Sociology Practice Quiz #2

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Sociology Quizzes & Trivia
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  • 1. 
    In contrast to functionalism, which modern sociological theory borrows from Marx’s belief that competition, not consensus, is the essential cause of social change?
    • A. 

      Conflict theory

    • B. 

      Feminism

    • C. 

      Postmodernism

    • D. 

      Midrange theory


  • 2. 
    Which feminist sociologist wrote Sex, Gender, and Society (1972), in which she or he argued that much of what we attribute to biological sex differences can actually be traced to learned behaviors and socialization?
    • A. 

      Jane Addams

    • B. 

      Harriet Martineau

    • C. 

      Ann Oakley

    • D. 

      W. E. B. DuBois


  • 3. 
    Which modern sociological theory examines how power relationships are defined, shaped, and reproduced on the basis of gender differences?
    • A. 

      Feminism

    • B. 

      Functionalism

    • C. 

      Human sexuality

    • D. 

      Midrange theory


  • 4. 
    Which modern sociological theory explains social behavior by examining the meanings that social signals and signs represent to individuals?
    • A. 

      Feminism

    • B. 

      Functionalism

    • C. 

      Symbolic interactionism

    • D. 

      Postmodernism


  • 5. 
    Erving Goffman used the language of theater to describe how people present themselves in everyday social life. This is known as:
    • A. 

      Sui generis

    • B. 

      Dramaturgical theory

    • C. 

      Functionalism

    • D. 

      Stage theory


  • 6. 
    Postmodern sociologists argue that all so-called objective phenomena are open to debate because all meaning is subjective. Thus, to postmodernists, all “facts” are really:
    • A. 

      Social constructs

    • B. 

      Myths

    • C. 

      Lies

    • D. 

      Propaganda


  • 7. 
    What do symbolic interactionists study?
    • A. 

      Midrange theory

    • B. 

      Postmodernism

    • C. 

      Functionalism

    • D. 

      Shared meaning


  • 8. 
    Some postmodern sociologists work to show us how all social phenomena are created arbitrarily by people with varying degrees of power. This is known as:
    • A. 

      Social ecology

    • B. 

      Anomie

    • C. 

      Verstehen

    • D. 

      Deconstructing


  • 9. 
    In the discipline of history, focusing on historical figures such as Adolf Hitler is known as:
    • A. 

      “great man” theories

    • B. 

      People’s histories

    • C. 

      Historiography

    • D. 

      Historical materialism


  • 10. 
    Explaining unique cases is the focus of most historians, whereas the comparative method is the staple of the sociologist. This comparative method is also known as:
    • A. 

      Peoples’ histories

    • B. 

      The nomethetic approach

    • C. 

      Counterfactual

    • D. 

      Historiography


  • 11. 
    Which area within the discipline of anthropology is most similar to sociology?
    • A. 

      Physical anthropology

    • B. 

      Cultural anthropology

    • C. 

      Genetic anthropology

    • D. 

      Forensic anthropology


  • 12. 
    The examination of human behavior within a rational actor model is the focus of which of the following “cousins” of sociology?
    • A. 

      Anthropology

    • B. 

      Economics

    • C. 

      Psychology

    • D. 

      The biological sciences


  • 13. 
    Which of the following focuses its analyses on face-to-face encounters and interactions?
    • A. 

      Microsociology

    • B. 

      Macrosociology

    • C. 

      Social ecology

    • D. 

      Cultural sociology


  • 14. 
    Which of the following focuses its analyses on larger social dynamics at the societal and structural levels?
    • A. 

      Microsociology

    • B. 

      Macrosociology

    • C. 

      Social ecology

    • D. 

      Social psychology


  • 15. 
    Perhaps the largest division within the discipline of sociology exists between which of the following?
    • A. 

      Interpretive and positivist sociology

    • B. 

      Qualitative and quantitative sociology

    • C. 

      Functionalist and feminist sociology

    • D. 

      Conflict and symbolic interactionist sociology


  • 16. 
    The social science concept that means that a change in one factor results in a direct change in another factor is known as:
    • A. 

      Operationalization

    • B. 

      Causality

    • C. 

      Validity

    • D. 

      Reliability


  • 17. 
    Research shows that couples who cohabitate (live together) prior to marriage are ____% more likely to divorce than couples who do not cohabitate prior to marriage.
    • A. 

