# Earth And Space Science: Midterm Exam

50 Questions  I  By Ddrummerboy76
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 1 An atom is a basic chemical building block of matter. Which particles determine the mass of an atom?
 A. Protons and neutrons
 B. Neutrons and electrons
 C. Protons and electrons
 D. Neither of the above
 2 Which particles refer to the atomic number for an element?
 A. Neutrons
 B. Protons
 C. Electrons
 D. Quarks
 3 How is density calculated?
 A. Area x Volume
 B. Volume divided by Mass
 C. Perimeter + Mass
 D. Mass divided by Volume
 4 What is the density of an object with a volume of 15 cm (cubed) and a mass of 45 g?
 A. 0.33 g/cm
 B. 3 g/cm
 C. 60 g/cm
 D. 675 g/cm
 5 What is the density of an object with a volume of 30 cm and a mass of 60 g?
 A. 2 g/cm
 B. 30 g/cm
 C. 10 g/cm
 D. 9 g/cm
 6 What is the density of an object with a volume of 30 cm and a mass of 25 g?
 A. .45 g/cm
 B. 1.2 g/cm
 C. .83 g/cm
 D. .60 g/cm
 7 If all three of these objects were placed in water (the density of water is 1.0 g/cm), where would the be placed?
 A. 3 g/cm would sink, 2 g/cm would sink, 0.83 g/cm would sink
 B. 3 g/cm would float, 2 g/cm would float, 0.83 g/cm would float
 C. 3 g/cm would sink, 2 g/cm would sink, 0.83 g/cm would float
 D. 3 g/cm would float, 2 g/cm would sink, 0.83 g/cm would sink
 8 Which layer of the earth is the thicest, is mainly composed of iron and nickel, and measures a temperature of 5.900 degrees celsius?
 A. Mantle
 B. Crust
 C. Outer Core
 D. Inner Core
 9 What layer of the earth is the asthenosphere located?
 A. Inner Core
 B. Outer Core
 C. Mantle
 D. Crust
 10 A natural ocurring, inorganic crystalline solid with a narrowly defined chemical composition and physical properties.
 A. Mineral
 B. Color
 C. Luster
 D. Streak
 11 Why is color NOT a very a good method to use while identifying minerals?
 A. The color of a mineral can be changed and altered due to impurities
 B. Every mineral has a thin gray coating
 C. Most minerals tend to be the same color
 D. In some cases, the streak of a mineral is different from its color
 12 What is the crystal structure of a mineral?
 A. The atoms in a mineral are arranged in a consistent geometric pattern
 B. The color of a mineral in powdered form
 C. The way a mineral reflects light
 D. The physical color of a mineral
 13 Examples of luster include
 A. Metallic
 B. Non-metallic
 C. Pearly
 D. All of the above
 14 The measure of the ability of a mineral to resist scratching
 A. Cleavage/Fracture
 B. Acidity
 C. Hardness
 D. Magnetism
 15 In geology, the tendency of a mineral to split along specific, smooth planes
 A. Cleavage
 B. Fracture
 C. Both A and B
 D. Neither A or B
 16 Acidity (referring to minerals) can be best defined as
 A. The tendency of a mineral to split along specific planes
 B. The ability to attract small particles of minerals that contain iron
 C. The measure of the ability of a mineral to resist scratching
 D. The ability to break down as a result of chemical reactions
 17 Which of the following is NOT one of the main types of nonsilicate minerals?
 A. Carbonates
 B. Feldspars
 C. Oxides
 D. Sulfates
 18 Which minerals are silicates that contain higher levels of iron and/or magnesium and are dark colored?
 A. Halides
 B. Ferromagnesium minerals
 C. Feldspars
 D. Sulfides
 19 Igneous rock forms when magma, or molten rock, cools and hardens.
 A. True
 B. False
 20 Sedimentary rock forms when rock is eroded and decomposes into sediment.
 A. True
 B. False
 21 Metamorphic rock forms when rock is changed by certain forces, which include intense heat and pressure.
 A. True
 B. False
 22 How does the cooling rate of an igneous rock affect its' texture?
 A. Cools rapidly, larger crystals. Cools slowly, smaller crystals.
 B. Cools slowly, larger crystals. Cools rapidly, smaller crystals.
 C. Both A and B
 D. Neither A or B
 23 The texture of a foliated metamorphic rock is arranged in:
 A. Parallel planes or bands
 B. Perpendicular planes or bands
 C. Parallel spheres or circles
 D. Alternating colorful bands
 24 An example of a silicate mineral is
 A. Gypsum : CaSO4 x 2Hz0
 B. Plagioclase : SiOCa
 C. Galena : PbS
 D. Halite : NaCI
 25 The natural process by which atmospheric and environmental agents, such as wind, rain, and temperature changes, disintegrate and decompose solids.
