    Sow bugs become more active in dry areas and less active in humid areas. This is an example of

    • A.

      Taxis

    • B.

      Tropism

    • C.

      Kinesis

    • D.

      Cognition

    • E.

      Net reflex

    Correct Answer
    C. Kinesis
    Explanation
    Kinesis is a type of movement response exhibited by organisms in response to a stimulus, where the speed or rate of movement is influenced by the intensity of the stimulus. In this case, sow bugs becoming more active in dry areas and less active in humid areas indicates that their movement is influenced by the moisture level in the environment. This aligns with the concept of kinesis, as their activity level is changing in response to the stimulus of humidity.

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  • 24. 

    You turn on a light and observe cockroaches scurrying to dark hiding places. What have you observed?

    • A.

      Taxis

    • B.

      Learned behavior

    • C.

      Migration

    • D.

      Visual communication

    • E.

      Operant conditioning

    Correct Answer
    A. Taxis
    Explanation
    The observation of cockroaches scurrying to dark hiding places after turning on a light suggests the concept of taxis. Taxis refers to the movement of an organism in response to a stimulus, in this case, light. The cockroaches' movement towards dark hiding places indicates a negative phototaxis, where they are moving away from the light source. This behavior is instinctive and helps the cockroaches find shelter and safety.

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  • 25. 

    Loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no new information is called

    • A.

      Adapting

    • B.

      Spacing

    • C.

      Conditioning

    • D.

      Imprinting

    • E.

      Habituation

    Correct Answer
    E. Habituation
    Explanation
    Habituation refers to the loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no new information. It occurs when an organism becomes accustomed to a repeated or constant stimulus and no longer responds to it. This process allows organisms to filter out irrelevant or unimportant stimuli, conserving their attention and energy for more significant stimuli. Therefore, habituation is the correct answer in this case.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following could be classified as habituation?

    • A.

      You enter a room and hear a fan motor. After a period of time, you are no longer aware of the motor's noise.

    • B.

      You hear a horn while driving your car. You step on the brakes but notice the sound came from a side street. You resume your previous speed.

    • C.

      One morning you awake to a beep-beep-beep from a garbage truck working on a new early morning schedule. The next week the garbage truck arrives at the same time and makes the same noise, but does not wake you up.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. You enter a room and hear a fan motor. After a period of time, you are no longer aware of the motor's noise.
    C. One morning you awake to a beep-beep-beep from a garbage truck working on a new early morning schedule. The next week the garbage truck arrives at the same time and makes the same noise, but does not wake you up.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the first and third scenarios. Habituation refers to the process of becoming accustomed to a stimulus over time, resulting in a decreased response or awareness of that stimulus. In the first scenario, the individual becomes habituated to the fan motor noise in the room and is no longer aware of it. Similarly, in the third scenario, the person habituates to the noise of the garbage truck and it no longer wakes them up. In the second scenario, there is no mention of habituation as the individual's response to the horn sound is to step on the brakes, indicating a heightened awareness rather than habituation.

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  • 27. 

    Learning in which an associated stimulus may be used to elicit the same behavioral response as the original sign stimulus is called

    • A.

      Concept formation

    • B.

      Trial-and-error

    • C.

      Classical conditioning

    • D.

      Operant conditioning

    • E.

      Habituation

    Correct Answer
    C. Classical conditioning
    Explanation
    Classical conditioning is a type of learning where an associated stimulus can be used to elicit the same behavioral response as the original sign stimulus. This means that through repeated pairings of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that can elicit a conditioned response. This type of learning was famously demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov's experiments with dogs, where he conditioned them to salivate at the sound of a bell by repeatedly pairing the bell with food.

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  • 28. 

    Every morning at the same time, John went into the den to feed his new tropical fish. After a few weeks, he noticed that the fish swam to the top of the tank when he entered the room. This is an example of

    • A.

      Habituation

    • B.

      Imprinting

    • C.

      Classical conditioning

    • D.

      Operant conditioning

    • E.

      Maturaiton

    Correct Answer
    C. Classical conditioning
    Explanation
    This scenario demonstrates classical conditioning because the fish have learned to associate John entering the room with being fed. Over time, they have formed a conditioned response, swimming to the top of the tank, in anticipation of being fed. This is a classic example of how a neutral stimulus (John entering the room) becomes associated with a natural response (being fed) through repeated pairings, resulting in a learned behavior.

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  • 29. 