      10

    • B. 

      25

    • C. 

      50

    • D. 

      80


  • 18. 
    According to William Bennett’s research, the most powerful variable that explains why couples that cohabitate prior to marriage are more likely to divorce than couples who do not cohabitate is that the cohabitating couples:
    • A. 

      Are immature and selfish

    • B. 

      Engage in domestic violence

    • C. 

      Are less likely to have qualms about divorcing

    • D. 

      Are likely to be unfaithful to their spouses


  • 19. 
    The research method that uses statistical analyses to describe the social world is:
    • A. 

      Qualitative research

    • B. 

      Quantitative research

    • C. 

      Deductive research

    • D. 

      Inductive research


  • 20. 
    What category of research methods uses documentation of the meanings that engender social participants to describe the mechanisms by which social processes occur?
    • A. 

      Qualitative research

    • B. 

      Quantitative research

    • C. 

      Deductive research

    • D. 

      Inductive research


  • 21. 
    If Kate approaches sociological research with a theory, then forms a hypothesis and makes empirical observations, what method is she using?
    • A. 

      Independent

    • B. 

      Dependent

    • C. 

      Inductive

    • D. 

      Deductive


  • 22. 
    The ____________ approach to sociological research starts with empirical observations and then works to form a theory.
    • A. 

      Statistical

    • B. 

      Observational

    • C. 

      Inductive

    • D. 

      Deductive


  • 23. 
    The statement “people with higher levels of income tend to enjoy better overall health” is an example of the association known in social research as:
    • A. 

      Causal

    • B. 

      Correlational

    • C. 

      Spurious

    • D. 

      Inductive


  • 24. 
    All of the following are factors needed to establish causality EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Correlation

    • B. 

      Time order

    • C. 

      Ruling out alternative explanations

    • D. 

      Panel study results


  • 25. 
    In social research, a false relationship or alternative explanation is known as:
    • A. 

      Inductive

    • B. 

      Deductive

    • C. 

      Spurious

    • D. 

      Causality


  • 26. 
    Martine is a sociologist who thinks that A is causing B, when in fact, B is causing A. She needs to be careful to not make the mistake known as:
    • A. 

      Operationalization

    • B. 

      Reverse causality

    • C. 

      Deduction

    • D. 

      Induction


  • 27. 
    The measured factors that a sociologist believes have a causal impact on another variable are known as the:
    • A. 

      Dependent variables

    • B. 

      Independent variables

    • C. 

      Spurious variables

    • D. 

      Intervening variables


  • 28. 
    A proposed relationship between two variables that a sociologist studies is known as a(n):
    • A. 

      Operationalization

    • B. 

      Reliability

    • C. 

      Hypothesis

    • D. 

      Natural experiment


  • 29. 
    When hypothesis testing, a researcher needs to be very specific when defining concepts and variables. This is known as:
    • A. 

      A survey

    • B. 

      Operationalization

    • C. 

      Operationalization

    • D. 

      Correlation


  • 30. 
    The United Nations’ definition of poverty is a person living on less than ____________ per day.
    • A. 

      $1

    • B. 

      $10

    • C. 

      $50

    • D. 

      $100


  • 31. 
    Variables that affect the relationship between an independent and dependent variable are known as:
    • A. 

      Operationalized variables

    • B. 

      Moderating variables

    • C. 

      Mediating variables

    • D. 

      Spurious variables


  • 32. 
    Which of the following is TRUE about hypotheses?
    • A. 

      For each hypothesis, there is a null and alternative hypothesis.

    • B. 

      For each hypothesis, there is neither a null nor an alternative hypothesis.

    • C. 

      For each hypothesis, there is a null, but not an alternative, hypothesis.

    • D. 

      For each hypothesis, there is an alternative, but not a null, hypothesis.


  • 33. 
    Secondary hypotheses are also known as:
    • A. 

      Null hypotheses

    • B. 

      Alternative hypotheses

    • C. 

      Rejected hypotheses

    • D. 

      Corollary hypotheses


  • 34. 
    ____________ means that a researcher is successful in measuring what he or she intends to measure.
    • A. 

      Validity

    • B. 

      Reliability

    • C. 

      Response rate

    • D. 

