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Earth And Space Science: Midterm Exam

50 Questions
Midterm Quizzes & Trivia

Please read carefully and answer all questions in the test booklet. Continue answering questions until you have answered all questions in the test booklet. Mark all answers in a seperate scantron for them to be scored. Good luck, and take your time.

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    An atom is a basic chemical building block of matter. Which particles determine the mass of an atom?
    • A. 

      Protons and neutrons

    • B. 

      Neutrons and electrons

    • C. 

      Protons and electrons

    • D. 

      Neither of the above

  • 2. 
    Which particles refer to the atomic number for an element?
    • A. 

      Neutrons

    • B. 

      Protons

    • C. 

      Electrons

    • D. 

      Quarks

  • 3. 
    How is density calculated?
    • A. 

      Area x Volume

    • B. 

      Volume divided by Mass

    • C. 

      Perimeter + Mass

    • D. 

      Mass divided by Volume

  • 4. 
    What is the density of an object with a volume of 15 cm (cubed) and a mass of 45 g?
    • A. 

      0.33 g/cm

    • B. 

      3 g/cm

    • C. 

      60 g/cm

    • D. 

      675 g/cm

  • 5. 
    What is the density of an object with a volume of 30 cm and a mass of 60 g?
    • A. 

      2 g/cm

    • B. 

      30 g/cm

    • C. 

      10 g/cm

    • D. 

      9 g/cm

  • 6. 
    What is the density of an object with a volume of 30 cm and a mass of 25 g?
    • A. 

      .45 g/cm

    • B. 

      1.2 g/cm

    • C. 

      .83 g/cm

    • D. 

      .60 g/cm

  • 7. 
    If all three of these objects were placed in water (the density of water is 1.0 g/cm), where would the be placed?
    • A. 

      3 g/cm would sink, 2 g/cm would sink, 0.83 g/cm would sink

    • B. 

      3 g/cm would float, 2 g/cm would float, 0.83 g/cm would float

    • C. 

      3 g/cm would sink, 2 g/cm would sink, 0.83 g/cm would float

    • D. 

      3 g/cm would float, 2 g/cm would sink, 0.83 g/cm would sink

  • 8. 
    Which layer of the earth is the thicest, is mainly composed of iron and nickel, and measures a temperature of 5.900 degrees celsius?
    • A. 

      Mantle

    • B. 

      Crust

    • C. 

      Outer Core

    • D. 

      Inner Core

  • 9. 
    What layer of the earth is the asthenosphere located?
    • A. 

      Inner Core

    • B. 

      Outer Core

    • C. 

      Mantle

    • D. 

      Crust

  • 10. 
    A natural ocurring, inorganic crystalline solid with a narrowly defined chemical composition and physical properties.
    • A. 

      Mineral

    • B. 

      Color

    • C. 

      Luster

    • D. 

      Streak

  • 11. 
    Why is color NOT a very a good method to use while identifying minerals?
    • A. 

      Most minerals tend to be the same color

    • B. 

      In some cases, the streak of a mineral is different from its color

    • C. 

      The color of a mineral can be changed and altered due to impurities

    • D. 

      Every mineral has a thin gray coating

  • 12. 
    What is the crystal structure of a mineral?
    • A. 

      The atoms in a mineral are arranged in a consistent geometric pattern

    • B. 

      The color of a mineral in powdered form

    • C. 

      The way a mineral reflects light

    • D. 

      The physical color of a mineral

  • 13. 
    Examples of luster include
    • A. 

      Metallic

    • B. 

      Non-metallic

    • C. 

      Pearly

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 14. 
    The measure of the ability of a mineral to resist scratching
    • A. 

      Cleavage/Fracture

    • B. 

      Acidity

    • C. 

      Hardness

    • D. 

      Magnetism

  • 15. 
    In geology, the tendency of a mineral to split along specific, smooth planes
    • A. 

      Cleavage

    • B. 

      Fracture

    • C. 

      Both A and B

    • D. 

      Neither A or B

  • 16. 
    Acidity (referring to minerals) can be best defined as 
    • A. 

      The tendency of a mineral to split along specific planes

    • B. 

      The ability to attract small particles of minerals that contain iron

    • C. 

      The measure of the ability of a mineral to resist scratching

    • D. 

      The ability to break down as a result of chemical reactions

  • 17. 
    Which of the following is NOT one of the main types of nonsilicate minerals?
    • A. 

      Carbonates

    • B. 

      Feldspars

    • C. 

      Oxides

    • D. 

      Sulfates

  • 18. 
    Which minerals are silicates that contain higher levels of iron and/or magnesium and are dark colored?
    • A. 

      Halides

    • B. 

      Ferromagnesium minerals

    • C. 

      Feldspars

    • D. 

      Sulfides

  • 19. 
    Igneous rock forms when magma, or molten rock, cools and hardens.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    Sedimentary rock forms when rock is eroded and decomposes into sediment.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 21. 
    Metamorphic rock forms when rock is changed by certain forces, which include intense heat and pressure.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 22. 
    How does the cooling rate of an igneous rock affect its' texture? 
    • A. 

      Cools rapidly, larger crystals. Cools slowly, smaller crystals.

    • B. 

      Cools slowly, larger crystals. Cools rapidly, smaller crystals.

    • C. 

      Both A and B

    • D. 

      Neither A or B

  • 23. 
    • A. 

      Parallel planes or bands

    • B. 

      Perpendicular planes or bands

    • C. 

      Parallel spheres or circles

    • D. 

      Alternating colorful bands

  • 24. 
    An example of a silicate mineral is
    • A. 

      Gypsum : CaSO4 x 2Hz0

    • B. 

      Plagioclase : SiOCa

    • C. 