    The type of learning that causes specially trained dogs to salivate when they hear bells is called

    • A.

      Insight

    • B.

      Imprinting

    • C.

      Habituation

    • D.

      Classical conditioning

    • E.

      Trial-and-error learning

    Correct Answer
    D. Classical conditioning
    Explanation
    Classical conditioning is a type of learning where an organism learns to associate a neutral stimulus with a biologically significant stimulus, resulting in a learned response. In this case, the specifically trained dogs have learned to associate the sound of bells with the presentation of food, causing them to salivate when they hear bells alone. This is a classic example of classical conditioning, as the dogs have formed a conditioned response (salivation) to a conditioned stimulus (bells) through repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus (food).

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  • 30. 

    Whicho f the following statements about learning and behavior is incorrect?

    • A.

      Operant conditioning involves associating a behavior with a reward or punishment.

    • B.

      Associative learning involves linking one stimulus with another.

    • C.

      Classical conditioning involves trial-and-error learning

    • D.

      Behavior can be modified by learning, but some apparent learning is due to maturation.

    • E.

      Imprinting is a learned behavior with an innate component acquired during a sensitive period.

    Correct Answer
    C. Classical conditioning involves trial-and-error learning
  • 31. 

    A type of bird similar to a chickadee learns to peck through the cardboard tops of milk bottles left on doorsteps and drink the cream from the top. What term best applies to this behavior?

    • A.

      Sign stimulus

    • B.

      Habituation

    • C.

      Imprinting

    • D.

      Classical conditioning

    • E.

      Operant conditioning

    Correct Answer
    E. Operant conditioning
    Explanation
    Operant conditioning is the best term to describe this behavior because the bird is learning to peck through the cardboard tops of milk bottles and drink the cream based on the consequences of its actions. It is likely that the bird initially discovered this behavior by chance, but it continues to engage in this behavior because it is reinforced by the reward of drinking the cream. Over time, the bird learns that pecking through the cardboard tops of milk bottles leads to a desirable outcome, and this behavior becomes more frequent.

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  • 32. 

    Male insects attempt to mate with orchids but eventually stop responding to them. What term best applies to this behavior?

    • A.

      Sign stimulus

    • B.

      Habituation

    • C.

      Imprinting

    • D.

      Classical conditioning

    • E.

      Operant conditioning

    Correct Answer
    B. Habituation
    Explanation
    Habituation best applies to this behavior because it refers to the process of becoming less responsive to a repeated or irrelevant stimulus over time. In this case, the male insects initially attempt to mate with the orchids but eventually stop responding to them, indicating a decrease in their response to the stimulus of the orchids. This behavior can be explained by habituation, as the insects have become habituated to the orchids and no longer find them relevant or stimulating.

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  • 33. 

    A salmon returns to its home stream to spawn. What term best applies to this behavior?

    • A.

      Sign stimulus

    • B.

      Habituation

    • C.

      Imprinting

    • D.

      Classical conditioning

    • E.

      Operant conditioning

    Correct Answer
    C. Imprinting
    Explanation
    Imprinting refers to a type of learning where an animal forms a strong bond or attachment to its parent or surroundings shortly after birth. In the case of a salmon returning to its home stream to spawn, this behavior can be considered as imprinting because the salmon is instinctively drawn back to its place of birth to reproduce. This behavior is crucial for the survival and reproductive success of the species.

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  • 34. 

    A stickleback fish will attack a fish model as long as  the model has red coloring. What term best applies to this behavior?

    • A.

      Sign stimulus

    • B.

      Habituation

    • C.

      Imprinting

    • D.

      Classical conditioning

    • E.

      Operant conditioning

    Correct Answer
    A. Sign stimulus
    Explanation
    The term that best applies to this behavior is "sign stimulus." A sign stimulus refers to a specific feature or cue in the environment that triggers a particular response or behavior in an organism. In this case, the red coloring of the fish model acts as a sign stimulus that elicits the stickleback fish's aggressive response.

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  • 35. 

    Parental protective behavior in turkeys is triggered by the cheeping sound of young chicks. What term best applies to this behavior?

    • A.

      Sign stimulus

    • B.

      Habituation

    • C.

      Imprinting

    • D.

      Classical conditioning

    • E.

      Operant conditioning

    Correct Answer
    A. Sign stimulus
    Explanation
    The behavior described in the question is known as a sign stimulus. A sign stimulus is a specific sensory cue that triggers a particular behavior in an organism. In this case, the cheeping sound of young chicks serves as the sign stimulus that triggers parental protective behavior in turkeys.

