Assessment Heart And Neck Vessels

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Assessment Heart And Neck Vessels - Quiz

When someone goes to a medical practitioner with a heart problem, it is up to the medical practitioner to decipher what is wrong with the heart and this is mainly done by assessing the vessels of the heart and neck to look for any abnormal activity. The quiz below is designed to check out how skilled you are. Give it a shot!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following occurs, when the ventricles relax and fill with blood?

    • A.

      Systole

    • B.

      Diastole

    • C.

      S1

    • D.

      S2

    Correct Answer
    B. Diastole
    Explanation
    Diastole is the correct answer because it refers to the phase of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles relax and fill with blood. During diastole, the heart muscles relax, allowing the ventricles to expand and fill with blood from the atria. This is an essential phase for the heart to receive oxygenated blood and prepare for the next contraction (systole). S1 and S2 are the first and second heart sounds, respectively, which are not directly related to the relaxation and filling of the ventricles.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following occurs when blood is pumped from the ventricles and fills the pulmonary and systemic arteries?  The heart is contracting...

    • A.

      Systole

    • B.

      Diastole

    • C.

      S1

    • D.

      S2

    Correct Answer
    A. Systole
    Explanation
    Systole refers to the phase of the cardiac cycle when the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood out of the ventricles. During systole, the blood is pumped from the ventricles and fills the pulmonary and systemic arteries. This is the active phase of the heartbeat, where the heart muscles contract and push the blood forward to be circulated throughout the body.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following heart sounds is heard when the AV valves close?

    • A.

      Systole

    • B.

      Diastole

    • C.

      S1

    • D.

      S2

    Correct Answer
    C. S1
    Explanation
    S1 is the correct answer because it represents the first heart sound, also known as the "lub" sound. This sound occurs when the AV valves (mitral and tricuspid valves) close at the beginning of ventricular systole. The closure of these valves prevents blood from flowing back into the atria and marks the start of the contraction phase of the cardiac cycle.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following heart sounds is heard when the aortic valve (semilunar) swings shut?

    • A.

      Systole

    • B.

      Diastole

    • C.

      S1

    • D.

      S2

    Correct Answer
    D. S2
    Explanation
    S2 is the correct answer because it represents the second heart sound, which is heard when the aortic valve closes. During systole, the aortic valve is open and blood is being pumped out of the heart, so S2 is not heard. Diastole refers to the relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle and does not specifically indicate the closure of the aortic valve. S1 represents the first heart sound, which is heard when the mitral and tricuspid valves close, not when the aortic valve closes.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following sites is best to aucultate when trying to hear S1?

    • A.

      Base

    • B.

      Apex

    • C.

      Erb's Point

    Correct Answer
    B. Apex
    Explanation
    The apex is the best site to auscultate when trying to hear S1. This is because S1, the first heart sound, is produced by the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves. The mitral valve is located at the apex of the heart, making it the optimal location to listen for the sound. The base and Erb's point are not ideal sites for auscultating S1 as they are not directly associated with the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following sties is best to auscultate when trying to hear S2 the best?

    • A.

      Base

    • B.

      Apex

    • C.

      Erb's point

    Correct Answer
    A. Base
    Explanation
    The base of the heart is the correct site to auscultate when trying to hear S2 the best. This is because S2, the second heart sound, is produced by the closure of the aortic and pulmonic valves, which are located at the base of the heart. By listening at the base, healthcare professionals can best hear the sound produced by these valves closing during systole. The apex and Erb's point are not ideal sites for auscultating S2 because they are not directly over the aortic and pulmonic valves.

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  • 7. 

    When ventricles filling creates vibrations that can be heard over the chest BECAUSE THE VENTRICLES ARE RESISTANT TO FILLING DURING THE EARLY RAPID FILLING pHASE THE VIBRATIONS ARE KNOWN AS WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING?

    • A.

      S1

    • B.

      S2

    • C.

      S3

    • D.

      S4

    Correct Answer
    C. S3
    Explanation
    During the early rapid filling phase, the ventricles are resistant to filling, causing vibrations that can be heard over the chest. These vibrations are known as S3.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following heart sounds occurs at the end of diastole, at presystole, when the ventricle is resistant to filling, caused by the atria contracting and pushing blood into a noncompliant ventricle?

