Urinalysis And Body Fluids.

48 Questions  I  By Williamwan
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 Urinalysis And Body Fluids.
Urinalysis and body fluids.

  
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  • 1. 
    Normal urine primarily consist of:
    • A. 

      Water, protein, and sodium

    • B. 

      Water, urea, and protein

    • C. 

      Water, urea, and sodium chloride

    • D. 

      Water, urea, and bilirubin


  • 2. 
    Patient with diabetes mellitus have urine with:
    • A. 

      Decreased volume and decreased specific gravity

    • B. 

      Decreased volume and increased specific gravity

    • C. 

      Increased volume and decreased specific gravity

    • D. 

      Increased volume and increased specific gravity


  • 3. 
    Cessation of urine flow is defined as:
    • A. 

      Azotemia

    • B. 

      Dysuria

    • C. 

      Diuresis

    • D. 

      Anuria


  • 4. 
    Upon standing at room temperature a urine pH typically:
    • A. 

      Decreases

    • B. 

      Increases

    • C. 

      Remains the same

    • D. 

      Changes depending on bacterial concentration


  • 5. 
    Antidiretic hormone regulates the reabsorption of:
    • A. 

      Water

    • B. 

      Glucose

    • C. 

      Potassium

    • D. 

      Calcium


  • 6. 
    Calibration of refractometers is done by measuring the specific gravity of:
    • A. 

      Distilled water and protein

    • B. 

      Distilled water and glucose

    • C. 

      Distilled water and sodium chloride

    • D. 

      Distilled water and urea


  • 7. 
    A 17-year-old girl decided to go on a starvation diet. After 1 week of starving herself, what substance would most likely be found in her urine?
    • A. 

      Protein

    • B. 

      Ketones

    • C. 

      Glucose

    • D. 

      Blood


  • 8. 
    Which of the following crystals may be found in acidic urine?
    • A. 

      Calcium carbonate

    • B. 

      Calcium oxalate

    • C. 

      Calcium phosphate

    • D. 

      Triple phosphate


  • 9. 
    Which of the following reagents is used to react with ketones in the urine?
    • A. 

      Sodium nitroprusside

    • B. 

      Acetoacetic acid

    • C. 

      Acetone

    • D. 

      Beta-hydroxybutyric acid


  • 10. 
    A woman in her ninth month of pregnancy has a urine sugar that is negative with the urine reagent strip but gives a positive reaction with the copper reduction method. The sugar most likely responsible for these results is:
    • A. 

      Maltose

    • B. 

      Galactose

    • C. 

      Glucose

    • D. 

      Lactose


  • 11. 
    Which of the following casts is most indicative of severe renal disease?
    • A. 

      Hemoglobin

    • B. 

      Granular

    • C. 

      Cellular

    • D. 

      Waxy


  • 12. 
    Which of the following is the primary reagent in the copper reduction tablet?
    • A. 

      Sodium carbonate

    • B. 

      Copper sulfate

    • C. 

      Glucose oxidase

    • D. 

      Polymerized diazonium salt


  • 13. 
    Which of the following is an abnormal crystal described as a hexagonal plate?
    • A. 

      Cystine

    • B. 

      Tyrosine

    • C. 

      Leucine

    • D. 

      Cholesterol


  • 14. 
    Which of the following cells is the largest?
    • A. 

      Glitter

    • B. 

      WBC

    • C. 

      Transitional epithelial

    • D. 

      Renal epithelial


  • 15. 
    What cell is MOST commonly associated with vaginal contamination?
    • A. 

      White

    • B. 

      Transitional

    • C. 

      Squamous

    • D. 

      Glitter


  • 16. 
    Urinary calculi most often consist of:
    • A. 

      Calcium

    • B. 

      Uric acid

    • C. 

      Leucine

    • D. 

      Cystine


  • 17. 
    Small round objects found in a urine sediment that dissolve after addition of dilute acetic acid and do not polarize most likely are:
    • A. 

      Air bubbles

    • B. 

      Calcium oxalate

    • C. 

      Red blood cells

    • D. 

      Yeast cells


  • 18. 
    Tiny colorless, dumbbell-shaped crystals were found in an alkaline urine sediment. They most likely are:
    • A. 

      Calcium oxalate

    • B. 

      Calcium carbonate

    • C. 

      Calcium phosphate

    • D. 