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  • 36. 

    A guinea pig loves the lettuce kept in the refrigerator and squeals each time the refrigerator door opens. What term best applies to this behavior?

    • A.

      Sign stimulus

    • B.

      Habituation

    • C.

      Imprinting

    • D.

      Classical conditioning

    • E.

      Operant conditioning

    Correct Answer
    D. Classical conditioning
    Explanation
    Classical conditioning is the best term to apply to this behavior because the guinea pig has learned to associate the sound of the refrigerator door opening with the lettuce it loves. Over time, the guinea pig has developed a conditioned response of squealing whenever the door opens, even before it sees the lettuce. This is a classic example of how an animal can be conditioned to respond to a specific stimulus through repeated pairings of that stimulus with a reward or punishment.

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  • 37. 

    Sparrows are receptive to learning songs only during a sensitive period. What term best applies to this behavior?

    • A.

      Sign stimulus

    • B.

      Habituation

    • C.

      Imprinting

    • D.

      Classical conditioning

    • E.

      Operant conditioning

    Correct Answer
    C. Imprinting
    Explanation
    Imprinting is the term that best applies to the behavior described in the question. Imprinting refers to a critical period in which certain animals, like sparrows, are most receptive to learning specific behaviors or forming social attachments. During this sensitive period, sparrows are able to learn and memorize songs. This behavior is different from habituation, classical conditioning, and operant conditioning, which involve different types of learning processes. Sign stimulus is also unrelated to the behavior described.

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  • 38. 

    Classical conditioning and operant conditioning differ in that

    • A.

      Classical conditioning takes longer

    • B.

      Operant conditioning usually involves more intelligence

    • C.

      Operant conditioning involves consequences for the animal's behavior

    • D.

      Classical conditioning is restricted to mammals and birds

    • E.

      Classical conditioning is much more useful for training domestic animals

    Correct Answer
    C. Operant conditioning involves consequences for the animal's behavior
    Explanation
    Operant conditioning involves consequences for the animal's behavior. Unlike classical conditioning, which focuses on associating stimuli with a response, operant conditioning emphasizes the consequences that follow a behavior. These consequences can be either positive or negative, such as rewards or punishments, and they shape the likelihood of the behavior occurring again in the future. This means that operant conditioning requires the animal to understand the relationship between its actions and the outcomes they produce, suggesting a higher level of intelligence compared to classical conditioning.

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  • 39. 

    Some dogs love attention, and Frodo the beagle learns that if he barks, he gets attention. Which of the following might you use to describe this behavior?

    • A.

      The dog is displaying an instinctive fixed action pattern

    • B.

      The dog is performing a social behavior

    • C.

      The dog is trying to protect its territory

    • D.

      The dog has been classically conditioned

    • E.

      The dog's behavior is a result of operant conditioning

    Correct Answer
    E. The dog's behavior is a result of operant conditioning
    Explanation
    The dog's behavior is a result of operant conditioning because it has learned that by barking, it receives attention. Operant conditioning is a type of learning where behaviors are strengthened or weakened based on the consequences they bring. In this case, the dog has learned that barking brings the consequence of attention, which reinforces the behavior and increases the likelihood of it happening again in the future.

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  • 40. 

    Among song birds, a "crystallized" song is one that

    • A.

      Is high pitched

    • B.

      Is aimed at attracting mates

    • C.

      Extremely young chicks sing

    • D.

      Is the final song that some species produce

    • E.

      Warns of predators

    Correct Answer
    D. Is the final song that some species produce
    Explanation
    A "crystallized" song refers to the final song that some species of song birds produce. This means that as the bird matures, it learns and develops its song over time, and the "crystallized" song is the fully developed, final version of the song that the bird sings. This is different from other options such as high pitched songs, songs aimed at attracting mates, songs sung by extremely young chicks, or songs that warn of predators, as these options do not specifically refer to the final song produced by some species.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following is least related to the others?

    • A.

      Fixed action pattern

    • B.

      Imprinting

    • C.

      Operant conditioning

    • D.

      Classical conditioning

    • E.