    • A.

      S1

    • B.

      S2

    • C.

      S3

    • D.

      S4

    Correct Answer
    D. S4
    Explanation
    S4 is the correct answer because it occurs at the end of diastole, at presystole, when the ventricle is resistant to filling. This sound is caused by the atria contracting and pushing blood into a noncompliant ventricle.

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  • 9. 

    While assessing a patient with a heart murmur, you find that the sound is best described as rumbling, which of the following causes is most likely the case?

    • A.

      Mitral Stenosis

    • B.

      Aortic Stenosis

    • C.

      Pulmonic Stenosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Mitral Stenosis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Mitral Stenosis. Mitral stenosis is a condition where the mitral valve, which separates the left atrium and left ventricle, becomes narrowed and restricts blood flow from the atrium to the ventricle. This narrowing causes turbulent blood flow, resulting in a rumbling sound during auscultation. Aortic stenosis, on the other hand, is a narrowing of the aortic valve, and pulmonic stenosis is a narrowing of the pulmonic valve. While both conditions can cause heart murmurs, they are not typically described as rumbling sounds.

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  • 10. 

    While assessing a patient with a heart murmur, the sound can be best described as harsh, which of the following conditions best fits the case?

    • A.

      Mitral Stenosis

    • B.

      Aortic Stenosis

    • C.

      Pulmonic stenosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Aortic Stenosis
    Explanation
    Aortic stenosis is the best fit for a heart murmur described as harsh. Aortic stenosis is a condition characterized by the narrowing of the aortic valve, which obstructs blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. This obstruction creates turbulence and results in a harsh sound during the cardiac cycle. Mitral stenosis refers to the narrowing of the mitral valve, which would produce a different type of murmur. Pulmonic stenosis involves the narrowing of the pulmonary valve, which would also produce a different type of murmur.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following positions is best to have the client in while aucultating for a S3 and S4 murmur, of mitral stenosis?

    • A.

      Supine

    • B.

      Left lateral

    • C.

      Sitting up and leaning forward

    Correct Answer
    B. Left lateral
    Explanation
    The left lateral position is the best position to have the client in while auscultating for a S3 and S4 murmur of mitral stenosis. This position allows for optimal placement of the stethoscope over the apex of the heart, where the mitral valve is located. It also helps to accentuate any abnormal heart sounds that may be present, such as the S3 and S4 murmurs associated with mitral stenosis. The supine position may not provide as clear of a sound, and sitting up and leaning forward may not allow for proper placement of the stethoscope.

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  • 12. 

    Murmur of aortic regurgitation sometimes may only be heard when the patient is in which of the following positions?

    • A.

      Supine

    • B.

      Left lateral

    • C.

      Sitting up leaning forward slightly

    Correct Answer
    C. Sitting up leaning forward slightly
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Sitting up leaning forward slightly" because this position helps to bring the heart closer to the chest wall, making it easier to hear the murmur of aortic regurgitation. In this position, the blood flow through the aortic valve is more turbulent, resulting in a louder and clearer murmur. The supine and left lateral positions may not provide the same level of proximity between the heart and chest wall, making it more difficult to detect the murmur.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following heart sounds is always abnormal in persons over ager 35?

    • A.

      Split S2

    • B.

      S3

    • C.

      S4

    Correct Answer
    B. S3
    Explanation
    S3 is always abnormal in persons over age 35 because it is associated with decreased ventricular compliance and impaired left ventricular function, which are commonly seen in conditions such as heart failure. This sound occurs during the rapid filling of the ventricles in early diastole and is caused by the sudden deceleration of blood flow. In healthy individuals, S3 is not usually heard, but its presence in persons over age 35 suggests underlying cardiac pathology and should be further evaluated.

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  • 14. 

    When the position of AV valve at the start of systole is wide open and has no time to drift together the S1 is accentuated, an example of this factor would be which of the following?

    • A.

      Exercise, fever, anemia

    • B.

      Hyperthyroidism

    • C.