      Amorphous phosphate


  • 19. 
    A 24-year-old obese diabetic woman had the following blood and urine test results from specimens obtained at the same time: pH=7.5, Protein=30mg/dL, Glucose=negative, Ketones=15mg/dL, Bilirubin=negative, Blood=negative, Nitrite=negative, Urobilinogen=1EU/dL, SG=1.008Microscopic: Epithelial cells=3-5, bacteria=many, Yeast=many, Amorphous=moderate, Blood sugar=195mg/dLWhich of the following is the most likely explanation for the negative urine glucose finding?
    • A. 

      There is a false-negative glucose due to oxidizing contaminants.

    • B. 

      There is a false-negative glucose due to the alkaline pH.

    • C. 

      The specimen is probably old and the bacteria and yeast have consumed the glucose.

    • D. 

      Glucose would not be present in the urine specimen since the blood sugar was normal.


  • 20. 
    A clean-catch urine sample is submitted to the laboratory for routine urinalysis and culture. The routine urinalysis is done first, and the specimen is then sent to microbiology for culture. The specimen should:
    • A. 

      Be centrifuged and the supernatant cultured

    • B. 

      Be rejected due to possible contamination from routine urinalysis

    • C. 

      Not be cultured if no bacteria are seen

    • D. 

      Be immediately processed for culture regardless of urinalysis results


  • 21. 
    A 24-hour urine from a man who had no evidence of kidney impairment was sent to the laboratory for hormone determination. The volume was 600 mL, but there was some question as to the completeness of the 24-hour collection. The next step would be to:
    • A. 

      Perform the hormone determination, since 600 mL is a normal urine 24-hour volume

    • B. 

      Check the creatinine level; if it is less than 1g do the procedure

    • C. 

      Report the hormone determination in milligrams per deciliter in case the specimen was incomplete

    • D. 

      Check the creatinine level; if it is greater than 1g do the procedure


  • 22. 
    Urine samples should be examined with 1 hour of voiding because:
    • A. 

      Red blood cells, leukocytes, and casts agglutinate after standing for several hours at room temperature

    • B. 

      Urobilinogen increases and bilirubin decreases after prolonged exposure to light

    • C. 

      Bacterial contamination will cause alkalinization of the urine

    • D. 

      Ketones will increase due to bacterial and cellular metabolism


  • 23. 
    The principle of the reagent strip test for urine protein depends on:
    • A. 

      An enzyme reaction

    • B. 

      Protein error of indicators

    • C. 

      Copper reduction

    • D. 

      The toluidine reaction


  • 24. 
    After receiving a 24-hour urine sample for quantitative total protein anaylsis, the technician must first:
    • A. 

      Subculture the urine for bacteria

    • B. 

      Add the appropriate preservative

    • C. 

      Screen for albumin using a dipstick

    • D. 

      Measure the total volume


  • 25. 
    Which of following is the best guide to consistent centrifugation?
    • A. 

      Potentiometer setting

    • B. 

      Armature settings

    • C. 

      Tachnometer readings

    • D. 

      Rheostat readings


  • 26. 
    In addition to the sperm count in a fertility study, analysis of seminal fluid should also include:
    • A. 

      Time of liquefaction, estimation of motility, morphology

    • B. 

      Motility, morphology, test for alkaline phosphatase

    • C. 

      Tiem of liquefaction, test for acid phosphatase, qualitative test for hemoglobin

    • D. 

      Time of liquefaction, qualitative test for hemoglobin and motility


  • 27. 
    A physician attampts to aspirate a knee joint and obtains 0.1 mL of slightly bloody fluid. Addtion of acetic acid results in turbidity and a clot. This indicates that:
    • A. 

      The fluid is synovial fluid

    • B. 

      Plasma was obtained

    • C. 

      Red blood cells caused a false-positive reaction

    • D. 

      The specimen is not adequate


  • 28. 
    A sperm count is diluted 1:20 and 50 sperm are counted in two large squares of the Neubauer counting chamber. The sperm count in mLs is:
    • A. 

      5000

    • B. 

      50,000

    • C. 

      500,000

    • D. 

      5,000,000


  • 29. 
    Ammonium sulfate was added to red urine. The urine has a positive reaction for blood, but no RBCs were seen on microscopic examination. After centrifugation the supernatant fluid is red. The abnormal color is caused by:
    • A. 

      Pyridium

    • B. 

      Hemoglobin

    • C. 

      Porphyrins

    • D. 

      Myoglobin


  • 30. 
    Urine from a 50-year-old man was noted to turn dark red on standing. This change is caused by:
    • A. 