 A. Weathering
 B. Metamorphism
 C. Oxidation
 D. Uniformitarianism
 26 The process by which rocs break down into smaller pieces by physical means.
 A. Metamorphism
 B. Sedimentarianism
 C. Chemical Weathering
 D. Physical Weathering
 27 Which is an example of chemical weathering?
 A. Ice wedging
 B. Oxidation
 C. Plant growth
 28 Metamorphism can be best defined as
 A. The process in which one type of rock changes into metamorphic rock because of chemical processes or changes in temperature and pressure
 B. A change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to contact with magma
 C. The theory that the continents formed one single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations
 29 Contact metamorphism is the law that a sedimentary rock layer is older than the layers above it and younger than the layers below it if the layers remain undisturbed.
 A. True
 B. False
 30 Regional metamorphism is a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to change in the temperature.
 A. True
 B. False
 31 What type of metamorphism is described in this example? Marble is created from limestone that has been subjected to heat from an igneous intrusion.
 A. Regional Metamorphism
 B. Oxidation
 C. Contact Metamorphism
 D. Chemical Metamorphism
 32 What are factors that increase the rate of weathering?
 A. Composition of rock
 B. Climate
 C. Topography
 D. All of the above
 33 Sedimentary rocks form from sediment. Explain how sediments are deposited along the bottom of an ocean floor according to size.
 34 What are the two types of Earth's crust?
 A. Oceanic crust
 B. Continental crust
 C. Both A and B
 D. Neither A or B
 35 All of these are characteristics that describe oceanic crust except WHICH ONE?
 A. Is very dense
 B. 5-10 kilometers thick
 C. Made up of rock that is rich in silica
 D. Is the crust that makes up the continents
 36 What is a fossil?
 A. The trace or remains of an organism that lived long ago, most commonly preserved in sedimentary rock
 B. A break in the geologic record created when rock layers are eroded or when sediment is not deposited for a long time
 C. A type of igneous intrusion
 D. The solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere
 37 What type of rock are fossils typically found in?
 A. Igneous rock
 B. Sedimentary rock
 C. Metamorphic rock
 D. All of the above
 38 What are the two methods for identifying the age of rocks?
 A. Relative dating and absolute dating
 B. Oceanic dating and continental dating
 C. Physical dating and chemical dating
 D. Radiometric dating and carbon dating
 39 There are several laws listed below. Choose the ones that are used in identifying the age of rocks.
 A. Law of Superposition
 B. Law of Horizontality
 C. Law of Cross-Cutting Relationships
 D. Law of Baked Contact (contact metamorphism)
 E. Uniformitarianism
 F. Law of Relativity
 40 What is an unconformity?
 A. A break in the geologic record created when rock layers are eroded or when sediment is not deposited for a long time
 B. The trace or remains of an organism that lived long ago, most commonly preserved in sedimentary rock
 C. A occurrence at a convergent boundary; two oceanic plates collide and crumple
 D. A goth kid from the infamous television show, "South Park".
 41 What are the three types of unconformities?
 A. Nonconformitiies
 B. Angular unconformities
 C. Disconformities
 D. All of the above
 42 Compare the age of continental rocks to those along the mid-ocean ridges. If needed, refer to the picture on page 5.
 43 What principle tells us that a fault or igneous intrusion is younger than the rock layers they cut through?
 A. Superposition
 B. Absolute dating
 C. Cross-cutting relationships
 44 A dike is a kind of
 A. Cross-cutting relation
 B. Bridge
 C. Intrusion
 D. Granite
 45 A half-life is the time it takes for a quarter of the atoms in a radioactive sample to decay.
 A. True
 B. False
 46 What is continental drift?
 A. The theory that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations
 B. The law that a sedimentary rock layer is older than the layers above it and younger than the layers below it if the layers are undisturbed
 C. The law that states that sedimentary rock left undisturbed will remain in horizontal layers.
 D. The principle that a fault or body of rock is younger than any other body of rock it cuts through
 47 Which of the following supported the theory of continental drift?
 A. Matching fossil plant remains on two different continents
 B. Matching animal remains on tow different continents
 C. Identical sedimentary rocks of the same age at widely separated locations
 D. All of the above
 48 There is also evidence that the continents are moving apart from one another due to magma rising out of the mid-ocean ridges. What do scientists call this form of evidence?
 A. Plate tectonics