Chapter 20 Genes With Population

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Population Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Natural selection as a mechanism of evolution that acts on variants within populations and ultimately leads to the evolution of different species was proposed by

    • A.

      Mendel.

    • B.

      Lyell.

    • C.

      Malthus.

    • D.

      Darwin.

    • E.

      Founder.

    Correct Answer
    D. Darwin.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Darwin because he proposed the theory of natural selection as a mechanism of evolution. Darwin's theory states that individuals with traits that are advantageous for their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce, passing on those traits to future generations. Over time, this process leads to the evolution of different species. Mendel is known for his work on genetics, Lyell for his contributions to geology, and Malthus for his writings on population growth, but none of them proposed natural selection as a mechanism of evolution.

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  • 2. 

    Features that increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction by an organism in a particular environment are called

    • A.

      Genes.

    • B.

      Fitness.

    • C.

      Mutations.

    • D.

      Adaptations.

    • E.

      Selection.

    Correct Answer
    D. Adaptations.
    Explanation
    Adaptations are features that increase an organism's chances of survival and reproduction in a specific environment. These adaptations can be physical, behavioral, or physiological traits that allow the organism to better cope with its surroundings. Genes, mutations, and selection are all factors that can contribute to the development of adaptations, but adaptations themselves are the specific features that provide an advantage in a given environment.

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  • 3. 

    The gene pool includes

    • A.

      All of the fitness within a population.

    • B.

      All of the individuals within a population.

    • C.

      All of the mutations within a population.

    • D.

      All of the adaptations within a population.

    • E.

      All of the alleles of genes within a population.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the alleles of genes within a population.
    Explanation
    The gene pool refers to the collection of all the different alleles of genes present in a population. It represents the genetic variation within a population, including all the different versions of genes that individuals possess. This genetic diversity is important for the survival and adaptation of a population to changing environments. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the alleles of genes within a population."

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  • 4. 

    The founder principle explains how rare alleles may become more common in new

    • A.

      Populations.

    • B.

      Clines.

    • C.

      Bottleneck areas.

    • D.

      Migratory areas.

    • E.

      Genomes.

    Correct Answer
    A. Populations.
    Explanation
    The founder principle refers to the establishment of a new population by a small group of individuals who are not representative of the entire original population. This small group may carry rare alleles that were more common in the original population. As the new population grows and reproduces, these rare alleles can become more common within the population. Therefore, the founder principle explains how rare alleles may become more common in new populations.

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  • 5. 

    A restriction in genetic variability caused by a drastic reduction in population size is called a

    • A.

      Founder effect.

    • B.

      Hardy-Weinberg effect.

    • C.

      Bottleneck effect.

    • D.

      Polymorphic effect.

    • E.

      Adaptive effect.

    Correct Answer
    C. Bottleneck effect.
    Explanation
    The bottleneck effect refers to a situation where a population experiences a significant reduction in size, resulting in a limited gene pool and reduced genetic variability. This can occur due to natural disasters, disease outbreaks, or human activities. The reduced genetic diversity can lead to a higher frequency of certain genetic traits and an increased risk of inbreeding. The founder effect, on the other hand, occurs when a small group of individuals establishes a new population, resulting in a loss of genetic variation compared to the original population.

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  • 6. 

    The genetic contribution of an individual to succeeding generations, compared with that of other individuals in the population, is known as

    • A.

      Variation.

    • B.

      Microevolution.

    • C.

      Macroevolution.

    • D.

      Fitness.

    • E.

      Adaptive makeup.

    Correct Answer
    D. Fitness.
    Explanation
    Fitness refers to the genetic contribution of an individual to succeeding generations compared to other individuals in the population. It is a measure of an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in its environment, taking into account factors such as reproductive success and the passing on of advantageous traits. Fitness is a key concept in evolutionary biology, as individuals with higher fitness are more likely to pass on their genes to future generations, leading to the adaptation and evolution of populations over time.

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  • 7. 

    Darwin proposed that natural selection occurs in an environment by

    • A.

      Favoring heritable features that make the organism better suited to survive and reproduce.

    • B.

      Producing a constant numb of offspring while in that environment.

    • C.

      Surviving for a fixed amount of time.

    • D.

