Organizational Behaviour Chapter 11

29 Questions  I  By Krista_500 on April 8, 2011

  

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1.  The belief that the parties will find a mutually beneficial solution to their disagreement.
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2.  When the objectives of one person or department seem to interfere with another person's or department objectives.
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3.  The more time people invest in negotiations, the stronger is their commitment to reaching an agreement. This increases the motivation to resolve the conflict, but is also fuels the escalation of commitment problems described. The more time put into negotiations, the stronger the tendency to make unwarranted concessions so that the negotiations do not fail. May be useful to the extent that they motivate the parties to complete negotiations. However, they are usually a liability in negotiations. One problem is that it in inhibits a problem-solving conflict management style because the parties have less time to exchange information or present flexible offers.
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4.  Relationship conflict is less likely to occur or escalate when team members have high levels of this. Employees are better able to regulate their emotions during debate which reduces the risk of escalating perceptions of interpersonal hostility. People are more likely to view a co-worker's emotional reaction as valuable information about that person's needs and expectations rather than as a personal attack.
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5.  Involves looking for a position in which your losses are offset by equally valued gains. Involves matching the other party's concessions, making conditional promises or threats, and actively searching for a middle ground between the interests of the two parties. Preferred when parties have equal power, there is time pressure to resolve the conflict, and parties lack trust/openness for problem solving. Not preferred when there is a sub-optimal solution where mutual gains are possible.
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6.  The distance between the parties and formality can influene their orientation toward each other and the disputed issues as well as the seating arrangement. People who sit face to face are more likely to develop a win-lose orientation toward the conflict situation. In contrast, some negotiation groups deliberately intersperse participants around the table to convey a win-win orientation. Others arrange the seating so that both parties face a white board, reflecting the notion that both parties face the same problem or issue.
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7.  Relationship conflict is suppressed when the conflict occurs within group members. The longer people work together, get to know each other, and develop mutual trust, the more latitude they give to each other to show emotions without being personally offended. Allows people to know about and anticipate the behaviours and emotions of his or her teammates. Produces a stronger social identity with the group, so team members are motivated to avoid escalating relationship conflict during otherwise emotionally turbulent discussions.
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8.  Conflict tends to increase with the level of interdependence. Higher interdependence increases the risk of conflict because there is a greater change that each side will disrupt or interfere with the other side's goals. Can be resolved by dividing the shared resources, combing jobs to form a pooled interdependence, and using buffers such as more inventory between people perform sequential tasks.
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9.  Differences among people, departments, and other entities regarding their training, values, beliefs, and experiences. Two or people or departments may agree on a common goal but have profound differences in how to achieve the goal. Includes intergenerational conflicts when younger and older employees have different needs. Can be minimized by reducing the differences that product the conflict in the first place and rotating staff across different departments.
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10.  It is easier to negotiate on your own turf because you are familiar with negotiating environment and are able to maintain comfortable routines. There is also need to cope with travel-related stress or depend on others for resources during your negotiation. Of course, you can't walk out of negotiations as easily when on your own turf. Phones, videoconverences, and other forms of information techology potentially avoid territorial issues, but skilled negotiators usually prefer the media richness of face-to-face meetings.
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11.  Seeking to understand before you are understood. Applies to effective negotiations. We should spend more time listening closely to the other party and asking for details. One way to improve this process is to have a team of people participate in negotiations. With more knowledge about the opponent's interests and needs, negotiators are better able to discover low-cost concessions or propsoals that will satisfy the other side.
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12.  Stereotypes are sufficiently subjective that emotions can negatively distort the meaning of an opponent's actions. Some people lack the necessary skills to communicate in a diplomatic, nonconfrontational manner. The perception of conflict reduces motivation to communicate. The more meaningful interaction we have with someone, the less we rely on stereotypes to understand that person. Communication and understanding interventions should be applied after differentiation between the two sides has been reduced. People in collectivist and high power distance cultures are less comfortable with the practice of resolving dfferences through direct and open communication. Can be minimized by establishing policies can procedures. Policies establish changes to the terms of interdependence.
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13.  A process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party. Was widely regarded as undesirable and counterproductive. This view says that low levels of disagreement tatter the fabric of the workplace relations and sap energy away from productive activities. Was seen as wasting productive time and violating the hierachy of command and questions the efficient assignment of authority. A few writers questioned this perspective and instead suggested that there is an optimal level of this. Energizes people to debate issues and evaluate alternatives more thoroughly. Also encourages them to re-examine their basic assumptions. Prevents organizations from stagnating and becoming nonresponsive to their external environment. Increases cohesion with the team.
