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Final Exam - Chapter 21

60 Questions
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  • 1. 
    The only lymphatic organ with both afferent and efferent lymphatic vessels is
    • A. 

      The spleen

    • B. 

      A lymph node

    • C. 

      A tonsil

    • D. 

      A Peyer patch

    • E. 

      The thymus

  • 2. 
    Which of the following cells are involved in nonspecific resistance but not in specific defense?
    • A. 

      Helper T cells

    • B. 

      Cytotoxic T cells

    • C. 

      Natural killer cells

    • D. 

      B cells

    • E. 

      Plasma cells

  • 3. 
    The respiratory burst is used by ______ to kill bacteria
    • A. 

      Neutrophils

    • B. 

      Basophils

    • C. 

      Mast cells

    • D. 

      NK cells

    • E. 

      Cytotoxic T cells

  • 4. 
    Which of these is a macrophage?
    • A. 

      A microglial cell

    • B. 

      A plasma cell

    • C. 

      A reticular cell

    • D. 

      A helper T cell

    • E. 

      A mast cell

  • 5. 
    The cytolytic action of the complement system is most similar to the action of
    • A. 

      Interleukin-1

    • B. 

      Platelet-derived growth factor

    • C. 

      Granzymes

    • D. 

      Perforin

    • E. 

      IgE

  • 6. 
    _______ become antigenic by binding to larger host molecules.
    • A. 

      Epitopes

    • B. 

      Haptens

    • C. 

      Interleukins

    • D. 

      Pyrogens

    • E. 

      Cell-adhesion molecules

  • 7. 
    Which of the following correctly states the order of events in humoral immunity?  Let 1 = antigen display. 2=antibody secretion. 3=secretion of interleukin. 4=clonal selection, and 5=endocytosis of an antigen.
    • A. 

      3-4-1-5-2

    • B. 

      5-3-1-2-4

    • C. 

      3-5-1-4-2

    • D. 

      5-3-1-4-2

    • E. 

      5-1-3-4-2

  • 8. 
    The cardinal signs of inflammation include all of the following except
    • A. 

      Redness

    • B. 

      Swelling

    • C. 

      Heat

    • D. 

      Fever

    • E. 

      Pain

  • 9. 
    A helper T cell can bind only to another cell that has
    • A. 

      MHC-II proteins

    • B. 

      An epitope

    • C. 

      An antigen-binding site

    • D. 

      A complement-binding site

    • E. 

      A CD4 protein

  • 10. 
    Which of the following results from a lack of self-tolereance?
    • A. 

      SCID

    • B. 

      AIDS

    • C. 

      Systemic lupus erythematosus

    • D. 

      Anaphylaxis

    • E. 

      Asthma

  • 11. 
    Some bacteria employ lysozyme to liquefy the tissue gel and make it easier for them to get around
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 12. 
    T lymphocytes undergo clonal deletion and anergy in the Thymus
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 13. 
    Interferons help to reduce inflammation
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 14. 
    T lymphocytes are involved only in cell-mediated immunity
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 15. 
    The white pulp of the spleen gets its color mainly from lymphocytes and macrophages.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    Perforins are employed in both nonspecific resistance and cellular immunity.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 17. 
    Histamine and heparin are secreted by basophils and mast cells
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 18. 
    A person who is HIV-positive and has a TH (CD4) count of 1,000 cells/mL does not have AIDS.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 19. 
    Anergy is often a cause of autoimmune diseases.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    Interferons kill pathogenic bacteria by making holes in their cell walls.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 21. 
    Micturition occurs when the _______ contracts.
    • A. 

      Detrusor muscle

    • B. 

      Internal urethral sphincter

    • C. 

      External urethral sphincter

    • D. 

      Muscularis of the ureter

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 22. 
    The compact ball of capillaries in a nephron is called
    • A. 

      The nephron loop

    • B. 

      The peritubular plexus

    • C. 

      The renal corpuscle

    • D. 

      The glomerulus

    • E. 

      The vasa recta

  • 23. 
    Which of these is the most abudant nitrogenous waste in the blood?
    • A. 

      Uric acid

    • B. 

      Urea

    • C. 

      Ammonia

    • D. 

      Creatinine

    • E. 

      Albumin

  • 24. 
    Which of these lies closest to the renal cortex?
    • A. 

      The parietal peritoneum

    • B. 

      The renal fascia

    • C. 

      The fibrous capsule

    • D. 

      The perirenal fat capsule

    • E. 

      The renal pelvis

  • 25. 
    Most sodium is reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by
    • A. 

      The vasa recta

    • B. 

      The proximal convoluted tubule

    • C. 

      The distal convoluted tubule

    • D. 

      The nephron loop

    • E. 

      The collecting duct

  • 26. 
    A glomerulus and glomerular capsule make up one
    • A. 

      Renal capsule

    • B. 

      Renal corpuscle

    • C. 

      Kidney lobule

    • D. 

      Kidney lobe

    • E. 

      Nephron

  • 27. 
    The kidney has more _______ than any of the other structures listed.
    • A. 

      Arcuate arteries

    • B. 