      Resisting the environment and keeping the environment from changing.

    • E.

      Favoring those individuals with the most favorable acquired characteristics.

    Correct Answer
    A. Favoring heritable features that make the organism better suited to survive and reproduce.
    Explanation
    Darwin proposed that natural selection occurs in an environment by favoring heritable features that make the organism better suited to survive and reproduce. This means that individuals with advantageous traits are more likely to survive and pass on those traits to their offspring, increasing the frequency of those traits in the population over time. This process leads to the adaptation of species to their environment, as traits that provide a survival and reproductive advantage become more common.

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  • 8. 

    The Hardy-Weinberg equations only hold true, that is, a population is only in equilibrium

    • A.

      When immigration in and out of the area are held constant.

    • B.

      When changes only take place over long periods of time.

    • C.

      When it includes episodes of extinction.

    • D.

      When the population is designed to survive in new habitats.

    • E.

      When all of the Hardy-Weinberg assumptions are met.

    Correct Answer
    E. When all of the Hardy-Weinberg assumptions are met.
    Explanation
    The Hardy-Weinberg equations describe the genetic equilibrium in a population. This equilibrium is only achieved when all of the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg principle are met. These assumptions include a large population size, random mating, no mutation, no migration, and no natural selection. If any of these assumptions are violated, the population will not be in equilibrium. Therefore, the correct answer is when all of the Hardy-Weinberg assumptions are met.

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  • 9. 

    In the Hardy-Weinberg equations, the frequencies of 2 alleles in a population (where there are only 2 alleles to consider) can be designated as

    • A.
    • B.

      P and q

    • C.
    • D.

      2pq

    • E.

      1 - p and 1 - q

    Correct Answer
    B. P and q
    Explanation
    In the Hardy-Weinberg equations, the frequencies of two alleles in a population can be designated as p and q. These variables represent the frequency of the dominant and recessive alleles respectively. The equation assumes that there are only two alleles present in the population and that they are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, meaning that the allele frequencies remain constant from generation to generation. By using p and q, the equation allows for the calculation of genotype frequencies and predictions about the inheritance patterns of traits in a population.

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  • 10. 

    "The inheritance of acquired characteristics" proposal was put forward by

    • A.

      Darwin.

    • B.

      Lamarck.

    • C.

      Wallace.

    • D.

      Founder.

    • E.

      Hardy-Weinberg.

    Correct Answer
    B. Lamarck.
    Explanation
    Lamarck proposed the theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, which suggests that organisms can pass on traits that they acquire during their lifetime to their offspring. This theory was later disproven by Darwin's theory of evolution through natural selection, which emphasized the role of genetic variation and hereditary traits in driving evolution. Wallace, Founder, and Hardy-Weinberg are not associated with the theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics.

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  • 11. 

    The frequency of a particular allele within a population can be changed, over time, by

    • A.

      Genetic outflow.

    • B.

      Large population size.

    • C.

      Selection.

    • D.

      Inheritance of acquired characteristics.

    • E.

      Random mating.

    Correct Answer
    C. Selection.
    Explanation
    Selection refers to the process by which certain traits or alleles become more or less common in a population over time. It occurs when certain individuals with advantageous traits have a higher chance of survival and reproduction, passing on those traits to future generations. This leads to a change in the frequency of the allele within the population. Genetic outflow, large population size, inheritance of acquired characteristics, and random mating do not directly cause changes in allele frequency.

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  • 12. 

    The genetic preservation of the features that increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction of some individuals within a population is called the process of

    • A.

      Natural selection.

    • B.

      Creation of new species.

    • C.

      Genetic drift.

    • D.

      Out crossing.

    • E.

      Increasing evolutionary resistance.

    Correct Answer
    A. Natural selection.
    Explanation
    Natural selection is the correct answer because it refers to the process where certain individuals within a population possess genetic traits that increase their chances of survival and reproduction. These advantageous traits are then passed on to future generations, leading to the preservation of these features over time. This process is a fundamental mechanism of evolution and plays a crucial role in shaping the characteristics of a population.

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  • 13. 

    A locus with more variation than can be explained by mutation is referred to as

    • A.

      Dominant.

    • B.

      Polynomial.

    • C.

      Polymorphic.

