Micro Test 3 Control Of Microbial Growth

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MICRO TEST 3 Control Of Microbial Growth
Control of microbial growth blah blah blah

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1.   absence of all viable microorganisms
2.   using physical or chemical agents to destroy microbes or their products, on inert objects or nonliving materials.  
3.   chemical agents used  in disinfection
4.  Chemical agents used to destroy or inhibit pathogenic microbes on tissue
5.  Use of antiseptics to destroy vegetative pathogens.
6.  Removing microbes from eating utensils or food contact surfaces
7.   methods employed to prevent microbial contamination.
8.  4 factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Antimicrobial Agents
9.  Alteration  of  Membrane Permeability - Damage to ?? allows ? to leak out and/or toxic materials to enter cell.
10.  Damage to cell membrane allows cytoplasm to leak out and/or toxic materials to enter cell.
11.   A are a significant portion of cell components. Damage to B prevent normal A synthesis.  Alteration of these existing components will also quickly halt cellular function.
12.  Breaking thebonds along the protein chain that amino acid chain in its  3-dimensional shape.  The protein then assumes abnormal configuration which results in loss of function. Some chemicals bind to the active sites of proteins and prevent their proper function
13.  ??-  breaking bonds along the protein chain that hold the ?? chain in its  ? shape.  Protein then assumes an abnormal configuration which results in loss of function. Some chemicals bind to the active sites of proteins and prevent their proper function.
14.   The length of time required to kill all microbes at a specific temperature.
15.  Moist Heat.  Mode of Action: ??.  Presence of water enhances the process and facilitates heat transfer.  Moist heat also can damage ?,?,and?. 
16.  3 examples of moist heat
17.  Examples of dry heat
18.   used to disinfect liquids to kill pathogens and reduce  spoilage microbes without altering the quality of the product.  The various pasteurization processes use very high temps and short exposure times, followed by rapid cooling.  This is not a sterilization process.
19.  ? -application of steam under pressure, temperature of ?  increases as ? increases.  A a reinforced chamber into which materials to be sterilized are sealed.  Air is then removed and steam is  pumped in under pressure.            
20.     Autoclaving effective temp pressure time?psi/?o?-?minutes
21.  Boiling - ? psi of pressure the highest possible temperature of boiling water is 100oC.    
22.  Boiling has many applications but is most commonly used to disinfect ??materials.
23.  Which methods acheive sterility?
24.    ?-Many types of microbes can be killed by drying-out.  Others may not be killed but drying is  usually sufficient to retard growth.
25.   High energy emitted from atomic activities and dispensed at high velocity.
26.     food preservation and disinfection of various heat sensitive materials.   
27.  Causes electrons to leave atoms it strikes.
28.    Examples include x-rays, beta particles, gamma  rays, alpha particles.    
29.   Causes atoms to shift to a higher energy state but does not ionize them. 
30.    Examples   include microwaves, UV light.
31.   Used primarily to preserve liquid products. 
32.  C.    High Pressure – Alters ? and ? structure and inactivates bacterial cells.
33.  Involves drawing fluids or gases through a filter which has a pore size too small to allow the   passage of microorganisms.  
34.   Oxidizes cellular components and denatures proteins.
35.  Dry Heat -  In the absence of water, protein denaturization can be ? unless extremely high temps are exerted
36.  ? slows growth (bacteriostatic effect), although certain types of ? can be reliably destroyed by freezing.
37.  2 halogen chemicals
38.   halogen elements are ? (?), ? (?), ? (?) and ? (?).  These elements, and compounds that contain these elements, have antimicrobial properties.
39.  Halogen Elements most widely used ? and ?
40.  a.   Free I2 solutions.  I2 is typically used in this form as a ?.   
41.   is an alcoholic  solution  
42.  Uses:  Antiseptic and disinfectant.    
43.  Complex of I with a neutral organic polymer (such as a soap molecule).   
44.  Use:  Antiseptic.  e.g. betadine.
45.   compounds are stable and maintain effectiveness in the presence of organic material.
46.  Disrupts cell membranes and inactivates proteins.  
47.  Uses:  These compounds are widely used as antiseptics and disinfectants
48.   2 connected phenolic compounds    
49.  Mode of Action: Disrupt plasma membranes
50.      class of compounds related to phenolics. 
51.  Mode of Action:  Surfactant and denatures proteins.    
52.    This compound has some distinct advantages.  These include:  low toxicity, mild, rapid action, and it binds to the surface layer of skin thus providing a residual effect without being absorbed.
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