Psychology - Life Span - Chapter 3

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Psychology 237 Life Span

  
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  • 1. 
    The chemicals that produce instructions on each gene are:
    • A. 

      Five bases

    • B. 

      Five amino acids

    • C. 

      Four bases

    • D. 

      Four amino acids


  • 2. 
    The full set of genes that is the instructions to make a living organism is called:
    • A. 

      DNA

    • B. 

      Genotype

    • C. 

      Gamete

    • D. 

      Genome


  • 3. 
    The human genome contains about ______ on _____.
    • A. 

      4 amino acids; 2,500 genes

    • B. 

      25,000 genes; 46 chromosomes

    • C. 

      46 chromosomes; 20,000 genes

    • D. 

      25,000 genes; 23 chromosomes


  • 4. 
    What is formed when a sperm cell and an ovum fuse?
    • A. 

      Zygote

    • B. 

      Reproductive cell

    • C. 

      Embryo

    • D. 

      Fetus


  • 5. 
    Because of cultural preferences, women have sometimes looked for ways to alter the sex of their embryo. Which of the following is true?
    • A. 

      Eating hot foods can alter the sex of an embryo

    • B. 

      Eating cold foods can alter the sex of an embryo

    • C. 

      Sleeping on one side can alter the sex of an embryo

    • D. 

      No post-conception diet or action can alter the sex of an embryo


  • 6. 
    If a zygote has the genes for "musical genius," which is true?
    • A. 

      The zygote will become a person who is a musical genius

    • B. 

      Nothing can prevent the development of a trait for musical genius

    • C. 

      Additional genes and factors in the environment may result in the development of a trait for musical genius

    • D. 

      Genotype equals phenotype


  • 7. 
    _____ refers to traits that are affected by many genes, and _____refers to traits that are influenced by many factors
    • A. 

      Polygenic; multigenic

    • B. 

      Polygenic; multifactorial

    • C. 

      Genetic; environmental

    • D. 

      Multifactorial; polygenic


  • 8. 
    When a pair of alleles interacts, the resulting phenotype reveals the influence of one allele more than that of the other allele. This pattern is called:
    • A. 

      An additive gene pattern

    • B. 

      A dominant-recessive pattern

    • C. 

      An on-off switching pattern

    • D. 

      A differentiation pattern


  • 9. 
    Most recessive genes on a male's X chromosome are expressed because:
    • A. 

      Alleles on the Y chromosome are always recessive to other alleles

    • B. 

      Sex-linked disorders are always expressed

    • C. 

      Males are more prone to genetic disorders

    • D. 

      The X-linked allele is not paired with any allele on the Y chromosome


  • 10. 
    Monozygotic twins, Randy and Rowdy, originated from the same zygote and therefore have identical genes.  They have many similarities, but what explains the differences in their height, weight, and behavior?
    • A. 

      They are not monozgotic twins, but rather dizygotic twins

    • B. 

      The effects of nature and nurture are exactly the same for monozygotic twins

    • C. 

      There is not an explanation for these differences

    • D. 

      Something in one of the boy's environment affected his genes differently than his brother


  • 11. 
    The process by which ova are surgically removed from a woman, and then mixed with sperm to produce a zygote, which then is inserted into the uterus, is called:
    • A. 

      In vitro fertilization

    • B. 

      Amniocentesis

    • C. 

      Cloning

    • D. 

      Stem cell research


  • 12. 
    Multiple births from the implantation of more than one zygote may cause:
    • A. 

      The mother to have high blood pressure and toxemia

    • B. 

      Under-weight and premature babies

    • C. 

      The babies to have higher rates of early death, disease, and disabilities

    • D. 

      All of the answers are correct


  • 13. 
    Schizophrenia is a result of:
    • A. 

      Gene-gene interaction alone

    • B. 

      Both gene-gene and gene-environment interaction

    • C. 

      Gene-environment interaction alone

    • D. 

      Poor parenting

    • E. 

      Environment interaction alone


  • 14. 
    Which statement is true?
    • A. 

      Inherited biochemistry does not make people vulnerable to various addictions

    • B. 

      Inherited genes express a person's behavior

    • C. 

      Without genes, no behavior could exist and without environment, no gene could be expressed

    • D. 

      None of these statements are true


  • 15. 
    Approximately _____ percent of twins are dizygotic
    • A. 

      22

    • B. 

      66

    • C. 

      33

    • D. 

      88


  • 16. 
    Based on recent research on twins and siblings, scientists now conclude that:
    • A. 

      Children and adults choose environments that are compatible with their genes and that genetic influences increase in adulthood

    • B. 

      A child's genes are not affected by parenting style

    • C. 

      Children raised in the same home have the same expressed traits

    • D. 

      A child's genes affect physical and cognitive development, but not social or emotional development


  • 17. 
    If one monozygotic twin is nearsighted, the other twin
    • A. 

      Will also be nearsighted

    • B. 

      Will not be nearsighted

    • C. 

      Will have a 90% chance of being nearsighted

    • D. 

      Will have a 90% chance of not being nearsighted


  • 18. 
    Mrs. Lara wants to prevent her 5-year old daughter from developing the genetic family trait of type 2 diabetes.  What should she do?
    • A. 

      Monitor her daughter's weight to make sure that she does not become obese

    • B. 

      Provide opportunities for her daughter to have outdoor play activities

    • C. 

      Prepare healthy balanced meals

    • D. 

      All of the answers are correct

    • E. 

      None are correct, Diabetes is genetic


  • 19. 
    The variable that most often correlates with chromosomal abnormalities is:
    • A. 

      The age of the mother

    • B. 

      A pregnant mother's drug use

    • C. 

      Parent exposure to radiation

    • D. 

      The age of the father


  • 20. 
    Down syndrome is a condition in which an individual has 3 copies of:
    • A. 

      Chromosome 23

    • B. 

      Chromosome 21

    • C. 

      Chromosome 26

    • D. 

      Chromosome 46


  • 21. 
    Which statement is true?
    • A. 

      Men are the only carriers for genetic abnormalities

    • B. 

      Women over the age of 35 produce abnormal ovum and are at risk of having unhealthy babies

    • C. 

      Everyone is a carrier for genetic abnormalities, but usually these conditions are recessive

    • D. 

      None of the statements are true


  • 22. 
    An embryo cannot develop without
    • A. 

      An X chromosome

    • B. 

      A Y chromosome

    • C. 

      26 chromosomes

    • D. 

      46 chromosomes

    • E. 

      3 sex chromosomes


  • 23. 
    Who is more likely to be a carrier of an X-linked trait?
    • A. 

      A woman

    • B. 

      A man

    • C. 

      A colorblind man

    • D. 

      A dizygotic twin


  • 24. 
    In general, genetic counseling is recommended for:
    • A. 

      Individuals with achondroplastic dwarfism

    • B. 

      Couples who want to know the sex of their fetus

    • C. 

      Couples who want to produce twins

    • D. 

      Women older than 34 and men older than 39


  • 25. 
    A genetic disorder that causes the inability to metabolize phenylalinine that may lead to brain damage and mental retardation is called
    • A. 

      Hemophilia

    • B. 

      Phenylketonuria

    • C. 

      Pyloric stenosis

    • D. 

      Thalassemia


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