    • D.

      Heterozygous.

    • E.

      Somatic.

    Correct Answer
    C. Polymorphic.
    Explanation
    A locus with more variation than can be explained by mutation is referred to as polymorphic. Polymorphism refers to the presence of multiple forms or alleles of a gene within a population. In this context, it means that the locus has more variation than what can be attributed solely to mutations, indicating that there are multiple alleles present at that locus in the population.

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  • 14. 

    Hardy-Weinberg pointed out that the original proportions of the genotypes in a population would remain constant from generation to generation if certain assumptions are met. Which one of the following is not a Hardy-Weinberg condition?

    • A.

      The population is very large.

    • B.

      No gene flow occurs.

    • C.

      No selection occurs.

    • D.

      Random mating occurs.

    • E.

      No polymorphic loci exist in the population.

    Correct Answer
    E. No polymorphic loci exist in the population.
    Explanation
    The Hardy-Weinberg principle states that the proportions of genotypes in a population will remain constant if certain conditions are met. These conditions include a large population size, no gene flow, no selection, random mating, and the presence of polymorphic loci (multiple alleles) in the population. The absence of polymorphic loci would mean that there is only one allele for each gene in the population, which violates the condition of genetic variation necessary for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

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  • 15. 

    For a gene with two alternative alleles, a (frequency p) and a (frequency q), the term in the algebraic form of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the heterozygote genotype frequency is

    • A.
    • B.
    • C.

      2pq

    • D.
    • E.

      2Aa

    Correct Answer
    C. 2pq
    Explanation
    The term in the algebraic form of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the heterozygote genotype frequency is 2pq. This is because in a population with two alternative alleles (a and A) with frequencies p and q respectively, the heterozygote genotype (Aa) can be formed in two ways: by choosing an allele A from the gene pool (probability p) and an allele a from the gene pool (probability q), or by choosing an allele a from the gene pool (probability q) and an allele A from the gene pool (probability p). Therefore, the probability of the heterozygote genotype is 2pq.

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  • 16. 

    Which one of the following is not an agent of natural evolutionary change?

    • A.

      Mutation

    • B.

      Migration

    • C.

      Genetic drift

    • D.

      Non-random mating

    • E.

      Artificial selection

    Correct Answer
    E. Artificial selection
    Explanation
    Artificial selection is not an agent of natural evolutionary change because it is driven by human intervention rather than natural processes. In artificial selection, humans deliberately choose specific traits or characteristics in organisms and selectively breed them to produce offspring with desired traits. This differs from natural selection, where environmental factors determine which traits are advantageous for survival and reproduction. Therefore, artificial selection is not considered a natural process and does not contribute to the natural evolutionary changes that occur in populations over time.

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  • 17. 

    The phenomenon in which rare alleles become more common in new populations is called

    • A.

      Founder effect.

    • B.

      Gene flow.

    • C.

      Genetic drift.

    • D.

      Assortative mating.

    • E.

      Mutation

    Correct Answer
    A. Founder effect.
    Explanation
    The founder effect refers to the phenomenon where rare alleles become more common in new populations. This occurs when a small group of individuals from a larger population establishes a new population, leading to a loss of genetic diversity. As a result, certain alleles that were rare in the original population may become more prevalent in the new population. This is due to the random sampling of alleles during the founding event, which can result in the increased frequency of certain alleles in subsequent generations.

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  • 18. 

    In small populations, frequencies of certain alleles may change by chance alone. Such random change in the frequency of alleles is called

    • A.

      Mutation.

    • B.

      Migration.

    • C.

      Genetic drift.

    • D.

      Nonrandom mating.

    • E.

      Selection.

    Correct Answer
    C. Genetic drift.
    Explanation
    In small populations, the frequencies of certain alleles can change randomly due to chance events. This phenomenon is known as genetic drift. Genetic drift occurs when certain alleles become more or less common in a population over time without any selective pressure. It is a result of random sampling and can lead to the loss or fixation of certain alleles in a population. Migration refers to the movement of individuals between populations, mutation refers to the introduction of new genetic variations, nonrandom mating refers to mating preferences that are not based on chance, and selection refers to the process by which certain traits are favored or disfavored in a population based on their fitness.

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  • 19. 