      Habituation

    Correct Answer
    A. Fixed action pattern
    Explanation
    Fixed action pattern is least related to the others because it refers to a sequence of behaviors that are instinctive and stereotyped, triggered by a specific stimulus. In contrast, imprinting, operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and habituation all involve learning processes. Imprinting is a form of learning where an animal forms an attachment to a specific object or individual. Operant conditioning involves learning through consequences and rewards. Classical conditioning involves learning through associations between stimuli. Habituation is a process of learning to ignore repeated or irrelevant stimuli.

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  • 42. 

    Imagine that you are designing an experiment aimed at determining whether the initiation of migratory behavior is largely under genetic control. Of the following options, the best way to proceed is to

    • A.

      Observe genetically distinct populations in the field and see if they have different migratory habits

    • B.

      Perform within-population matings with birds from different populations that have different migratory habits. Do this is the laboratory and see if offspring display parental migratory behavior.

    • C.

      Bring animals into the laboratory and determine the conditions under which they become restless and attempt to migrate

    • D.

      Perform within-population matings with birds from different populations that have different migratory habits. Rear the offspring in the absence of their parents and observe the migratory behavior of offspring

    Correct Answer
    D. Perform within-population matings with birds from different populations that have different migratory habits. Rear the offspring in the absence of their parents and observe the migratory behavior of offspring
    Explanation
    The best way to determine whether the initiation of migratory behavior is largely under genetic control is to perform within-population matings with birds from different populations that have different migratory habits. By rearing the offspring in the absence of their parents and observing their migratory behavior, any differences in migratory habits can be attributed to genetic factors rather than environmental influences. This experimental design allows for the isolation of genetic factors and provides a clearer understanding of the role genetics play in migratory behavior.

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  • 43. 

    One way to understand how early environment influences differing behaviors in similar species is through the "cross-fostering" experimental technique. Suppose that the curly-whiskered mud rat differs from the bald mud rat in several ways, including being much more aggressive. How would you set up a cross-fostering experiment to determine if environment plays a role in the curly-whiskered mud rat's aggression?

    • A.

      You would cross curly-whiskered mud rats and bald mud rats and hand-rear the offspring

    • B.

      You would place newborn curly-whiskered mud rats with bald mud rat parents, place newborn bald mud rats with curly-whiskered mud rat parents, and let some mud rats of both species be raised by their own species. Then compare the outcomes

    • C.

      You would remove the offspring of curly-whiskered mud rats and bald mud rats from their parents are raise them in the same environment

    • D.

      You would see if curly-whiskered mud rats bred true for aggression

    • E.

      None of these schemes describes cross-fostering

    Correct Answer
    C. You would remove the offspring of curly-whiskered mud rats and bald mud rats from their parents are raise them in the same environment
    Explanation
    In order to determine if environment plays a role in the curly-whiskered mud rat's aggression, the most appropriate cross-fostering experiment would be to remove the offspring of curly-whiskered mud rats and bald mud rats from their parents and raise them in the same environment. This would allow for a comparison between the behaviors of the offspring, regardless of their genetic differences, and determine if the environment has an influence on their aggression.

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  • 44. 

    What probably explains why coastal and inland garter snakes react differently to banana slug prey?

    • A.

      Ancestors of costal snakes that could eat the abundant banana slugs had increased fitness. No such selection occurred inland, where banana slugs were absent.

    • B.

      Banana slugs are difficult to see, and inland snakes, which have poor vision compared with coastal snakes, are less able to see them.

    • C.

      Garter snakes learn about prey from other garter snakes. Inland garter snakes have fewer types of prey because they are less social.

    • D.

      Inland slugs are distasteful, so inland snakes learn to avoid them. Coastal banana slugs are not distasteful.

    • E.

      Garter snakes are conditioned to eat what their mother eats. Coastal snake mothers happened to prefer slugs.

    Correct Answer
    A. Ancestors of costal snakes that could eat the abundant banana slugs had increased fitness. No such selection occurred inland, where banana slugs were absent.
    Explanation
    Coastal garter snakes have a higher ability to eat banana slugs because their ancestors who could consume these slugs were more fit and had a higher chance of survival. This selection pressure led to the development of this trait in coastal snakes. Inland garter snakes, on the other hand, did not experience the same selection pressure because banana slugs were not present in their habitat. Therefore, the difference in reaction to banana slug prey between coastal and inland garter snakes can be explained by the absence of selection for this trait in the inland population.

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  • 45. 

    Which statement below about mating behavior is incorrect?

    • A.

      Some aspects of courtship behavior may have evolved from agonistic interactions.

    • B.

