Chapter 51: Animal Behavior

74 Questions | Total Attempts: 593

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Chapter 51: Animal Behavior - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    During a field trip, an instructor touched a moth resting on a tree trunk. The moth raised its forewings to reveal large eyespots on its hind wings. The instructor asked by the moth lifted its wings. One student answered that sensory receptors had fired and triggered a neuronal reflex culminating in the contraction of certain muscles. A second student responded that the behavior might frighten predators. Which statement best describes these explanations?
    • A. 

      The first explanation is correct, but the second is incorrect

    • B. 

      The first explanation refers to proximate causation, whereas the second refers to ultimate causation

    • C. 

      The first explanation is biological, whereas the second is philosophical

    • D. 

      The first explanation is testable as a scientific hypothesis, whereas the second is not

    • E. 

      Both explanations are reasonable and simply represent a difference of opinion

  • 2. 
    A female cat in heat urinates more often and in many places. Male cats congregate near the urine deposits and fight with each other. Which of the following is a proximate cause of this behavior of increased urination?
    • A. 

      It announces to the males that she is in heat

    • B. 

      Female cats that did this in the past attracted more males

    • C. 

      It is a result of hormonal changes associated with her reproductive cycle

    • D. 

      The female cat learned the behavior from observing other cats

  • 3. 
    A female cat in heat urinates more often and in many places. Male cats congregate near the urine deposits and fight with each other. Which of the following would be an ultimate cause of the male cats' response to the female's urinating behavior?
    • A. 

      The males have learned to recognize the specific odor of the urine of a female in heat

    • B. 

      When the males smelled the odor, various neurons in their brains were stimulated

    • C. 

      Male cats respond to the odor because it is a means of locating females in heat

    • D. 

      Male cats' hormones are triggered by the odor released by the female

    • E. 

      The odor serves as a releaser for the instinctive behavior of the males

  • 4. 
    Which of the following is a behavioral pattern that results from a proximate cause?
    • A. 

      A cat kills a mouse to obtain food

    • B. 

      A male sheep fights with another male because it helps it to improve its social position and find a mate

    • C. 

      A female bird lays its eggs because the amount of daylight is decreasing slightly each day

    • D. 

      A goose squats and freezes motionless because that behavior helps it to escape a predator

    • E. 

      A cockroach runs into a crack in the wall and avoids being stepped on

  • 5. 
    Which of the following is a behavioral pattern resulting from an ultimate cause?
    • A. 

      A male robin attacks a red tennis ball because it resembles the breast of another male

    • B. 

      A male robin attacks a red tennis ball because hormonal changes in spring increase its aggression

    • C. 

      A male robin attacks a red tennis ball because a part of its brain is stimulated by red objects

    • D. 

      A male robin attacks a red tennis ball because several times in the past red tennis balls have been thrown at it, and it has learned that they are dangerous

    • E. 

      A male robin attacks a red tennis ball because it confuses it with an encroaching male who will steal its territory

  • 6. 
    The proximate causes of behavior are interactions with the environment, but behavior is ultimately shaped by
    • A. 

      Hormones

    • B. 

      Evolution

    • C. 

      Sexuality

    • D. 

      Pheromones

    • E. 

      The nervous system

  • 7. 
    Which of the following group of scientists is closely associated with ethology?
    • A. 

      Watson, Crick, and Franklin

    • B. 

      McClintock, Goodall, and Lyon

    • C. 

      Fossey, Hershey, and Chase

    • D. 

      Von Frisch, Lorenz, and Tinbergen

    • E. 

      Hardy, Weinberg, and Castle

  • 8. 
    In the territorial behavior of the stickleback fish, the red belly of one male elicits attack from another male by functioning as
    • A. 

      A pheromone

    • B. 

      A sign stimulus

    • C. 

      A fixed action pattern

    • D. 

      A search image

    • E. 

      An imprint stimulus

  • 9. 
    Which of the following statements is(are) true of fixed action patterns?
    • A. 

      They are highly stereotyped, instinctive behaviors

    • B. 

      They are triggered by sign stimuli in the environment and, once begun, are continued to completion

    • C. 

      An inappropriate stimulus can sometimes trigger them

  • 10. 
    Animal communication involves what type of sensory information?
    • A. 

      Visual

    • B. 

      Auditory

    • C. 

      Chemical

  • 11. 
    What type of signal is long-lasting and works at night?
    • A. 