      Glucose

    • B. 

      Porphyrins

    • C. 

      Urochrome

    • D. 

      Creatinine


  • 31. 
    The principal mucin in synovial fluid is:
    • A. 

      Hyaluronate

    • B. 

      Albumin

    • C. 

      Orosomucoid

    • D. 

      Pepsin


  • 32. 
    A turbid cerebrospinal fluid is most commonly caused by:
    • A. 

      Increased white blood cells

    • B. 

      Increased protein

    • C. 

      Increased glucose

    • D. 

      Increased bacterial organisms


  • 33. 
    The synovial fluid easily forms small drops from the aspirating syringe. This viscosity is:
    • A. 

      Normal

    • B. 

      Increased

    • C. 

      Associated with inflammation

    • D. 

      Associated with hypothyroidism


  • 34. 
    Pleural transudates differ from pleural exudates in the transudates have:
    • A. 

      Protein values of >4g/100mL

    • B. 

      Specific gravity values of >1.020

    • C. 

      LD values of >200U/L

    • D. 

      Relatively low cell counts


  • 35. 
    A urine tested with Clinitest exhibits a pass through reaction and is diluted by adding 2 drops of urine to 10 drops water. This is a dilution of:
    • A. 

      1 to 4

    • B. 

      1 to 5

    • C. 

      1 to 6

    • D. 

      1 to 8


  • 36. 
    The normal renal threshold for glucose in the adult is appoximately:
    • A. 

      50mg/dL

    • B. 

      100mg/dL

    • C. 

      160mg/dL

    • D. 

      300mg/dL


  • 37. 
    Urine osmolality is related to:
    • A. 

      PH

    • B. 

      Filtration

    • C. 

      Specific gravity

    • D. 

      Volume


  • 38. 
    A micropipet graduated to the tip and calibrated to contain should:
    • A. 

      Be drained

    • B. 

      Be rinsed

    • C. 

      Not be blown out

    • D. 

      Not be rinsed


  • 39. 
    The primary consituent of hyaline casts is:
    • A. 

      Fat

    • B. 

      Cells

    • C. 

      Protein

    • D. 

      Mucus


  • 40. 
    The knob between the eyepieces on a binocular microscope is used to:
    • A. 

      Correct for optical differences between the right and left eyes

    • B. 

      Adjust for distances between one's eyes

    • C. 

      Change the magnification of the oculars

    • D. 

      Improve the equibalent focus of the microscope


  • 41. 
    Urine that develops a port wine color after standing may contain:
    • A. 

      Melanin

    • B. 

      Porphyrins

    • C. 

      Bilirubin

    • D. 

      Urobilinogen


  • 42. 
    To avoid falsely elevated spinal fluid cell counts:
    • A. 

      Use an aliquot from the fist tube collected

    • B. 

      Use only those specimens showing no turbidity

    • C. 

      Centrifuge all specimens before counting

    • D. 

      Select an aliquot from the last tube collected


  • 43. 
    The volume of urine excreted in a 24-hour period by an adult patient was 500 mL. This condition would be termed:
    • A. 

      Anuria

    • B. 

      Oliguria

    • C. 

      Polyuria

    • D. 

      Dysuria


  • 44. 
    Which of the following can give a false-negative urine protein reading?
    • A. 

      Contamination with vaginal discharge

    • B. 

      Heavy mucus

    • C. 

      Presence of blood

    • D. 

      Very dilute urine


  • 45. 
    An acid urine that contains hemoglobin will darken on standing due to the formation of:
    • A. 

      Myoglobin

    • B. 

      Sulfhemoglobin

    • C. 

      Methenoglobin

    • D. 

      Red blood cells


  • 46. 
    A centrifuge head has a diameter of 60 cm and spins at 3000 rpm. What is the maximum achievable g force (g=0.00001 x radius in cm x rpm^2)?
    • A. 

      1.8g

    • B. 

      2700g

    • C. 

      27,000g

    • D. 

      90,000g


  • 47. 
    Osmolality is a measure of:
    • A. 

      Dissolved particles, including ions

    • B. 

      Undissociated molecules only

    • C. 

      Total salt concentration

    • D. 

      Molecule size


  • 48. 
    A urine with an increased protein has a high specific gravity. Which of the following would be a more accurate measure of urine concentration?
    • A. 

      Osmolality

    • B. 

      Ketones

    • C. 

      Refractive index

    • D. 

      PH


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