      Galena : PbS

    • D. 

      Halite : NaCI

  • 25. 
    The natural process by which atmospheric and environmental agents, such as wind, rain, and temperature changes, disintegrate and decompose solids.
    • A. 

      Weathering

    • B. 

      Metamorphism

    • C. 

      Oxidation

    • D. 

      Uniformitarianism

  • 26. 
    The process by which rocs break down into smaller pieces by physical means.
    • A. 

      Metamorphism

    • B. 

      Sedimentarianism

    • C. 

      Chemical Weathering

    • D. 

      Physical Weathering

  • 27. 
    Which is an example of chemical weathering?
    • A. 

      Ice wedging

    • B. 

      Oxidation

    • C. 

      Plant growth

  • 28. 
    Metamorphism can be best defined as 
    • A. 

      The process in which one type of rock changes into metamorphic rock because of chemical processes or changes in temperature and pressure

    • B. 

      A change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to contact with magma

    • C. 

      The theory that the continents formed one single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations

  • 29. 
    Contact metamorphism is the law that a sedimentary rock layer is older than the layers above it and younger than the layers below it if the layers remain undisturbed.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 30. 
    Regional metamorphism is a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to change in the temperature.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 31. 
    What type of metamorphism is described in this example? Marble is created from limestone that has been subjected to heat from an igneous intrusion.
    • A. 

      Regional Metamorphism

    • B. 

      Oxidation

    • C. 

      Contact Metamorphism

    • D. 

      Chemical Metamorphism

  • 32. 
    What are factors that increase the rate of weathering?
    • A. 

      Composition of rock

    • B. 

      Climate

    • C. 

      Topography

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 33. 
  • 34. 
    What are the two types of Earth's crust?
    • A. 

      Oceanic crust

    • B. 

      Continental crust

    • C. 

      Both A and B

    • D. 

      Neither A or B

  • 35. 
    • A. 

      Is very dense

    • B. 

      5-10 kilometers thick

    • C. 

      Made up of rock that is rich in silica

    • D. 

      Is the crust that makes up the continents

  • 36. 
    What is a fossil?
    • A. 

      The trace or remains of an organism that lived long ago, most commonly preserved in sedimentary rock

    • B. 

      A break in the geologic record created when rock layers are eroded or when sediment is not deposited for a long time

    • C. 

      A type of igneous intrusion

    • D. 

      The solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere

  • 37. 
    What type of rock are fossils typically found in?
    • A. 

      Igneous rock

    • B. 

      Sedimentary rock

    • C. 

      Metamorphic rock

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 38. 
    What are the two methods for identifying the age of rocks?
    • A. 

      Relative dating and absolute dating

    • B. 

      Oceanic dating and continental dating

    • C. 

      Physical dating and chemical dating

    • D. 

      Radiometric dating and carbon dating

  • 39. 
    There are several laws listed below. Choose the ones that are used in identifying the age of rocks.
    • A. 

      Law of Superposition

    • B. 

      Law of Horizontality

    • C. 

      Law of Cross-Cutting Relationships

    • D. 

      Law of Baked Contact (contact metamorphism)

    • E. 

      Uniformitarianism

    • F. 

      Law of Relativity

  • 40. 
    What is an unconformity?
    • A. 

      A break in the geologic record created when rock layers are eroded or when sediment is not deposited for a long time

    • B. 

      The trace or remains of an organism that lived long ago, most commonly preserved in sedimentary rock

    • C. 

      A occurrence at a convergent boundary; two oceanic plates collide and crumple

    • D. 

      A goth kid from the infamous television show, "South Park".

  • 41. 
    What are the three types of unconformities?
    • A. 

      Nonconformitiies

    • B. 

      Angular unconformities

    • C. 

      Disconformities

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 42. 
    Compare the age of continental rocks to those along the mid-ocean ridges. If needed, refer to the picture on page 5.
  • 43. 
    What principle tells us that a fault or igneous intrusion is younger than the rock layers they cut through?
    • A. 

      Superposition

    • B. 

      Absolute dating

    • C. 

      Cross-cutting relationships

    • D. 

      Radioactive decay

  • 44. 
    A dike is a kind of 
    • A. 

      Cross-cutting relation

    • B. 

      Bridge

    • C. 

      Intrusion

    • D. 

      Granite

  • 45. 
    A half-life is the time it takes for a quarter of the atoms in a radioactive sample to decay.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 46. 
    What is continental drift?
    • A. 

      The theory that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations

    • B. 

      The law that a sedimentary rock layer is older than the layers above it and younger than the layers below it if the layers are undisturbed

    • C. 

      The law that states that sedimentary rock left undisturbed will remain in horizontal layers.

    • D. 

      The principle that a fault or body of rock is younger than any other body of rock it cuts through

  • 47. 
    Which of the following supported the theory of continental drift?
    • A. 

      Matching fossil plant remains on two different continents

    • B. 

      Matching animal remains on tow different continents

    • C. 

      Identical sedimentary rocks of the same age at widely separated locations

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 48. 
    There is also evidence that the continents are moving apart from one another due to magma rising out of the mid-ocean ridges. What do scientists call this form of evidence?
    • A. 

      Plate tectonics

    • B. 

      Sea-floor spreading

    • C. 

      Slab pull

    • D. 

      Ridge push

  • 49. 
    The three main types of lithospheric plates are
    • A. 

      Convergent boundaries

    • B. 

      Divergent boundaries

    • C. 

      Transform boundaries

    • D. 

      All of above

  • 50. 
    There are three major kinds of volcanoes. They are
    • A. 

      Stratovolcanoes/composite

    • B. 

      Cinder cone

    • C. 

      Shield

    • D. 

      All of the above