      Olfactory

    • B. 

      Visual

    • C. 

      Auditory

    • D. 

      Tactile

    • E. 

      Electrical

  • 12. 
    What type of signal is brief and can work at night or among obstructions?
    • A. 

      Olfactory

    • B. 

      Visual

    • C. 

      Auditory

    • D. 

      Tactile

    • E. 

      Electrical

  • 13. 
    What type of signal is fast and requires daylight with no obstructions
    • A. 

      Olfactory

    • B. 

      Visual

    • C. 

      Auditory

    • D. 

      Tactile

    • E. 

      Electrical

  • 14. 
    A chemical produced by an animal that serves as a communication to another animal of the same species is called
    • A. 

      A marker

    • B. 

      An inducer

    • C. 

      A pheromone

    • D. 

      An imprinter

    • E. 

      An agonistic chemical

  • 15. 
    Which scientist formulated four questions that motivate the modern study of animal behavior?
    • A. 

      E.O. Wilson

    • B. 

      Jane Goodall

    • C. 

      J.B.S. Haldane

    • D. 

      Niko Tinbergen

    • E. 

      William Hamilton

  • 16. 
    Which scientist determined that digger wasps used landmarks to locate nest entrances?
    • A. 

      Karl von Frisch

    • B. 

      Niko Tinbergen

    • C. 

      Konrad Lorenz

    • D. 

      William Hamilton

    • E. 

      Ivan Pavlov

  • 17. 
    Which scientist studied imprinting of greylag geese?
    • A. 

      Karl von Frisch

    • B. 

      Niko Tinbergen

    • C. 

      Konrad Lorenz

    • D. 

      William Hamilton

    • E. 

      Ivan Pavlov

  • 18. 
    A cage containing male mosquitos has a small earphone placed on top, through which the sound of a female mosquito is played. All the males immediately fly to the earphone and thrust their abdomen through the fabric of the cage. What is the best explanation for this behavior?
    • A. 

      The males learn to associate the sound with females.

    • B. 

      Copulation is a fixed action pattern, and the female flight sound is a sign stimulus that initiates it.

    • C. 

      The sound from the earphone irritates the male mosquitoes, causing them to attempt to sting it.

    • D. 

      The reproductive drive is so strong that when males are deprived of females, they will attempt to mate with anything that has even the slightest female characteristic.

    • E. 

      Through classical conditioning, the male mosquitoes have associated the inappropriate stimulus from the earphone with the normal response of copulation

  • 19. 
    If mayflies lay eggs on roads instead of in water, this behavior could involve which of the following?
    • A. 

      A defective gene

    • B. 

      Trail-and-error learning

    • C. 

      Misdirected response to a sign stimulus

    • D. 

      Natural behavioral variation in the mayfly population

    • E. 

      Insecticide poisoning

  • 20. 
    The time during imprinting when specific behaviors can be learned is called the
    • A. 

      Window of imprinting

    • B. 

      Major period

    • C. 

      Sensitive period

    • D. 

      Timing imprint

    • E. 

      Significant window

  • 21. 
    Which of the following is true about imprinting?
    • A. 

      It may be triggered by visual or chemical stimuli

    • B. 

      It happens to many adult animals, but not to their young

    • C. 

      It is a type of learning that does not involve innate behavior

    • D. 

      It occurs only in birds

    • E. 

      It causes behaviors that last for only a short time (the sensitive period)

  • 22. 
    A type of learning that can occur only during a brief period of early life and results in a behavior that is difficult to modify through later experiences is called
    • A. 

      Insight

    • B. 

      Imprinting

    • C. 

      Habituation

    • D. 

      Operant conditioning

    • E. 

      Trial-and-error learning

  • 23. 
    Sow bugs become more active in dry areas and less active in humid areas. This is an example of
    • A. 

      Taxis

    • B. 

      Tropism

    • C. 

      Kinesis

    • D. 

      Cognition

    • E. 

      Net reflex

  • 24. 
    You turn on a light and observe cockroaches scurrying to dark hiding places. What have you observed?
    • A. 

      Taxis

    • B. 

      Learned behavior

    • C. 

      Migration

    • D. 

      Visual communication

    • E. 

      Operant conditioning

  • 25. 
    Loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no new information is called
    • A. 

      Adapting

    • B. 

      Spacing

    • C. 

      Conditioning

    • D. 

      Imprinting

    • E. 

      Habituation

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