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14.  People have more favourable negotiation results when they prepare for the negotiation and plan objectives. In particular, negotiators should carefully think through their initial offer, target, and resistance points. They need to check their uderlying assumptions, as well as objectives and values. Equally important is the need to research what other other party wants from the negotiation.
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15.  Research suggests that people in positions of authority usually adopt an inquisitional approach. Also, employees often view inquisitional procedures and outcomes as unfair because they have little control over this approach. Although not as effiicient as other strategies, mediation potentially offers the highest level of employee satisfaction with the conflict process and outcomes. When employees cannot resolve their differences, arbitration seems to work best.
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16.  The process whereby two or more conflicting parties attempt to resolve their divergent goals by redefining the terms of their interdependence. Forcing and yielding is unlikely to produce the optimal solution, because the parties have not shared information necessary to discover a mutually satisfactory solution. We must be careful about openly adopting a problem-solving style until mutual trust has been established.
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17.  Generates conflict because each person or unit requiring the same thing necessarily undermines other who also needs that thing to fulfill their goals. It is suggested to increase the amount of available things.
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18.  Tries to find a mutually beneficial solution for parties. People using this style believe that the resources at stake are expandable rather than fixed if the parties work together to find a creative solution. Information sharing is an important feature of this style because both parties collaborate to identify common ground and potential solutions that satisfy everyone involved. Preferred style when interests are not perfectly opposing, when parties have trust, openness, and time to share  information, and the issues are complex. Not preferred when sharing information that the other party might use to their advantage.
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19.  Tries to smooth over avoid conflict situations altogether. Represents a low concern for both self and the other party. In other words, people try to suppress thinking about the conflict. Some employees will rearrange their work area or tasks to minimize interaction with certain co-workers. Ideal when conflict has become too emotionally charged when the cost of trying to resolve the conflict outweighs the benefits. Problems include that it doesn't usually resolve the conflict and it may increase the other party's frustration.
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20.  Can hold relationship conflict at bay during constructive debate. Encourages openness while team members learn to appreciate honest dialogue without personally reacting to any emotional display during the disagreements. Might discourage team memebers from display negative emotions toward co-workers. Can also discourage tactics that diffuse relationship conflict when it first appears. Research has found that teams with low relationship conflict use humour to maintain positive group emotions, which offsets negative feelings team members might develop toward some co-workers during debate.
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21.  Something that both conflicting parties value and whose attainment is beyond the resources and effort of either party alone. Employees pay less attention to competing individual or departmental-level goals, which reduces their perceived conflict with co-workers. Potentially reduces the problem of differentiation.
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22.  The belief that conflicting parties are drawing from a fixed pie, so the more one party receives, the less one other party will receive.
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23.  Occurs when people view their differences as personal attacks rather than attempts to resolve an issue. Subjects become less motivated to communicate and share information. Parties rely on more distorted  perceptions and stereotypes. Separating this and one of the other types of conflict is not easy. Most of us experience some degree of this during or after any constructive debate.
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24.  Most negatiors have this - anyone with a vested interest in the negotiation outcomes, sch as executives, other team members, or the general public. Negotiators tend to act differently when people observe the negotiation or has detailed information about the process compared to situations in which people see only the end results. When people have direct surveillence over the proceedings, negotiators tend to be more competitive, less willing to mae concessions, and more likely to engage in political tactics against the other party.
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25.  Enables the parties to move toward the area of potential agreement, symbolizes each party's motivation to bargain in good faith, and telling the other party of the relative importance of negotiating items. Varies with the other part's expectations and the levl of trust. The best strategy is to be moderately tough and give just enough of this to communicate sincerity and motivtion to resolve the conflict. Being too tough can undermine relations between the parties and giving too many implies weakness and encourages the other party to use power and resistance.
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26.  Uncertainty increases the risk that one part intends to interfere with the other party's goals. Also encourages political tactics.
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27.  Occurs when people focus their discussion on the issue while maintaining respectfulness for people having other points of view. Should be encouraged for better decision making and minmizing relationship conflict in order to avoid dysfunctional emotions and behaviours.
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28.  Involves giving in completely to the other side's wishes or at least cooperating with little or not attention to your own interests. This style involves masking unilateral concessions and unconditional promises, as well as offering help with no expectation of reciprocal help. Ideal when the other party has substantially more power, the issue is much less important than to the other party, and the value and logic of your position isn't as clear. Problems are that it can increase other party's expectations in the future conflict episodes.
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29.  When negotiaors associate in a way that maintains good relationships between the parties. Specifically, they minimize emotional conflict by focusing on issues rather than people. Also avoids irritating statements and includes mastering persuasion. The structure the content of their message so it is accepted by others, not merely understood.
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