      Mitral Stenosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Exercise, fever, anemia
    Explanation
    During exercise, fever, and anemia, the heart needs to pump more blood to meet the increased demand. This causes the AV valve to open wider and close more forcefully, leading to an accentuated S1 sound. Hyperthyroidism does not directly affect the pumping ability of the heart or the opening and closing of the AV valve, so it is not an example of this factor. Mitral stenosis, on the other hand, is a condition where the mitral valve is narrowed, restricting blood flow. This would not cause the AV valve to open wide and accentuate the S1 sound.

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  • 15. 

    An accentuated heart sound due to a change in the valve structure caused by calcification of the valve, that needs increasing ventricular pressure to close the valve against increased atrial pressure could be caused by which of the following?

    • A.

      Exercise

    • B.

      Mitral stenosis with leaflets still mobile

    • C.

      Severe hypertension

    Correct Answer
    B. Mitral stenosis with leaflets still mobile
    Explanation
    Mitral stenosis refers to the narrowing of the mitral valve, which separates the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart. This narrowing can be caused by calcification of the valve, resulting in a change in its structure. When the valve is affected by calcification, it becomes rigid and less mobile. However, in the given scenario, the question states that the leaflets of the mitral valve are still mobile. This means that there is still some flexibility in the valve despite the calcification. As a result, the valve requires increasing ventricular pressure to close against increased atrial pressure, leading to an accentuated heart sound. Therefore, the correct answer is Mitral stenosis with leaflets still mobile.

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  • 16. 

    A faint diminshed S1 caused by the Mitral valve driftting shut before ventricular contraction closes...is caused by the factor AV valve-delayed conductrion from atria to ventricle...which of the following is an example?

    • A.

      First degree heart block

    • B.

      Mitral Stenosis

    • C.

      Severe hypertension

    Correct Answer
    A. First degree heart block
    Explanation
    First degree heart block is an example of delayed conduction from the atria to the ventricle. In this condition, there is a delay in the electrical signal passing through the atrioventricular (AV) node, which results in a prolonged PR interval on an electrocardiogram (ECG). This delay can cause a faint and diminished S1 sound because the mitral valve drifts shut before ventricular contraction closes it completely. Mitral stenosis and severe hypertension do not directly affect the conduction system of the heart, so they are not examples of AV valve-delayed conduction.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following heart sounds would be expected with someone with mitral insufficiency?

    • A.

      Varying intensity of S1

    • B.

      Faint diminshed S1

    • C.

      Loud Accentuated S1

    Correct Answer
    B. Faint diminshed S1
    Explanation
    Mitral insufficiency, also known as mitral regurgitation, is a condition where the mitral valve does not close properly, causing blood to leak back into the left atrium. This can result in a faint and diminished S1 heart sound. S1 is the first heart sound produced by the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves. In mitral insufficiency, the weakened valve does not close tightly, leading to a softer and less prominent S1 sound. Therefore, a faint diminished S1 would be expected in someone with mitral insufficiency.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following heart sounds would be expected to be associated with someone with severe hypertension- systemic or pulmonary?

    • A.

      Accentuated S1

    • B.

      Faint S1

    • C.

      Split S1

    Correct Answer
    B. Faint S1
    Explanation
    Someone with severe hypertension is likely to have increased blood pressure in the systemic circulation. This can lead to increased resistance in the blood vessels and reduced blood flow to the heart. As a result, the heart may not be able to generate a strong enough contraction during systole, leading to a faint S1 heart sound.

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  • 19. 

    A complete heart block with chaging PR interval could best be described as which of the following sounds?

    • A.

      Accentuated S1

    • B.

      Varying Intensity of S1

    • C.

      Split S1

    Correct Answer
    B. Varying Intensity of S1
    Explanation
    A complete heart block with changing PR interval refers to a condition where the electrical signals between the atria and ventricles of the heart are completely blocked, resulting in a delay or absence of ventricular contractions. This can cause a variation in the intensity of the first heart sound (S1) as the timing of the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves may be affected. Therefore, the best description for this condition would be "Varying Intensity of S1".

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following heart sounds is normal but uncommon and are the mitral and triscuspid components being heard separately?

    • A.

      Accentuated S1

    • B.

      Varying Intensity of S1

    • C.

