CCNA - Hsrp Vrrp Glbp

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| By Andy Schachtel
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Andy Schachtel
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In the following quiz which follows the curriculum of the Cisco Certified Network Associate, we’ll be looking at three key networking protocols; the Hot Standby Router Protocol, the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol and the Gateway Load Balancing Protocol. What do you know about them? Let’s find out!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which one of these is a valid HSRP Virtual Mac Address?

    • A.

      0000.0C07.AC01

    • B.

      0000.5E00.0110

    • C.

      0007.B400.1203

    • D.

      0000.C007.0201

    Correct Answer
    A. 0000.0C07.AC01
    Explanation
    With HSRP, two or more devices support a virtual router with a fictitious MAC address and unique IP address. There are two version of HSRP.

    + With HSRP version 1, the virtual router’s MAC address is 0000.0c07.ACxx , in which xx is the HSRP group.
    + With HSRP version 2, the virtual MAC address if 0000.0C9F.Fxxx, in which xxx is the HSRP group.

    Note: Another case is HSRP for IPv6, in which the MAC address range from 0005.73A0.0000 through 0005.73A0.0FFF.

    -> A is correct.

    (Good resource for HSRP: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/switches/datacenter/sw/5_x/nx-os/unicast/configuration/guide/l3_hsrp.html)

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  • 2. 

    Which three statements about HSRP operation are true? (Choose three)

    • A.

      The virtual IP address and virtual MAC address are active on the HSRP Master router.

    • B.

      The HSRP default timers are a 3 second hello interval and a 10 second dead interval.

    • C.

      HSRP supports only clear-text authentication.

    • D.

      The HSRP virtual IP address must be on a different subnet than the routers’ interfaces on the same LAN.

    • E.

      The HSRP virtual IP address must be the same as one of the router’s interface addresses on the LAN.

    • F.

      HSRP supports up to 255 groups per interface, enabling an administrative form of load balancing.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. The virtual IP address and virtual MAC address are active on the HSRP Master router.
    B. The HSRP default timers are a 3 second hello interval and a 10 second dead interval.
    F. HSRP supports up to 255 groups per interface, enabling an administrative form of load balancing.
    Explanation
    The virtual MAC address of HSRP version 1 is 0000.0C07.ACxx, where xx is the HSRP group number in hexadecimal based on the respective interface. For example, HSRP group 10 uses the HSRP virtual MAC address of 0000.0C07.AC0A. HSRP version 2 uses a virtual MAC address of 0000.0C9F.FXXX (XXX: HSRP group in hexadecimal)

    For more information about HSRP operation, please read our HSRP tutorial.

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  • 3. 

    Which statement describes VRRP object tracking?

    • A.

      It monitors traffic flow and link utilization.

    • B.

      It ensures the best VRRP router is the virtual router master for the group.

    • C.

      It causes traffic to dynamically move to higher bandwidth links

    • D.

      It thwarts man-in-the-middle attacks.

    Correct Answer
    B. It ensures the best VRRP router is the virtual router master for the group.
    Explanation
    Object tracking is the process of tracking the state of a configured object and uses that state to determine the priority of the VRRP router in a VRRP group -> B is correct.

    (Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/datacenter/sw/5_x/nx-os/unicast/configuration/guide/l3_cli_nxos/l3_vrrp.html#wp1074871)

    Note: Unlike HSRP which can track interface status directly, VRRP can only track interface status through a tracked object.

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  • 4. 

    In GLBP, which router will respond to client ARP requests?

    • A.

      The active virtual gateway will reply with one of four possible virtual MAC addresses.

    • B.

      All GLBP member routers will reply in round-robin fashion.

    • C.

      The active virtual gateway will reply with its own hardware MAC address.

    • D.

      The GLBP member routers will reply with one of four possible burned in hardware addresses.

    Correct Answer
    A. The active virtual gateway will reply with one of four possible virtual MAC addresses.
    Explanation
    One disadvantage of HSRP and VRRP is that only one router is in use, other routers must wait for the primary to fail because they can be used. However, Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP) can use of up to four routers simultaneously. In GLBP, there is still only one virtual IP address but each router has a different virtual MAC address. First a GLBP group must elect an Active Virtual Gateway (AVG). The AVG is responsible for replying ARP requests from hosts/clients. It replies with different virtual MAC addresses that correspond to different routers (known as Active Virtual Forwarders – AVFs) so that clients can send traffic to different routers in that GLBP group (load sharing).

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  • 5. 

    In a GLBP network, who is responsible for the arp request?

    • A.

      AVF

    • B.

      AVG

    • C.

      Active Router

    • D.

      Standby Router

    Correct Answer
    B. AVG
    Explanation
    In a GLBP (Gateway Load Balancing Protocol) network, the AVG (Active Virtual Gateway) is responsible for handling the ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) requests. The AVG is the primary router in the GLBP group and is responsible for load balancing the traffic among the multiple routers in the group. It is also responsible for responding to ARP requests on behalf of the virtual IP address assigned to the GLBP group.

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  • 6. 

    What are three benefits of GLBP? (Choose three)

    • A.

      GLBP supports up to eight virtual forwarders per GLBP group.

    • B.

      GLBP supports clear text and MD5 password authentication between GLBP group members.

    • C.

      GLBP is an open source standardized protocol that can be used with multiple vendors.

    • D.

      GLBP supports up to 1024 virtual routers.

    • E.

      GLBP can load share traffic across a maximum of four routers.

    • F.

      GLBP elects two AVGs and two standby AVGs for redundancy.

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. GLBP supports clear text and MD5 password authentication between GLBP group members.
    D. GLBP supports up to 1024 virtual routers.
    E. GLBP can load share traffic across a maximum of four routers.
    Explanation
    GLBP supports clear text and MD5 password authentication between GLBP group members, which enhances security by allowing authentication of GLBP routers. GLBP also supports up to 1024 virtual routers, providing scalability and flexibility in network design. Additionally, GLBP can load share traffic across a maximum of four routers, which improves network performance and availability by distributing traffic among multiple paths.

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