      Minor calyces

    • C. 

      Medullary pyramids

    • D. 

      Afferent arterioles

    • E. 

      Collecting ducts

  • 28. 
    The renal clearance of _______ is normally zero.
    • A. 

      Sodium

    • B. 

      Potassium

    • C. 

      Uric acid

    • D. 

      Urea

    • E. 

      Amino acids

  • 29. 
    Beavers have relatively little need to conserve eater and could therefore be expected to have _____ than humans do.
    • A. 

      Fewer nephrons

    • B. 

      Longer nephron loops

    • C. 

      Shorter nephron loops

    • D. 

      Longer collecting ducts

    • E. 

      Longer convoluted tubules

  • 30. 
    Increased ADH secretion should cause the urine to have
    • A. 

      A higher specific gravity

    • B. 

      A lighter color

    • C. 

      A higher pH

    • D. 

      A lower urea concentration

    • E. 

      A lower potassium concentration

  • 31. 
    The proximal convoluted tubule is not subject to hormonal influence.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 32. 
    Sodium is the most abundant solute in the urine.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 33. 
    The kidney has more distal convoluted tubules than collecting ducts.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 34. 
    Tight junctions prevent material from leaking between the epithelial cells of the renal tubule.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 35. 
    All forms of diabetes are charactgerized by glucose in the urine.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 36. 
    If all other conditions remain the same, constriction of the afferent arteriole reduces the glomerular filtration rate.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 37. 
    Angiotensin II reduces urine output.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 38. 
    The minimum osmolarity of urine is 300 mOsm/L, equal to the osmolarity of the blood
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 39. 
    A sodium deficiency (hyponatremia) could cause glycosuria.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 40. 
    Micturition depends on contraction of the detrusor muscle.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 41. 
    Which of the following enzymes acts in the stomach?
    • A. 

      Chymotrypsin

    • B. 

      Lingula lipase

    • C. 

      Carboxypeptidase

    • D. 

      Enterokinase

    • E. 

      Dextrinase

  • 42. 
    Which of the following enzymnes does not digest any nutrients?
    • A. 

      Chymotrypsin

    • B. 

      Lingual lipase

    • C. 

      Carboxypeptidase

    • D. 

      Enterokinase

    • E. 

      Dextrinase

  • 43. 
    Which of the following is not an enzyme?
    • A. 

      Chymotrypsin

    • B. 

      Enterokinase

    • C. 

      Secretin

    • D. 

      Pepsin

    • E. 

      Nucleosidase

  • 44. 
    The substance in question 3 that is not an enzymne is
    • A. 

      A zymogen

    • B. 

      A nutrient

    • C. 

      A emulsifier

    • D. 

      A neurotransmitter

    • E. 

      A hormone

  • 45. 
    The lacteals absorb
    • A. 

      Chylomicrons

    • B. 

      Micelles

    • C. 

      Emulsification droplets

    • D. 

      Amino acids

    • E. 

      Monosaccharides

  • 46. 
    All of the following contribute to the absorptive surface area of the small intestine except
    • A. 

      Its length

    • B. 

      The brush border

    • C. 

      Haustra

    • D. 

      Circular folds

    • E. 

      Villi

  • 47. 
    Which of the following is a periodontal tissue?
    • A. 

      The gingiva

    • B. 

      The enamel

    • C. 

      The cementum

    • D. 

      The pulp

    • E. 

      The dentin

  • 48. 
    Anatomically, the ________ of the stomach most closely resemble the _______ of the small intestine.
    • A. 

      Gastric pits, intestinal crypt

    • B. 

      Pyloric glands, intestinal crypts

    • C. 

      Rugae, Peyer patches

    • D. 

      Parietal cells, goblet cells

    • E. 

      Gastric glands, duodenal glands

  • 49. 
    Which of the following cells secrete digestive enzymes?
    • A. 

      Chief cells

    • B. 

      Mucous neck cells

    • C. 

      Parietal cells

    • D. 

      Goblet cells

    • E. 

      Enteroendocrine cells

  • 50. 
    What phase of gastric regulation includes inhibition by the enterogastric reflex?
    • A. 

      The intestinal phase

    • B. 

      The gastric phase

    • C. 

      The buccal phase

    • D. 

      The cephalic phase

    • E. 

      The pharyngo-esophaegeal phase

  • 51. 
    Fat is not digested until it reaches the duodenum.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 52. 
    A tooth is composed mostly of enamel
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 53. 
    Hepatocytes secrete bile into the hepatic sinusoids
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 54. 
    Cholecystokinin stimulates the release of bile into the duodenum.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 55. 
    Peristalis is controlled by the myenteric nerve plexus
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 56. 
    Pepsinogen, trypsinogen, and procarboxypeptidase are enzymatically inactive zymogens
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 57. 
    The absorption of dietary iron depends on intrinsic factor
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 58. 
    Filling of the stomach stimulates contractions of the colon.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 59. 
    The duodenum secretes a hormone that inhibits contractions of the stomach.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 60. 
    Tight junctions of the small intestine prevent anything from leaking between the epithelial cells.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

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