1.
What is the purpose of an inferential statistical test?
Correct Answer
B. To check the probability of your results applying to the wider population
Explanation
The purpose of an inferential statistical test is to check the probability of your results applying to the wider population. This is done by analyzing a sample of data and making inferences or predictions about the larger population from which the sample was drawn. It helps to determine if the findings from the sample can be generalized to the entire population, providing a level of confidence in the results.
2.
True or false; inferential statistical tests only need to be carried out if the trend of your results goes the same way as your hypothesis.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
If, after collecting all your data, your findings didn't seem to support your original hypothesis, there would be no point trying to generalise it out to the wider population!
3.
A psychologist decides to test who is more likely to help a stranger in need; males or females. A confederate asks both male and female passers by for 50p for a parking metre, as he has accidentally dropped his change down the street drain. The researcher is observing to see who will help and records a tick for every male who helps, and a tck for every female who helps. At the end of the research, the total number of ticks in each category are added up for comparison. What kind of DATA has been collected?
Correct Answer
B. Nominal data
Explanation
The data is nominal as you have two discrete categories of results; male and female.
4.
A psychologist decides to test who is more likely to help a stranger in need; males or females. A confederate asks both male and female passers by for 50p for a parking metre, as he has accidentally dropped his change down the street drain. The researcher is observing to see who will help and records a tick for every male who helps, and a tck for every female who helps. At the end of the research, the total number of ticks in each category are added up for comparison.What kind of research DESIGN has been used?
Correct Answer
B. Independent groups
Explanation
You are comparing data from a group of males with data from a group of females.
5.
A psychologist decides to test who is more likely to help a stranger in need; males or females. A confederate asks both male and female passers by for 50p for a parking metre, as he has accidentally dropped his change down the street drain. The researcher is observing to see who will help and records a tick for every male who helps, and a tck for every female who helps. At the end of the research, the total number of ticks in each category are added up for comparison.Based on the information you have here, which is the most appropriate inferential statistical test to use?
Correct Answer
B. Chi-Squared
Explanation
The Chi-Squared test is used where the data is nominal, the design is independent groups and you are looking to see if there is a difference between the two groups.
6.
Which of the following are examples of ordinal data? Tick all answers that apply.
Correct Answer(s)
A. The number of friends that participants have on Facebook
C. The number of questions correctly answered in a test
D. The number of albums each person has on their I-Pod
Explanation
If you can put individual participant responses in order (85, 92,97 etc.) the data is ordinal; if you can put individual participant responses into discrete categories (Cornflakes, Rice Krispies etc.) the data is nominal.
7.
A psychology student is running an inferential statistical test on her data. What level of statistical significance should she accept?
Correct Answer
B. 5%
Explanation
In psychology, the general rule is that researchers will allow for a 5% (0.05) probability of their results being due to chance. 5% balances out the possibility of making what are called Type 1 and Type 2 errors.
8.
What is meant by p≤0.05?
Correct Answer
B. The probability of results occuring by chance is equal to or less that 0.05
Explanation
The statement p≤0.05 refers to the probability of results occurring by chance. In statistical analysis, p-value is used to determine the significance of the results. A p-value of 0.05 indicates that there is a 5% chance that the observed results are due to random chance. If the p-value is less than or equal to 0.05, it is considered statistically significant, suggesting that the results are unlikely to have occurred by chance alone. Therefore, the correct answer is that p≤0.05 means the probability of results occurring by chance is equal to or less than 0.05.
9.
What is meant by a Type 1 error?
Correct Answer
A. Rejecting a null hypothesis that is true
Explanation
Making a Type 1 error is more likely if a researcher has set their level of significance too high (e.g. 10%). In other words, they have allowed a 10% probability that their results are due to chance...a bit risky!
10.
Which type of inferential statistical test is suitable for correlational data?
Correct Answer
B. Spearmans Rho
Explanation
You just have to learn these I'm afraid!
11.
A psychology student has conducted a Mann Whitney test on his data. The results show that the observed value is less than the critical value. What should this student do?
Correct Answer
B. Reject the null hypothesis and accept the experimental hypothesis
Explanation
The Mann Whitney test is a non-parametric test used to compare two independent groups. In this case, the observed value being less than the critical value suggests that there is a significant difference between the two groups being compared. Therefore, the student should reject the null hypothesis, which states that there is no difference between the groups, and accept the experimental hypothesis, which suggests that there is a significant difference. This indicates that the student's data supports the idea that there is a meaningful relationship or effect between the variables being studied.
12.
Which of the following is a null hypothesis?
Correct Answer
C. There will be no difference between the length of time taken to complete tests online and tests completed on paper, and if there is it is due to chance.
Explanation
The correct answer is the null hypothesis because it states that there will be no difference between the length of time taken to complete tests online and tests completed on paper, and if there is any difference, it is due to chance. The null hypothesis is often used in statistical hypothesis testing to assume that there is no relationship or difference between variables, and any observed difference is simply due to random variation. In this case, it is being hypothesized that the mode of test completion (online or on paper) does not have a significant impact on the time taken to complete the test.
13.
What does a p-value in hypothesis testing indicate?
Correct Answer
A. The probability of obtaining the observed results by random chance
Explanation
A p-value represents the probability of obtaining the observed results if there is no real effect in the population. Smaller p-values suggest stronger evidence against the null hypothesis.
14.
Which inferential test is used to compare means of two independent groups?
Correct Answer
C. Independent t-test
Explanation
An independent t-test is used to compare means of two independent groups or samples.
15.
What is the null hypothesis typically denoted as in statistical tests?
Correct Answer
D. H0
Explanation
The null hypothesis is typically denoted as H0 in statistical tests, while alternative hypotheses may be denoted as H1 or something else, depending on the context.