Case study approach to research
Data collection and analysis
Framework and model development
Quasi-experimental study design
Development of local, national, and international nursing research conferences by Sigma Theta Tau
Initiation of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research
Formation of the National Institute for Nursing Research
Development of a Nursing Research Council as part of the American Nurses Association
reasoning from all chronically ill patients to a single chronically ill patient
Reasoning from a single diabetic patient to all diabetic patients
Using a standard nursing care plan to care for a specific patient
Using a computerized nursing care plan to care for insulin-dependent diabetic patients.
Are easy to implement.
Require few resources.
are both process oriented.
Balance each other by generating different types of nursing knowledge.
Time frame in which the research takes place
Degree of aggressiveness used in acquiring the data
Amount of control and precision exerted by the methodology
Process used to synthesize findings to form conclusions from a study
Highly controlled, field
Partially controlled, laboratory
Highly controlled, laboratory
Identifies new information
Involves abstract, critical thinking
Has a broader focus
Utilizes complex thinking
Subjects will complete every item on the questionnaire.
Subjects are able to identify a personal awareness of QOL.
All liver transplant recipients invited to participate in the study will complete a questionnaire
QOL is an important issue to liver transplant recipients.
Defining the research variables.
identifying the research problem.
Stating the research purpose.
Determining the feasibility of the study.
Nursing code of ethics
builds on previous research.
Challenges existing theory.
Addresses multidisciplinary concerns.
Significance of research problem
Availability of subjects
Predicts the expected results or outcomes of the study
Defines the theoretical framework for the study
Identifies the source of the problem under study
Clarifies the concepts used in the study
Complex, directional hypothesis
Simple, associative hypothesis
Simple, nondirectional hypothesis
Complex, null hypothesis
Complex, directional, causal
Complex, directional, associative
Simple, nondirectional, research
Simple, directional, causal
A stimulus or activity that is varied by the researcher.
The quality, property, or characteristic identified in the problem
A characteristic or element of the human subjects involved in the study
The response or outcome that the researcher wants to understand
Complaints of pain
Pain medication use
Simple, directional, research
Complex, nondirectional, null
Complex, directional, research
Simple, nondirectional, statistical
Proposed methods and design
Description of study sample
The results of a computer search related to the primary topic of interest
A report of a study written by the researcher who did the study
A published summary of the relevant research in a primary care area
A thesaurus that identifies key words to use in a computer search
Prior to study implementation
During study implementation
After study completion
Depends on the type of study
Descriptions of effective clinical outcomes
Anecdotal opinions of expert researchers
Approaches used to investigate similar problems
Clinical impressions of related phenomena
Select the research design.
Delineate the existing knowledge base of an identified problem
interpret previous research findings
develop conceptual and operational definitions of variables
A secondary source.
An academic library.
A research mentor
International Nursing Index
Nursing Studies Index
Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature
Reference management software
previous research findings have been synthesized.
Multidisciplinary literature has been filtered out.
Emphasis is placed on what is not known.
Statistical analyses of the summarized research are conducted.
Blueprint for the study
Specific plan for data collection
Data analysis strategy
researcher's "theory" or idea about the study
Strategies for controlling outcomes
Theories offer precise guidance in all situations.
Theories prove how concepts are related to one another.
Theories represent ultimate truth and are congruent with reality.
Theories are constructed by people and are tentative in nature.
Particular and realistic
Not well-defined and general
Well-defined and precise
Concrete and specific
The framework and hypotheses must be congruent with each other.
The hypotheses are not meant to be testable, but the framework is.
If the hypotheses are stated, the researcher does not need to have a framework.
Hypotheses are inductively identified within the stated framework.
Are always included in the study report.
are usually clearly identified in the report.
Often must be inferred by the reader from the text of the report.
Should be referred to only at the end of the study.
The meanings of terms may differ depending on the study framework.
They tell others how the concept will be measured in the study.
they provide a dictionary definition that can be understood by everyone
They suggest how to precisely measure the variables of interest
Will always be clearly identified
Should only be discussed in the framework section
May be implied
Can be omitted if variables are not yet well defined
Gauze dressing ----------> skin changes
Type of dressing ---------> skin changes
Type of dressing <---------> wound site
Gauze dressing <--------- wound site
Increased perception of pain causes anxiety.
Anxiety causes increased pain perception.
Pain perception and anxiety are positively related to one another
Pain perception and anxiety are inversely related.