Patho Chapter 17

42 Questions  I  By Caitlinnorthcutt
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Disease Quizzes & Trivia
Patho. Chapter. 17.

  
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Questions and Answers

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  • 1. 
    What would be the result of a reduced number of erythrocytes
    • A. 

      Increased hemoglobin in the blood

    • B. 

      A decreased hematocrit

    • C. 

      Increased risk of hemostasis

    • D. 

      Decreased osmotic pressure of the blood


  • 2. 
    What is a deficit of all types of blood cells called?
    • A. 

      Leukopenia

    • B. 

      Neutropenia

    • C. 

      Pancytopenia

    • D. 

      Erythrocytosis


  • 3. 
    Following hemolysis, which part of the hemoglobin molecule produces bilirubin
    • A. 

      Heme

    • B. 

      Globin

    • C. 

      Amino acids

    • D. 

      Iron


  • 4. 
    Vitamin K is required by the liver to synthesize:
    • A. 

      Heparin

    • B. 

      Prothrombin

    • C. 

      Amino acids

    • D. 

      Bilirubin


  • 5. 
    Individuals with type O blood are considered to be universal donors because their blood:
    • A. 

      Contains A and B antibodies

    • B. 

      Contains A and B antigens

    • C. 

      Lacks A and B antibodies

    • D. 

      Lacks A and B antigens


  • 6. 
    What is a compensation mechanisms for individuals with anemias?
    • A. 

      Peripheral vasodilation

    • B. 

      Increased erythropoiesis

    • C. 

      Tachycardia

    • D. 

      Secondary polycythemia


  • 7. 
    Chronic blood loss causes anemia because of the:
    • A. 

      Shortened life span of the erythrocytes

    • B. 

      Lower metabolic rate

    • C. 

      Loss of protein and electrolytes

    • D. 

      Smaller amount of recycled iron available


  • 8. 
    What is the cause of sickle-cell anemia?
    • A. 

      A defective gene inherited from both parents

    • B. 

      A genetic defect affecting synthesis of hemoglobin chains

    • C. 

      Bone marrow depression

    • D. 

      An autoimmune reaction


  • 9. 
    What describes the characteristic erythrocyte associated with pernicious anemia?
    • A. 

      Hypochromic, microcytic

    • B. 

      Normochromic, normocytic

    • C. 

      Elongated, sickle-shaped

    • D. 

      Megaloblastic or macrocytic nucleated cells


  • 10. 
    What causes numbness and tingling in the fingers of individuals with untreated pernicious anemia?
    • A. 

      Persistent hyperbilirubinemia

    • B. 

      Increasing acidosis affecting metabolism

    • C. 

      Vitamin B12 deficit causing peripheral nerve demyelination

    • D. 

      Multiple small vascular occlusions affecting peripheral nerves


  • 11. 
    What is jaundice likely to be a sign of?
    • A. 

      Sickle cell anemia

    • B. 

      Aplastic anemia

    • C. 

      Iron-deficiency anemia

    • D. 

      Acute leukemia


  • 12. 
    What are typical early general signs/symptoms of anemia?
    • A. 

      Chest pain, palpitations

    • B. 

      Jaundice, stomatitis

    • C. 

      Pallor, dyspnea, and fatigue

    • D. 

      Bradycardia, heat intolerance


  • 13. 
    What is the cause of oral ulcerations and delayed healing occurring with any progressive anemia?
    • A. 

      Lack of folic acid for DNA synthesis

    • B. 

      Frequent microinfarcts in the tissues

    • C. 

      Deficit of oxygen for epithelial cell mitosis

    • D. 

      Elevated bilirubin levels in blood and body fluids


  • 14. 
    Which of the following is present with pernicious anemia?
    • A. 

      Pancytopenia

    • B. 

      Hypochlorhydria

    • C. 

      Leukocytosis

    • D. 

      Multiple infarcts


  • 15. 
    Why is pernicious anemia treated with injections of vitamin B12?
    • A. 