    The type of non-random mating that causes the frequencies of particular genotypes to differ greatly from those predicted by the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is called

    • A.

      Mutation.

    • B.

      Migration.

    • C.

      Genetic drift.

    • D.

      Assortative mating.

    • E.

      Selection.

    Correct Answer
    D. Assortative mating.
    Explanation
    Assortative mating is a type of non-random mating where individuals with similar phenotypes or genotypes mate preferentially. This leads to an increase in the frequency of particular genotypes in the population, causing a deviation from the expected frequencies under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This type of mating can result in an increase in homozygosity and a decrease in heterozygosity within the population. It can occur based on physical traits, behavior, or other characteristics that individuals find attractive in potential mates.

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  • 20. 

    Sometimes a restriction in genetic variability is imposed on populations by natural catastrophes such as flooding, earthquake, etc. The surviving individuals reflect only a small, random genetic sample of the population affected. This process is termed

    • A.

      Mutation.

    • B.

      Migration.

    • C.

      Genetic drift.

    • D.

      Assortative mating.

    • E.

      Bottleneck effect.

    Correct Answer
    E. Bottleneck effect.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the bottleneck effect. The bottleneck effect occurs when a population is drastically reduced in size due to a natural catastrophe or other event. This reduction in population size leads to a decrease in genetic diversity, as only a small, random sample of individuals survive and reproduce. As a result, the genetic composition of the population is altered, and certain alleles may become more or less common. This can have long-term effects on the population's genetic variability and ability to adapt to changing environments.

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  • 21. 

    Gene flow, defined as the movement of genes from one population to another, can take place by migration, as well as

    • A.

      Mating with certain trait-containing individuals.

    • B.

      Mating with dominant phenotypes.

    • C.

      Hybridization between individuals of adjacent populations.

    • D.

      Removing the barriers between the populations.

    • E.

      Physical movement of genes within an individual by transposons.

    Correct Answer
    C. Hybridization between individuals of adjacent populations.
    Explanation
    Gene flow refers to the movement of genes from one population to another. This can occur through various mechanisms, including migration and mating with individuals who possess certain traits. However, in the given options, the most appropriate explanation for gene flow would be hybridization between individuals of adjacent populations. Hybridization occurs when individuals from different populations interbreed and produce offspring with a combination of genetic traits from both populations. This process leads to the transfer of genes between populations, resulting in gene flow.

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  • 22. 

    In some populations the drive is to mate with individuals that are phenotypically different at a variety of loci. This leads to large numbers of heterozygotes and is called

    • A.

      Neutral theory.

    • B.

      Disassortative mating.

    • C.

      Shifting balance theory.

    • D.

      Bottleneck effect.

    • E.

      Founder effect.

    Correct Answer
    B. Disassortative mating.
    Explanation
    Disassortative mating refers to the tendency of individuals to choose mates that are phenotypically different from themselves. This leads to an increase in heterozygotes within the population. This behavior can be advantageous as it promotes genetic diversity and can help maintain a balance between different alleles in the population. Neutral theory, shifting balance theory, bottleneck effect, and founder effect are not applicable in this context.

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  • 23. 

    Which one of the following is not an agent of evolutionary change?

    • A.

      Mutation

    • B.

      Gene flow

    • C.

      Random mating

    • D.

      Genetic drift

    • E.

      Selection

    Correct Answer
    C. Random mating
    Explanation
    Random mating is not an agent of evolutionary change because it does not cause any changes in the genetic makeup of a population. In random mating, individuals choose their mates without any preference for specific traits or characteristics, and there is no selection or bias involved. Therefore, random mating does not lead to any changes in the frequency of alleles or genetic variation within a population over time.

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  • 24. 

    About 80% of the alleles present in thoroughbred horses can be dated back to 31 known ancestors from the late eighteenth century. As a result, one would expect

    • A.

      Low rates of mutation.

    • B.

      Many polymorphic alleles.

    • C.

      Little variation in physiology and behavior.

    • D.

      Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

    • E.

      Random mating.

    Correct Answer
    C. Little variation in physiology and behavior.
    Explanation
    The fact that about 80% of the alleles in thoroughbred horses can be traced back to a small number of ancestors suggests that there has been limited genetic diversity introduced through mutation over time. This limited genetic diversity would result in little variation in physiology and behavior among thoroughbred horses.