      Split S1

    Correct Answer
    C. Split S1
    Explanation
    Split S1 is a normal but uncommon heart sound where the mitral and tricuspid components are heard separately. This occurs due to a slight delay in the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves, causing them to close at slightly different times. This can be heard as two distinct sounds, with the mitral component preceding the tricuspid component. Split S1 can be heard in conditions such as right bundle branch block or conditions that delay the closure of the tricuspid valve.

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  • 21. 

    A patient with systemic hypertension, could possibly have which of the following heart sounds?

    • A.

      Accentuated S1

    • B.

      Accentuated S2

    • C.

      Diminished S2

    Correct Answer
    B. Accentuated S2
    Explanation
    In a patient with systemic hypertension, the correct answer is accentuated S2. Systemic hypertension can cause increased resistance in the arteries, leading to increased pressure in the left ventricle. This increased pressure can result in a forceful closure of the aortic valve during ventricular systole, causing an accentuated S2 heart sound.

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  • 22. 

    A patient in shock comes to the hospital, which of the following heart sounds would be expected with his condition?

    • A.

      Diminished S2

    • B.

      Accentuated S2

    • C.

      Diminished S1

    Correct Answer
    A. Diminished S2
    Explanation
    In a patient in shock, the heart's ability to pump blood efficiently is compromised, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygenation. This can result in diminished heart sounds, particularly S2. S2 is the second heart sound, which occurs when the semilunar valves close at the end of systole. In shock, the decreased blood volume and cardiac output can cause the closure of these valves to be less forceful, resulting in a softer S2 sound. Therefore, a diminished S2 would be expected in a patient in shock.

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  • 23. 

    Semilunar valves that have thickened and calcified have decreased mobility like those of aortic and pulmonic stenosis, which of the following heart sounds are associated with this factor?

    • A.

      Accentuated S2

    • B.

      Varying S1

    • C.

      Diminished S2

    Correct Answer
    C. Diminished S2
    Explanation
    When semilunar valves thicken and calcify, they lose their flexibility and ability to fully close. This results in a decreased mobility of the valves, causing blood to leak back into the heart during diastole. As a result, the closure of the semilunar valves during systole becomes less audible, leading to a diminished S2 heart sound.

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  • 24. 

    An atrial septal defect may be accompanied by a split always present, that is known as what type?

    • A.

      Fixed split

    • B.

      Paradoxical split

    • C.

      Wide split

    Correct Answer
    A. Fixed split
    Explanation
    An atrial septal defect refers to a hole in the wall that separates the two upper chambers of the heart. In some cases, this defect is accompanied by a split in the second heart sound, which is always present. This split is known as a fixed split.

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  • 25. 

    In which of the following splits, is P2 heard before A2, eg of cases would be aortic stenosis, left bundle branch block, and patent ductus arteriosus...

    • A.

      Fixed split

    • B.

      Paradoxical split

    • C.

      Wide split

    Correct Answer
    B. Paradoxical split
    Explanation
    A paradoxical split refers to a delay in the closure of the aortic valve compared to the closure of the pulmonary valve during the cardiac cycle. This delay causes the second heart sound (A2) to be heard before the pulmonary valve sound (P2). This phenomenon can occur in conditions such as aortic stenosis, left bundle branch block, and patent ductus arteriosus. Therefore, in these cases, P2 is heard before A2, leading to a paradoxical split.

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  • 26. 

    A right bundle branch block delays P2, delaying the electrical activation and causing a split that is very wide on inspiration and still present on expiration, which of the following splits is described?

    • A.

      Fixed split

    • B.

      Paradoxical Split

    • C.

      Wide split

    Correct Answer
    C. Wide split
    Explanation
    A right bundle branch block delays the electrical activation in the heart, causing a split in the electrical signals. This split is very wide on inspiration and still present on expiration. Therefore, the described split is a wide split.

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  • 27. 

    While auscultating the chest you hear a short and high pitched sound, best heard with the diaphragm, at the second right inter space and apex, intensisty does not change with respiration.  Which of the following is the sound

    • A.

      Aortic ejection click

    • B.

      Pulmonic Ejection click

    • C.

      Midsystolic click

    Correct Answer
    A. Aortic ejection click
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Aortic ejection click. An aortic ejection click is a short and high pitched sound that is best heard with the diaphragm of the stethoscope. It is typically heard at the second right intercostal space and apex of the heart. The intensity of the sound does not change with respiration.