      An immune reaction in the stomach would destroy the vitamin

    • B. 

      Digestive enzymes would destroy the vitamin

    • C. 

      The vitamin irritates the gastric mucosa

    • D. 

      The ingested vitamin would not be absorbed into the blood


  • 16. 
    Why do low hemoglobin values develop with pernicious anemia?
    • A. 

      Decreased production of erythrocytes

    • B. 

      Shorter lifespan of erythrocytes

    • C. 

      Abnormal structure of hemoglobin chains

    • D. 

      Deficit of folic acid


  • 17. 
    What are common early signs of aplastic anemia
    • A. 

      Painful joints and skeletal deformity

    • B. 

      Abdominal discomfort and splenomegaly

    • C. 

      Excessive bleeding and recurrent infections

    • D. 

      Palpitations and chest pain


  • 18. 
    Why do vascular occlusions and infarcts occur frequently with sickle-cell anemia?
    • A. 

      The damaged membranes of many red blood cells

    • B. 

      Increased hemolysis of erythrocytes

    • C. 

      The change in shape of erythrocytes when hypoxia occurs

    • D. 

      The inability of HbS to transport oxygen


  • 19. 
    Which of the following apply to sickle-cell trait?
    • A. 

      Most hemoglobin is HbS

    • B. 

      Sickling of erythrocytes occurs with severe hypoxia

    • C. 

      Painful sickling crises with infarctions occur frequently

    • D. 

      A child’s skeletal growth is affected


  • 20. 
    What is the basic abnormality in thalassemia?
    • A. 

      Several amino acids in the globin chains have been replaced by substitute amino acid

    • B. 

      More than four globin chains are found in the erythrocytes

    • C. 

      The iron molecule is displaced in hemoglobin

    • D. 

      Failure to synthesize either the alpha or beta chains in the hemoglobin molecule


  • 21. 
    Which anemia is considered to result from a malabsorption problem?
    • A. 

      Aplastic anemia

    • B. 

      Sickle cell anemia

    • C. 

      Thalassemia major

    • D. 

      Pernicious anemia


  • 22. 
    In pernicious anemia, antibodies form to:
    • A. 

      Vitamin B12

    • B. 

      Intrinsic factor or parietal cells

    • C. 

      Mucus-producing glands

    • D. 

      Hydrochloric acid


  • 23. 
    In cases of polycythemia vera, why is blood pressure elevated?
    • A. 

      Increased numbers of circulating blood cells

    • B. 

      Frequent infarcts in the coronary circulation

    • C. 

      Congested spleen and bone marrow

    • D. 

      Increased renin and aldosterone secretions


  • 24. 
    Petechiae and purpura are common signs of:
    • A. 

      Excessive hemolysis

    • B. 

      Leukopenia

    • C. 

      Increased bleeding tendencies

    • D. 

      Hemoglobin deficit


  • 25. 
    Which statement applies to the disorder, hemophilia A?
    • A. 

      It is transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait

    • B. 

      There is usually a total lack of factor VIII in the blood

    • C. 

      Males and females can be carriers

    • D. 

      Hematomas and hemarthroses are common


  • 26. 
    Which of the following occur when disseminated intravascular coagulation develops?
    • A. 

      Increased thrombocytes and blood-clotting

    • B. 

      Hemolysis with loss of blood cells

    • C. 

      Massive sepsis and hemorrhage

    • D. 

      Multiple thrombi and deficit of clotting factors


  • 27. 
    Which are substances classified as anticoagulants? 1. prothrombin 2. heparin 3. fibrinogen 4. streptokinase 5. vitamin K
    • A. 

      1, 2

    • B. 

      2, 4

    • C. 

      3, 5

    • D. 

      1, 3, 4


  • 28. 
    With the acute leukemias, the increased number of malignant leukocytes leads to: 1. decreased hemoglobin 2. thrombocytopenia 3. constant bone pain 4. splenomegaly
    • A. 