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  • 25. 

    When selection acts to eliminate one extreme from an array of phenotypes it is called

    • A.

      Natural selection.

    • B.

      Stabilizing selection.

    • C.

      Disruptive selection.

    • D.

      Directional selection.

    • E.

      Artificial selection.

    Correct Answer
    D. Directional selection.
    Explanation
    Directional selection occurs when selection acts to favor individuals with phenotypes that are at one extreme of the range of variation. In this case, one extreme phenotype is being eliminated by selection. This is different from stabilizing selection, which favors individuals with intermediate phenotypes, disruptive selection, which favors individuals with extreme phenotypes at both ends of the range, and artificial selection, which is the result of intentional breeding by humans. Therefore, the correct answer is directional selection.

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  • 26. 

    The total of all the alleles of all the genes in a population can be thought of as

    • A.

      An allele mixture.

    • B.

      A gene pool.

    • C.

      A genetic melting pot.

    • D.

      A genome.

    • E.

      Variant genes.

    Correct Answer
    B. A gene pool.
    Explanation
    The total of all the alleles of all the genes in a population can be thought of as a gene pool. This is because a gene pool refers to all the genetic information present in a population, including all the different alleles for each gene. It represents the total genetic diversity within a population and serves as a reservoir from which individuals inherit their genetic traits. The term "allele mixture" is not commonly used in genetics, and "genetic melting pot" and "genome" do not accurately capture the concept of the total alleles in a population. "Variant genes" is also not an appropriate term as it does not encompass the entire genetic information present in a population.

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  • 27. 

    Certain small towns in the western United States have remained isolated and inbred since their settlement many years ago. Some alleles are more common in these communities as compared to the rest of the population. This effect is known as

    • A.

      Artificial selection.

    • B.

      Directional selection.

    • C.

      Disrupting selection.

    • D.

      Hardy-Weinberg principle.

    • E.

      Founder principle.

    Correct Answer
    E. Founder principle.
    Explanation
    The founder principle refers to the effect where certain small towns in the western United States have remained isolated and inbred since their settlement many years ago, leading to some alleles being more common in these communities compared to the rest of the population. This phenomenon is not due to artificial selection, directional selection, disrupting selection, or the Hardy-Weinberg principle, but rather the result of the founder principle.

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  • 28. 

    Cheetahs have been through a genetic bottleneck; evidence for this is that

    • A.

      Little natural selection occurs in this species.

    • B.

      The body is long, thin and graceful.

    • C.

      There is very little genetic variability.

    • D.

      These cats are members of an endangered species.

    • E.

      They originally came from small areas of Africa.

    Correct Answer
    C. There is very little genetic variability.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "there is very little genetic variability." This is because a genetic bottleneck refers to a sharp reduction in the size of a population, leading to a loss of genetic diversity. When a population goes through a genetic bottleneck, there is a decrease in the number of different genetic variations, resulting in very little genetic variability. This can be seen in cheetahs, as they have experienced a significant reduction in population size in the past, leading to a limited gene pool and low genetic diversity among individuals.

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  • 29. 

    Compared with Hardy-Weinberg predictions, populations that have practiced assortative mating have

    • A.

      Fewer homozygotes.

    • B.

      Less natural selection.

    • C.

      More heterozygotes.

    • D.

      More homozygotes.

    • E.

      More mutations.

    Correct Answer
    D. More homozygotes.
    Explanation
    Assortative mating refers to the tendency of individuals to choose mates with similar traits. In populations that practice assortative mating, individuals with similar genotypes are more likely to mate, leading to an increase in homozygosity. This is because individuals with similar genotypes are more likely to pass on the same alleles to their offspring, resulting in an increase in homozygotes. Therefore, compared to Hardy-Weinberg predictions, populations that practice assortative mating will have more homozygotes.

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  • 30. 

    The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium conditions for populations of organisms result in

    • A.

      Polymorphic alleles.

    • B.

      Assortive mating.

    • C.

      Natural selection.

    • D.

      Maintenance of recessive alleles in the gene pool.

    • E.

      No evolutionary changes.