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  • 28. 

    While auscultating the chest you hear a short and high pitched sound, best heard with the diaphragm, at the second left interspace and it grows softer with inspiration, you suspect which of the following?

    • A.

      Aortic Ejection Click

    • B.

      Pulmonic Ejection Click

    • C.

      Midsystolic Click

    Correct Answer
    B. Pulmonic Ejection Click
    Explanation
    A pulmonic ejection click is a short and high pitched sound heard best with the diaphragm at the second left interspace. It is associated with the opening of the pulmonic valve during systole. The sound grows softer with inspiration due to increased venous return to the right side of the heart, which decreases the pressure gradient across the pulmonic valve. This characteristic differentiates it from an aortic ejection click, which is heard best at the second right interspace and does not change with inspiration. A midsystolic click is not associated with the pulmonic valve and does not have the same characteristics as a pulmonic ejection click.

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  • 29. 

    While auscultating the chest you hear a short and high pitched sound, best heard with the diaphragm, at the apex and also the left lower sternal border, the click is followed by sa systolic murmur and is associated with a mitral valve prolapse, which of the the following may be suspected?

    • A.

      Aortic Ejection Click

    • B.

      Pulmonic Ejection Click

    • C.

      Midsystolic Click

    Correct Answer
    C. Midsystolic Click
    Explanation
    A midsystolic click may be suspected in this case. The presence of a short and high pitched sound, best heard with the diaphragm, at the apex and left lower sternal border suggests a mitral valve prolapse. This click is typically followed by a systolic murmur. Aortic Ejection Click and Pulmonic Ejection Click are not associated with mitral valve prolapse and would have different characteristics.

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  • 30. 

    In the presence of stenosis, increasingly higher atrial pressure is required to open the AV. The valve opens with a noise, which of the following diastolic extra sounds is present?

    • A.

      Opening snap

    • B.

      Pericardial Friction Rub

    • C.

      Ventricular Gallup

    Correct Answer
    A. Opening snap
    Explanation
    In the presence of stenosis, the atrial pressure needs to be higher in order to open the AV valve. This increased pressure causes the valve to open with a noise, which is known as an opening snap.

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  • 31. 

    A dull soft sound, often compared to "distant thunder" is heard best at the apec with the bell held lightly and the person in the left lateral position, which of the following sounds is described?

    • A.

      Pericardial friction rub

    • B.

      S3

    • C.

      S4

    Correct Answer
    B. S3
    Explanation
    The given answer, S3, is the correct description for the sound being described. An S3 sound is a dull, low-pitched sound that is often compared to distant thunder. It is best heard at the apex of the heart with the bell held lightly and the person in the left lateral position. This sound is caused by the rapid filling of the ventricles during early diastole and is commonly associated with heart failure.

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  • 32. 

    A young adult present at the doctor with a low pitched "distant thunder" sound heard at the apex when in the left lateral position that disappears when she sits up...what may be suspected?

    • A.

      Physiologic S3

    • B.

      Panthologic S3

    • C.

      Physiologic S4

    Correct Answer
    A. Physiologic S3
    Explanation
    In this scenario, the young adult is experiencing a low pitched "distant thunder" sound at the apex of the heart when in the left lateral position. This sound disappears when she sits up. This is indicative of a Physiologic S3. The S3 heart sound is a normal finding in young individuals and is associated with the rapid filling of the ventricles during diastole. It is often described as a low-pitched sound resembling the sound of distant thunder. The fact that the sound disappears when the patient sits up suggests that it is a normal physiological finding rather than a pathological one.

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  • 33. 

    An S3 best heard at the apex in the left lateral position that does not disappear when the patient sits up is suspicion of what?

    • A.

      Physiologic S3

    • B.

      Pathologic S3

    • C.

      Atrial gallop

    Correct Answer
    B. Pathologic S3
    Explanation
    An S3 best heard at the apex in the left lateral position that does not disappear when the patient sits up is indicative of a pathologic S3. This abnormal heart sound is typically caused by decreased ventricular compliance, which can be seen in conditions such as heart failure or myocardial infarction. Unlike a physiologic S3, which is a normal finding in children and young adults, a pathologic S3 is usually associated with underlying cardiac pathology and requires further evaluation and management.