      1, 2

    • B. 

      2, 3

    • C. 

      1, 3, 4

    • D. 

      1, 2, 3, 4


  • 29. 
    Why do multiple opportunistic infections develop with acute leukemia?
    • A. 

      The decreased number of white blood cells

    • B. 

      Many nonfunctional immature leukocytes

    • C. 

      Severe anemia and bleeding

    • D. 

      Decreased appetite and nutritional intake


  • 30. 
    Why is excessive bleeding a common occurrence with acute leukemia?
    • A. 

      The deficit of calcium ions

    • B. 

      Impaired production of prothrombin and fibrinogen

    • C. 

      Decreased platelets

    • D. 

      Dysfunctional thrombocytes


  • 31. 
    What is a common predisposing factors to leukemia?
    • A. 

      Exposure to radiation

    • B. 

      Certain fungal and protozoal infections

    • C. 

      Familial tendency

    • D. 

      Cigarette smoking


  • 32. 
    Which of the following is typical of Hodgkin’s disease?
    • A. 

      Onset in early childhood

    • B. 

      Multiple tumors spreading randomly through the body

    • C. 

      Initial tumor is single, painless, enlarged lymph node, often cervical

    • D. 

      A very poor prognosis


  • 33. 
    Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma differs from Hodgkin’s lymphoma in that non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma usually presents as:
    • A. 

      Enlarged painful glands in the neck

    • B. 

      Tumors in the spleen, liver and intestines

    • C. 

      Multiple, scattered, enlarged and painless lymph nodes

    • D. 

      Multiple infections unresponsive to treatment


  • 34. 
    Multiple myeloma is a malignant tumor involving:
    • A. 

      Plasma cells

    • B. 

      Granulocytes

    • C. 

      Bone cells

    • D. 

      Lymph nodes


  • 35. 
    What is the primary treatment for the leukemias?
    • A. 

      Radiation

    • B. 

      Chemotherapy

    • C. 

      Surgery

    • D. 

      Immunotherapy


  • 36. 
    Which of the following statements apply to hemochromocytosis?
    • A. 

      It is caused by excessive iron intake in the diet

    • B. 

      It results from excessive hemolysis of RBCs

    • C. 

      A metabolic error leads to excess amounts of hemosiderin causing damage to organs

    • D. 

      An inherited defect results in abnormal hemoglobin


  • 37. 
    Thalassemia is caused by:
    • A. 

      A defect in one or more genes for hemoglobin

    • B. 

      An abnormal form of heme

    • C. 

      Abnormal liver production of amino acids & iron

    • D. 

      Overproduction of hypochromic, microcytic RBCs


  • 38. 
    Secondary polycythemia may be associated with:
    • A. 

      Frequent angina attacks

    • B. 

      Certain types of anemia

    • C. 

      Severe chronic bronchitis

    • D. 

      Renal disease


  • 39. 
    All of the following apply to vitamin K except:
    • A. 

      It is used as an antidote for warfarin (Coumadin)

    • B. 

      The liver requires it to produce prothrombin

    • C. 

      It is a fat-soluble vitamin

    • D. 

      The bone marrow requires it to synthesize hemoglobin


  • 40. 
    The Reed-Sternberg cell is diagnostic for:
    • A. 

      Chronic myeloblastic leukemia

    • B. 

      Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    • C. 

      Multiple myeloma

    • D. 

      Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma


  • 41. 
    Leukemia is frequently linked to chromosome abnormalities as evidenced by:
    • A. 

      Presence of Philadelphia chromosome translocation in cases of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

    • B. 

      Very low incidence in persons with Down syndrome

    • C. 

      Lack of familial incidence

    • D. 

      Transmission as a recessive gene


  • 42. 
    Iron-deficiency anemia frequently results from any of the following except:
    • A. 

      Certain vegetarian diets

    • B. 

      Excessive menstrual flow

    • C. 

      Malabsorption syndromes

    • D. 

      Diabetes mellitus


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