      Courtship interactions ensure that the participating individuals are nonthreatening and of the proper species, sex, and physiological condition for mating.

    • C.

      The degree to which evolution affects mating relationships depends on the degree of prenatal and postnatal input the parents are required to make.

    • D.

      The mating relationship in most mammals in monogamous, to ensure the reproductive success of the pair.

    • E.

      Polygamous relationships most often involve a single male and many females, but in some species this is reversed.

    Correct Answer
    D. The mating relationship in most mammals in monogamous, to ensure the reproductive success of the pair.
    Explanation
    The incorrect statement is that the mating relationship in most mammals is monogamous. While monogamy does exist in some mammal species, it is not the predominant mating behavior. Many mammals exhibit polygamous relationships, where one individual mates with multiple partners. This allows for increased genetic diversity and potential reproductive success. Therefore, the statement that most mammals have monogamous mating relationships is incorrect.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is least related to the others?

    • A.

      Agonistic behavior

    • B.

      Cognitive maps

    • C.

      Dominance hierarchy

    • D.

      Ritual

    • E.

      Territory

    Correct Answer
    B. Cognitive maps
    Explanation
    The term "cognitive maps" stands out as being least related to the others because it refers to mental representations of physical spaces and environments, while the other terms are all related to social behavior and interactions. Agonistic behavior refers to aggressive or confrontational behavior, dominance hierarchy relates to the social ranking within a group, ritual refers to a set of actions performed in a specific order, and territory relates to the defense and marking of a specific area.

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following statements about evolution of behavior is correct?

    • A.

      Natural selection will favor behavior that enhances survival and reproduction.

    • B.

      An animal may show behavior that maximizes reproductive fitness.

    • C.

      If a behavior is less than optimal, it is not completely evolved but will eventually become optimal.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Natural selection will favor behavior that enhances survival and reproduction.
    B. An animal may show behavior that maximizes reproductive fitness.
    Explanation
    Behavior is an important aspect of an organism's survival and reproduction. Natural selection favors behaviors that increase an organism's chances of surviving and reproducing, as these behaviors contribute to the passing on of favorable traits to future generations. Additionally, an animal may exhibit behavior that maximizes its reproductive fitness, meaning it engages in behaviors that increase its chances of successfully reproducing and passing on its genes. This can include behaviors such as mate selection, courtship displays, and territorial defense. It is not necessary for behavior to be completely optimal, as it can still be subject to further evolution and refinement over time.

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  • 48. 

    Animals tend to maximize their energy intake-to-expenditure ratio. What is this behavior called?

    • A.

      Agonistic behavior

    • B.

      Optimal foraging

    • C.

      Dominance hierarchies

    • D.

      Animal cognition

    • E.

      Territoriality

    Correct Answer
    B. Optimal foraging
    Explanation
    Optimal foraging is the behavior where animals try to maximize their energy intake-to-expenditure ratio. This means that they seek out the most efficient ways to obtain food while minimizing the energy they need to spend in the process. By selecting the most profitable food sources and using efficient foraging strategies, animals can maximize their energy gain and increase their chances of survival and reproduction.

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  • 49. 

    Feeding behavior with a high energy intake-to-expenditure ratio is called

    • A.

      Herbivory

    • B.

      Autotrophy

    • C.

      Heterotrophy

    • D.

      Search scavenging

    • E.

      Optimal foraging

    Correct Answer
    E. Optimal foraging
    Explanation
    Optimal foraging refers to feeding behavior that maximizes the energy intake-to-expenditure ratio. This means that an organism tries to obtain the maximum amount of energy from its food while minimizing the energy it spends in the process. It involves making strategic decisions about what, when, and how to eat in order to optimize energy gain. This behavior is observed in various organisms, including animals that hunt for prey, gatherers that collect food, and even plants that allocate resources efficiently.

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  • 50. 

    Modern behavioral concepts relate the cost of behavior to its benefit. Under which relationship might a behavior be performed?

    • A.

      Cost is greater than the benefit

    • B.

      Cost is less than the benefit

    • C.

      Cost is equal to the benefit

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Cost is less than the benefit
    C. Cost is equal to the benefit
    Explanation
    In modern behavioral concepts, a behavior is more likely to be performed when the cost associated with it is less than the benefit gained from it. This means that individuals are more inclined to engage in behaviors that offer greater benefits compared to the costs involved. Additionally, behaviors that have equal costs and benefits may also be performed as they do not pose a significant disadvantage.

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