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  • 34. 

    When the atria contract late is diastole , a very soft. low pitched sound may be heard immediately before S1,  heard best at the apex with the person in left lateral position could be which of the following extra heart sounds?

    • A.

      Ventricular gallop

    • B.

      Physiologic S4

    • C.

      Physiologic S3

    Correct Answer
    B. Physiologic S4
    Explanation
    Physiologic S4 is the correct answer because it is a low-pitched sound that occurs when the atria contract late in diastole. It is heard best at the apex of the heart and is associated with a person in the left lateral position. This extra heart sound is often referred to as an atrial gallop and is caused by the atria contracting forcefully against a stiff ventricle. It is commonly heard in older adults and athletes.

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  • 35. 

    When both S3 and S4 are present, a quadruple rhythm is heard best during times of cardiac distress, which of the following terms is described?

    • A.

      Atrial gallop

    • B.

      Ventricular gallop

    • C.

      Summation

    Correct Answer
    C. Summation
    Explanation
    When both S3 and S4 are present, a quadruple rhythm is heard best during times of cardiac distress. This suggests that the answer is "Summation." Summation refers to the phenomenon where the sounds of S3 and S4 are combined, creating a quadruple rhythm. This is typically heard when there is increased blood volume or pressure in the heart, indicating cardiac distress. Atrial gallop and ventricular gallop are not relevant in this context and do not explain the quadruple rhythm.

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  • 36. 

    A high pitched, sound describes best as sandpaper being rubbed best describes which of the following extracardiac sounds?

    • A.

      Pericardial rub

    • B.

      Thrill

    • C.

      Lift

    Correct Answer
    A. Pericardial rub
    Explanation
    A pericardial rub is a high-pitched sound that occurs when the inflamed pericardial layers rub against each other during the cardiac cycle. The sound is often described as similar to sandpaper being rubbed together. This sound is distinct from a thrill, which is a vibrating sensation felt on palpation, and a lift, which is an abnormal pulsation or heaving of the chest wall.

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  • 37. 

    A thrill in the second and third right interspaces occurs with which of the following?

    • A.

      Aortic stenosis and systemic hypertension

    • B.

      Pulmonic stenosis and pulmonic hypertension

    • C.

      Mitral regurgitation

    Correct Answer
    A. Aortic stenosis and systemic hypertension
    Explanation
    A thrill in the second and third right interspaces occurs with aortic stenosis and systemic hypertension. A thrill refers to a palpable vibration or buzzing sensation felt over the chest wall. Aortic stenosis is a narrowing of the aortic valve, causing obstruction of blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. Systemic hypertension refers to high blood pressure throughout the body. Both conditions can lead to increased turbulence and vibration in the heart, resulting in a palpable thrill in the second and third right interspaces.

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  • 38. 

    A thrill in the second and third left interspaces occurs with which of the following?

    • A.

      Aortic stenosis and systemic hypertension

    • B.

      Pulmonic stenosis and pulmonic hypertension

    • C.

      Mitral regurgitation

    Correct Answer
    B. Pulmonic stenosis and pulmonic hypertension
    Explanation
    A thrill in the second and third left interspaces occurs with pulmonic stenosis and pulmonic hypertension. A thrill refers to a palpable vibration or buzzing sensation that can be felt over the skin. It is caused by turbulent blood flow due to a narrowed pulmonary valve (pulmonic stenosis) or increased pressure in the pulmonary artery (pulmonic hypertension). This turbulent flow creates a palpable sensation that can be felt as a thrill.

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  • 39. 

    A patient presents to the doctor with fatigue, DOE, palpitation, dizziness, fainting and anginal pain.  You notice he is pale, and his radial pulse is slow and diminished, BP is low, and an auscultatory gap is present.  The apical impulse is sustained and displaced to the left. A thrill in systole over second and third right interspaces is present.  S 1 is normal and you often hear an ejection click.  Split S2 and S4 is also present.  Murmur is present as well, loud, harsh, midsystolic, crescendo-descrescendo. loudest at second right interspace, and radiates widely to side of neck. Which of the following conditions correlates with these findings?