    Correct Answer
    E. No evolutionary changes.
    Explanation
    The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium conditions state that in a population, allele and genotype frequencies will remain constant from generation to generation if certain conditions are met. These conditions include a large population size, random mating, no migration, no mutation, and no natural selection. If these conditions are met, the population will be in equilibrium and there will be no changes in allele frequencies. Therefore, the correct answer is "no evolutionary changes."

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  • 31. 

    In negative frequency-dependent selection, such as in the study done on the water boatman insect, the incidence of predation leads to an

    • A.

      Elimination of a rare genotype.

    • B.

      Even distribution of genotype frequencies.

    • C.

      Increase in a rare genotype.

    • D.

      Increase in variation within the population.

    • E.

      Increase in a rare genotype and an increase in variation within the population.

    Correct Answer
    C. Increase in a rare genotype.
    Explanation
    In negative frequency-dependent selection, the incidence of predation leads to an increase in a rare genotype. This means that when a certain genotype becomes rare in a population, it becomes less likely to be preyed upon, increasing its chances of survival and reproduction. As a result, the frequency of this rare genotype increases over time. This mechanism helps to maintain genetic diversity within a population, as rare genotypes have a selective advantage in avoiding predation.

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  • 32. 

    In some instances environmental change causes a situation where one phenotype is favored for a period of time, and then a different phenotype is favored. This oscillating selection causes

    • A.

      The maintenance of genetic variation in the population.

    • B.

      Elimination of rarer genotypes because of uneven selection.

    • C.

      An increase in point mutations.

    • D.

      High population increase to maintain phenotypic variation.

    • E.

      Extinction of the population.

    Correct Answer
    A. The maintenance of genetic variation in the population.
    Explanation
    In some instances, environmental change can create a situation where different phenotypes are favored at different times. This oscillating selection process helps to maintain genetic variation within the population. It allows for the survival and reproduction of individuals with different genetic traits, preventing the elimination of rarer genotypes and promoting diversity. This genetic variation is important for the long-term survival and adaptation of the population to changing environmental conditions.

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  • 33. 

    The text discusses sickle-cell anemia, which is a classic example of

    • A.

      Founder effect.

    • B.

      Genetic bottleneck.

    • C.

      Point mutation.

    • D.

      Heterozygote advantage.

    • E.

      Heterozygosity.

    Correct Answer
    D. Heterozygote advantage.
    Explanation
    The text discusses sickle-cell anemia, a genetic disorder caused by a point mutation in the hemoglobin gene. This mutation leads to the production of abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in the characteristic sickle-shaped red blood cells. However, individuals who are heterozygous for the sickle-cell gene have a selective advantage in regions where malaria is prevalent. Malaria parasites cannot survive as well in these heterozygous individuals, providing a survival advantage. Therefore, the correct answer is heterozygote advantage.

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  • 34. 

    In disruptive selection, over time

    • A.

      A population goes extinct.

    • B.

      The most extreme outliers of a population are eliminated (e.g., the largest beaks and smallest beaks are eliminated).

    • C.

      The population is strongly selected for in one direction (e.g., larger beak size).

    • D.

      The population is strongly selected for in two directions (e.g., larger beak size and smaller beak size).

    • E.

      A population increases its variation (e.g., a wide selection of all beak sizes).

    Correct Answer
    D. The population is strongly selected for in two directions (e.g., larger beak size and smaller beak size).
    Explanation
    In disruptive selection, the most extreme outliers of a population are eliminated, leading to the population being strongly selected for in two directions. This means that both larger beak size and smaller beak size are favored, resulting in an increase in the variation of beak sizes within the population. This phenomenon can occur when different traits provide advantages in different environmental conditions, causing the population to diverge into two distinct groups with contrasting traits.

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  • 35. 

    In directional selection, over time

    • A.

      A population goes extinct.

    • B.

      The most extreme outliers of a population are eliminated (e.g., the largest beaks and smallest beaks are eliminated).

    • C.

      The population is strongly selected for in two directions (e.g., larger beak size and smaller beak size).

    • D.

      The population is strongly selected for in two directions (e.g., larger beak size and smaller beak size).

    • E.

      A population increases its variation (e.g., a wide selection of all beak sizes).

