Chapter 7: Deviance, Crime, Criminal Justice System

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Chapter 7

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1.  Emphasizes the role of enlightened self-interest in individual decision-making.  
2.  White-collar crimes committed by executives to benefit themselves and their companies (also known as organizational crimes).
3.  The techniques and strategies that regulate people’s behavior in society. (purpose to eliminate or at least reduce deviance.
4.  A negotiation in which the defendant agrees to enter a plea of guilty to a lesser charge.
5.  Rule-breaking behavior that people adopt in response to the reactions of others. (marijuana smoker is a druggie).
6.  “Elements of social bonding include attachment to families, commitment to social norms and institutions, involvement in activities, and belief that these things are important. Emphasizes the fact that there is an absence of social attachments among juvenile delinquents. 1.       Attachment to families 2.       Commitment to social norms and institutions 3.       Involvement in activities 4.       Belief that these things are important.
7.  Any thing that is done without the approval of the other. That can be construed as being harmful to the persons life or way of life.
8.  The initial violation of a norm or law. (can range from relatively minor offenses, such as not attending a family member’s funeral, to serious offenses, such as stealing and murder).
9.  Illegal activities committed by high-status individuals in the course of their occupation. (thefts in business enterprises to internet fraud)
10.  A behavior that violates expected rules or norms. 
11.  A trial period during which your character and abilities are tested to see whether you are suitablefor work or membership.
12.  Operating within bounds of law.
13.  The idea that people may engage in deviant behavior when they experience a conflict between goals and the means available to obtain the goals. 
14.  People learn deviance throughinteraction, especially with significant others. (family members or friends teach techniques for commiting criminal behavior). More likely to  engage in crime if exposed early in life, frequently, over a long period of time, and from important people.
15.  Conscience, values, integrity, morality
16.  Police, family etc.
17.  Most Crime victims are men, African Americans, people under age 25, and those who are poor or live in urban areas.  (besides intimate partners, spouses etc, Men are 2x s likely to be victims of violent crimes such as robbery and assault with a deadly weapon.)
18.  A negative label that devalues a person and changes her or his self-concept and social identity. (people may alter appearance to get rid of stigma [liposuction])
19.  A form of racism consisting of the policy of policemen who stop and search vehicles driven by persons belonging to particular racial groups.
20.  Acts that violate laws but involve individuals who don’t consider themselves victims. (prostitutes)
21.  Proposes that exploiting the process of socialization and social learning builds self-control and reduces the inclination to indulge on behavior recognized as antisocial.
22.  Who defines deviance?
23.  Responses when goals can't be met (strain theory)
24.  Used to gain stats on crime. Doesn’t count attempted, white collar or internet crime so not very accurate.
25.  Habitual relapse into crime
26.  Functions of Deviance
27.  A perspective that holds society’s reaction to behavior is a major factor in defining oneself or others as deviant. (teenagers who were caught are tagged as delinquents).
28.  Most offenders have never been caught, however generally the ones who are caught are younger because the older Americans get, the less likely they are to engage in crime.  29 and under are 58% of all arrestees. Men make up 82% of people arrested for violent, an d 68 % of property crimed. 10x more likely to commit muder than woman,. 70% arrested are white, 28 black. Crime rates higher in low-income areas.
29.  A form of rebellion that occurs when a secondary deviant tries to relabel certain activity as normal rather than deviant.
30.  A method of gathering data that involves interviewing people about their experiences as crime victims. Most widely used survey. Response rates are 90%+. More accurate than UCR. This includes reported and unreported crime.
31.  A violation of societal norms and rules for which punishment is specified by public law. 
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