    • A.

      Aortic Stenosis

    • B.

      Pulmonic Stenosis

    • C.

      Mitral Stenosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Aortic Stenosis
    Explanation
    The patient's symptoms and physical examination findings are consistent with a diagnosis of Aortic Stenosis. Aortic stenosis is characterized by narrowing of the aortic valve, leading to reduced blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. The slow and diminished radial pulse, low blood pressure, and auscultatory gap suggest reduced cardiac output. The sustained and displaced apical impulse indicates left ventricular hypertrophy. The thrill in systole over the second and third right interspaces is a characteristic finding in aortic stenosis. The loud, harsh, midsystolic murmur, along with the ejection click and radiation to the neck, further support the diagnosis.

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  • 40. 

    A patient presents to the doctor with fatigue, DOE, palpitation, dizziness fainting, and anginal pain.  Upon assessment you find a thrill is systole at the second and third left interspace, and ejection click often present after S1, a diminished S2, with a wide split, and an S$.  A murmur is present that is systolic, medium pitched, coarse, crescendo, decrescendo (diamond shaped), best heard at second left interspace, that radiates to the left and neck.  Which of the following conditions is consistent with your findings?

    • A.

      Aortic stenosis

    • B.

      Pulmonic Stenosis

    • C.

      Mitral stenosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Pulmonic Stenosis
    Explanation
    The patient's symptoms and physical findings are consistent with pulmonic stenosis. The thrill in systole at the second and third left interspace, along with the ejection click after S1 and the wide split S2, suggest a problem with the pulmonic valve. The presence of a systolic murmur that is medium pitched, coarse, crescendo-decrescendo, and radiates to the left and neck further supports the diagnosis of pulmonic stenosis. Aortic stenosis and mitral stenosis would present with different physical findings and symptoms.

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  • 41. 

    A patient presents at the doctor with fatigue, palpitiation, orthopnea. PND.  You assess and find a thrill in systole at that apex. A lift at the apex, and the apical impulse is displaced down and to the left..  S1 is diminished, S2 is accentuated, S3 at apex is present.  There is a murmur present that is pansystolic, loud, blowing, and best heard at the apex, it radiates well to the axilla.  Which of the following is suspected?

    • A.

      Mitral Regurgitation

    • B.

      Tricuspid Regurgitation

    • C.

      Tricuspid stenosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Mitral Regurgitation
    Explanation
    The patient's presentation is consistent with mitral regurgitation. The presence of fatigue, palpitation, and orthopnea suggests a cardiovascular issue. The physical assessment findings of a thrill in systole at the apex, a displaced apical impulse, and a murmur that is pansystolic, loud, blowing, and best heard at the apex, all point towards mitral regurgitation. The accentuated S2 and presence of S3 at the apex further support this diagnosis. The other options, tricuspid regurgitation and tricuspid stenosis, do not align with the given clinical findings.

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  • 42. 

    A patient presents at the doctor with fatigue, palpitiation, orthopnea. PND.  You observe the neck veins pulsating and engorged.  the liver is enlarged.  There is a lift at the sternum and thrill present at left lower sternal border.  A murmur is present that is soft, blowing, pansystolic, best heard at the left lower sternal border, and it increases with inspiration.  Which of the following conditions is suspected?

    • A.

      Mitral Regurgitation

    • B.

      Tricuspid regurgitation

    • C.

      Tricuspid stenosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Tricuspid regurgitation
    Explanation
    Based on the symptoms and physical findings described, the suspected condition is Tricuspid regurgitation. Tricuspid regurgitation is characterized by the backflow of blood from the right ventricle into the right atrium due to the incomplete closure of the tricuspid valve. The symptoms of fatigue, palpitation, and orthopnea are consistent with right heart failure, which can occur in tricuspid regurgitation. The engorged neck veins, enlarged liver, lift at the sternum, and thrill at the left lower sternal border indicate increased pressure in the right atrium and right ventricle. The presence of a soft, blowing, pansystolic murmur, best heard at the left lower sternal border and increasing with inspiration, is also suggestive of tricuspid regurgitation.

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  • 43. 