      Generalizability


  • 35. 
    The likelihood that a researcher will obtain the same result using the same measures the next time she or he tests a hypothesis is:
    • A. 

      Validity

    • B. 

      Reliability

    • C. 

      Response rate

    • D. 

      Generalizability


  • 36. 
    The extent to which a researcher can claim that his or her findings explain a larger population than was studied is known as:
    • A. 

      Validity

    • B. 

      Reliability

    • C. 

      Responsiveness

    • D. 

      Generalizability


  • 37. 
    Charles is a sociologist studying a population of gay fathers in the United States. He interviews 200 men in his data collection. These 200 men comprise what researchers call a:
    • A. 

      Census

    • B. 

      Selection bias

    • C. 

      Sample

    • D. 

      Participant observation


  • 38. 
    The subset of a population from which a researcher collects data is known as a:
    • A. 

      Census

    • B. 

      Selection bias

    • C. 

      Sample

    • D. 

      Survey


  • 39. 
    A(n) ____________ is an in-depth look at a specific phenomenon or situation in a particular social setting, and is common in qualitative research.
    • A. 

      Experiment

    • B. 

      Case study

    • C. 

      Survey

    • D. 

      Participant observation


  • 40. 
    If a sociologist studies one high school in a study of the effectiveness of its Parent-Teacher Association, he or she is using which of the following research methods?
    • A. 

      An experiment

    • B. 

      A case study

    • C. 

      A panel study

    • D. 

      Content analysis


  • 41. 
    All of the following are strengths of the case study method EXCEPT that it is:
    • A. 

      Useful for obtaining very detailed information

    • B. 

      A useful starting point for exploring new topics

    • C. 

      Useful for creating large-scale generalizations

    • D. 

      Useful for understanding causal mechanisms indicated in large-scale surveys


  • 42. 
    Experimenter effects such as reflexivity are also known as:
    • A. 

      Black coat effects

    • B. 

      Black robe effects

    • C. 

      White coat effects

    • D. 

      White robe effects


  • 43. 
    A researcher must be aware of how he or she affects the events being studied. This is known as:
    • A. 

      Reflexivity

    • B. 

      Response bias

    • C. 

      Reliability

    • D. 

      Validity


  • 44. 
    Perhaps the most important element in feminist methodology is that:
    • A. 

      Feminist methods have been introduced into research

    • B. 

      Having women and girls, as well as men and boys, as research subjects increases generalizability

    • C. 

      Masculine methods have been introduced to research

    • D. 

      It prioritizes women and girls over men and boys


  • 45. 
    One of the positive outcomes of sociology’s long-term male dominance is: 
    • A. 

      The evolution of feminist methodology to complement it and add to the scientific accumulation of knowledge

    • B. 

      That sociology is now a female-dominated profession

    • C. 

      That male sociologists have now turned all of their attention to creating equality in the discipline

    • D. 

      That sociology remains a male-dominated field


  • 46. 
    Which of the following is TRUE regarding value judgments made by sociologists conducting research?
    • A. 

      It is possible for a sociologist to remain value-free.

    • B. 

      It is not important for a sociologist to remain value-free.

    • C. 

      Value judgments and subjectivity lead to better research.

    • D. 

      Every sociologist makes some value judgments, even about the problems and topics he or she chooses to study.


  • 47. 
    Positivist sociologists tend to use which of the following types of measures?
    • A. 

      Quantitative

    • B. 

      Qualitative

    • C. 

      Spurious

    • D. 

      Invalid


  • 48. 
    Interpretive sociologists examine meanings attached to behaviors. This leads them to use which of the following measures most commonly?
    • A. 

      Quantitative

    • B. 

      Qualitative

    • C. 

      Spurious

    • D. 

      Invalid


  • 49. 
    Mitchell Duneier’s study of homeless men on New York City’s Sixth Avenue involved hanging out with his research subjects to collect data. This type of methodology is known as:
    • A. 

      Participant observation

    • B. 

      A case study

    • C. 

      A survey

    • D. 

      An experiment


  • 50. 
    One strength of the interview method of research is the ability to ____________, which means to push research subjects a bit deeper in their responses to the questions.
    • A. 

      Control

    • B. 

      Validate

    • C. 

      Probe

    • D. 

      Generalize


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