Ease of radiation
Binary amplitude shift keying, frequency shift keying, and phase shift keying.
Pulse amplitude, pulse width, and pulse position.
Amplitude, frequency, and phase.
Analog, digital and shift keying
Modulating signal, upper sideband (USB), lower sideband (LSB)
Carrier, USB, and LSB
USB and modulating signal
Carrier and modulating signal
1.01 MHz, 1 MHz, and 0.99 MHz.
1.1 MHz, 1 MHz, and 0.9 MHz.
1.11 MHz, 1 MHz, 0.99 MHz
1.111 MHz, 1 MHz, .0999 MHz
Two times the modulating signal
The same as the modulating signal
Determined by the modulation index
Defined in terms of maximum amount of modulation
Percent of modulation
Overmodulating increases bandwidth due to the production of harmonics.
Undermodulating increases bandwidth due to the production of harmonics.
Overmodulating increases bandwidth due to the output's increased amplitude.
Undermodulating increases bandwidth due to the output's decreased amplitude.
More total power
A reduction in carrier power
No reduction in carrier power
A reduction in carrier and sideband power
Inversely proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal
Directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal
Inversely proportional to the phase of the modultaing signal
Directly proportional to the phase of the modulating signal
Sibebands (SB) containing at least 1% of the total transmitted power
SB containing at least 3% of the total transmitted power
SB containing at least 10 percent of the total transmitted power
SB containing at least 0.1% of the total transmitted power
Deviation divided by frequency of modulation.
Deviation time frequency of modulation.
Sideband divided by carrier frequency.
Sideband times carrier frequency.
Phase is shifted at the rate of the modulating signal.
Phase shifted with the phase of the modulating signal.
Amplitude is shifted at the rate of the modulating signal.
Amplitude is shifted with the phase of the modulating signal.
Smaller bit error rate.
Better signal-to-noise ratio.
Higher data rates within a given bandwidth.
Discrete amplitudes are assigned to the sampling pulses.
A binary code number is assigned to the sample.
The quantizer limits the amplitude of the pulses.
The analog signal is band-limited.
Pulse width modulation (PWM)
Pulse position modulation (PPM)
Pulse duration modulation (PDM)
Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)
Block of data.
A parity bit.
Synchronization (SYNC) bit.
Determines transmission rate
Determines whether transmission is in American Standard code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format
Determines whether transmission is synchronous or asynchronous
Checksum and cyclic redundancy check
Longitudinal redundancy check and checksum
Cyclic redundancy check and vertical redundancy check
Vertical redundancy check and longitudinal redundancy check
Block check character
Cyclic redundancy check
Vertical redundancy check
Error-correcting code (ECC)
Forward error control (FEC)
Redundant data transfer (RDT)
Automatic retransmit on request (ARQ)
In the oscillator.
In the primary buffers.
Terminates fiber optics cable
Converts electrical energy into optical energy
Extends the distance and to preserve signal integrity
Accepts optical signals and converts them into electrical signals
Emiconductor laser diodes (LD).
Integrated photodiode preamplifiers.