    Patient comes to the doctor complaining of fatigue, palpitations, DOE, orthopnea, occasional PND or pulmonary edema. You observe diminished, oftern irregular arterial pulse.  and lift at the apex, diastolic thrill at the apex.  S1 is accentuated; opining sap after S2 is present, followed by a murmur that is low pitched diastolic rumble, best heard at the apex, with the patient in the left lateral position.  Which of the following conditions is consistent with the findings?

    • A.

      Mitral Stenosis

    • B.

      Tricuspid Stenosis

    • C.

      Pulmonic Stenosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Mitral Stenosis
    Explanation
    The patient's symptoms of fatigue, palpitations, DOE, orthopnea, and occasional PND or pulmonary edema, along with the findings of a diminished and irregular arterial pulse, lift at the apex, diastolic thrill at the apex, and an accentuated S1 followed by a low pitched diastolic rumble murmur heard at the apex in the left lateral position, are consistent with the diagnosis of Mitral Stenosis. This condition is characterized by the narrowing of the mitral valve, leading to impaired blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle, causing symptoms and findings described above.

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  • 44. 

    Patient comes to the doctor complaining of fatigue, palpitations, DOE, orthopnea, occasional PND or pulmonary edema.  You observe diminished arterial pulse, jugular venous pulse prominent.  A murmur is present that is best described as a diastolic rumbe. best heard at left lower sternal border, and is louder in inspiration.  Which of the following conditions was described?

    • A.

      Mitral Stenosis

    • B.

      Tricuspid stenosis

    • C.

      Aortic stenosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Tricuspid stenosis
    Explanation
    The patient in this scenario is presenting with symptoms such as fatigue, palpitations, dyspnea on exertion, orthopnea, and occasional pulmonary edema. Upon examination, the doctor observes a diminished arterial pulse and prominent jugular venous pulse. The presence of a diastolic rumble murmur that is best heard at the left lower sternal border and louder in inspiration indicates tricuspid stenosis. Mitral stenosis and aortic stenosis would present with different symptoms and characteristic murmurs, making them incorrect options.

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  • 45. 

    DOE, PND, angina, and dizziness, are all symptoms of a newly admitted patient at the hospital.  Upon assessment your observe bounding, "water hammer" pulse in carotid, brachial, and femoral arteries.  The BP has wide pulse pressure.  Pulsations in cervical and suprasternal area, apical impulse is displaced to the left and down, Apical impulse feels brief. A murmur is present that starts almost simultaneously with S 2 that is soft high pitched, blowing diastolic, decrescendo, best heard at the thid left interspace at the base. As the patient sits up and leans forward is radiates down.  Which of the following conditions os described.  

    • A.

      Aortic regurgitation

    • B.

      M

    Correct Answer
    A. Aortic regurgitation
    Explanation
    The patient's symptoms, such as angina, dizziness, and bounding pulse, along with the physical examination findings, including a displaced apical impulse and a soft blowing diastolic murmur, suggest a diagnosis of aortic regurgitation. Aortic regurgitation is a condition where the aortic valve does not close properly, causing blood to flow back into the left ventricle during diastole. This leads to an increased volume of blood in the left ventricle, causing the bounding pulse and wide pulse pressure. The displaced apical impulse and radiating murmur are consistent with aortic regurgitation.

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  • 46. 

    DOE, PND, angina, and dizziness, are all symptoms of a newly admitted patient at the hospital.  A murmur is present with the same timing and characteristics of an aortic regurgitation.  Which of the following conditions may be suspected?

    • A.

      Aortic regurgitation

    • B.

      Pulmonic regurgitation

    • C.

      M

    Correct Answer
    B. Pulmonic regurgitation
    Explanation
    Based on the given information, the patient is experiencing symptoms such as DOE (dyspnea on exertion), PND (paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea), angina, and dizziness. These symptoms, along with the presence of a murmur with the same timing and characteristics of an aortic regurgitation, suggest that aortic regurgitation may be suspected. However, the correct answer is pulmonic regurgitation, which may seem counterintuitive. This could be because pulmonic regurgitation can cause similar symptoms and a murmur that mimics aortic regurgitation. Therefore, it is important to consider pulmonic regurgitation as a possible condition in this scenario.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 24, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Epeleti
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