    Correct Answer
    C. The population is strongly selected for in two directions (e.g., larger beak size and smaller beak size).
    Explanation
    In directional selection, the population is strongly selected for in two directions, such as larger beak size and smaller beak size. This means that individuals with beaks that are either larger or smaller than the average beak size have a higher chance of survival and reproduction. Over time, this can lead to a decrease in individuals with average beak sizes and an increase in individuals with either larger or smaller beak sizes, resulting in a population that is strongly selected for in two directions.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following would be expected to produce the smallest evolutionary change in a given period of time in a population of birds?

    • A.

      Mutation

    • B.

      Natural selection

    • C.

      Migration

    • D.

      Assortive mating

    • E.

      Gene flow

    Correct Answer
    A. Mutation
    Explanation
    Mutation would be expected to produce the smallest evolutionary change in a given period of time in a population of birds. This is because mutation is a random process that introduces new genetic variations into a population, but it does not necessarily result in significant changes in the overall genetic makeup of the population. Natural selection, migration, assortive mating, and gene flow, on the other hand, can all lead to significant changes in the genetic composition of a population over time.

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  • 37. 

    Which one of the following could not be involved in gene flow?

    • A.

      Wind-blown pollen

    • B.

      Gametes dispersed by ocean currents

    • C.

      Zygotes dispersed by ocean currents

    • D.

      Disassortive mating within a population

    • E.

      Hybridization between neighboring populations

    Correct Answer
    D. Disassortive mating within a population
    Explanation
    Disassortive mating within a population could not be involved in gene flow because it refers to a mating pattern where individuals with different traits or characteristics preferentially mate with each other. This can lead to the separation of different genetic variants within a population, reducing gene flow between individuals with different traits. Gene flow typically occurs when individuals or their gametes physically move between populations, allowing for the exchange of genetic material.

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  • 38. 

    Assortive and disassortive mating are similar in that both

    • A.

      Change only the expected Hardy-Weinberg allele frequencies in a population.

    • B.

      Change only the expected Hardy-Weinberg genotype frequencies in a population.

    • C.

      Change both the expected Hardy-Weinberg allele and genotype frequencies in a population.

    • D.

      Are kinds of selection pressure.

    • E.

      Are examples of random mating.

    Correct Answer
    B. Change only the expected Hardy-Weinberg genotype frequencies in a population.
    Explanation
    Assortive and disassortive mating both refer to non-random mating patterns in a population. Assortive mating occurs when individuals with similar traits mate with each other more often than would be expected by chance, while disassortive mating occurs when individuals with dissimilar traits mate with each other more often than expected. Both types of mating patterns affect the genotype frequencies in a population, but they do not change the allele frequencies. Therefore, the correct answer is that both assortive and disassortive mating change only the expected Hardy-Weinberg genotype frequencies in a population.

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  • 39. 

    The California populations of the Northern elephant seal are descendants from a very small population of seals that was over-hunted in the 1890s. Heterozygosity in this population would be expected to be ________ due to ________________.

    • A.

      Slight; a bottleneck effect

    • B.

      Slight; the founder effect

    • C.

      Great; disruptive selection

    • D.

      Great; a bottleneck effect

    • E.

      Great; assortive mating

    Correct Answer
    A. Slight; a bottleneck effect
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "slight; a bottleneck effect". The explanation for this is that the California populations of the Northern elephant seal are descendants from a very small population that was over-hunted in the 1890s. This over-hunting event is an example of a bottleneck effect, where the population size is drastically reduced, resulting in a decrease in genetic diversity. As a result, the heterozygosity in this population would be expected to be slight, indicating a lower level of genetic variation.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following statements about the laboratory and field studies on evolution of protective coloration in the guppy (as described in the textbook) is false?

    • A.

      Pike cichlids are only found below waterfalls.

    • B.

      Guppies transferred to pools above waterfalls remained drab if killifish were present there.

    • C.

      Guppy predation was greater in pools below waterfalls than above waterfalls.

    • D.

      Killifish can be found both above and below waterfalls.

    • E.

      Substantial evolutionary changes in guppy populations can occur in as few as several years.

    Correct Answer
    B. Guppies transferred to pools above waterfalls remained drab if killifish were present there.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 17, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 09, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Aggiegal8
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