Final Chapter 15 Genes And How They Work

38 Questions  I  By Josceline
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  • 1. 
    The connection that exists between genes and hereditary traits requires the deciphering of the  information encoded in genes into
    • A. 

      Amino acids

    • B. 

      Nucleotides

    • C. 

      Proteins

    • D. 

      Histone molecules

    • E. 

      Complementary bases


  • 2. 
    Both DNA and RNA are made up of building blocks known as
    • A. 

      Nucleotides

    • B. 

      Complementary base pairs

    • C. 

      Amino acids

    • D. 

      Genes


  • 3. 
    The "one gene-one enzyme" hypothesis was proposed by
    • A. 

      Watson and Crick

    • B. 

      Griffith

    • C. 

      Garrod

    • D. 

      Franklin

    • E. 

      Beadle and Tatum


  • 4. 
    DNA and RNA nucleotides are composed of five carbon sugars, phosphate, and nitrogen bases.  How many total nitrogen bases are there for use in the two nucleic acids?
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      3

    • C. 

      4

    • D. 

      5


  • 5. 
    The polypeptide-making organelles residing in the cytoplasm are large protein aggregates to  which RNA is associated. They are called
    • A. 

      Ribosomes

    • B. 

      Golgi bodies

    • C. 

      Lysosomes

    • D. 

      The endoplasmic reticulum

    • E. 

      Mitochondria


  • 6. 
    Amino acids are transported to the ribosome for use in building the polypeptide by
    • A. 

      MRNA molecules

    • B. 

      TRNA molecules

    • C. 

      DNA polymerase molecules

    • D. 

      RRNA molecules

    • E. 

      DNA ligase molecules


  • 7. 
    The process in which an RNA polymerase molecule assembles an mRNA molecule whose  nucleotide sequence is complementary to the DNA sequence is called
    • A. 

      Gene amplification

    • B. 

      Translation

    • C. 

      Transcription

    • D. 

      Polypeptide sequencing

    • E. 

      Complementary base pairing


  • 8. 
    Similar to the complementary purine-pyrimidine relationship observed in DNA, which of the  following choices pairs with adenine in RNA?
    • A. 

      Thymine

    • B. 

      Cytosine

    • C. 

      Guanine

    • D. 

      Uracil


  • 9. 
    The nucleotide sequence of a mRNA codon is composed of how many bases?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      16

    • E. 

      64


  • 10. 
    The hereditary information in DNA is conveyed through the
    • A. 

      Production of all three kinds of RNA molecules

    • B. 

      Production of a lipid bilayer

    • C. 

      Production of DNA copies

    • D. 

      Production of many proteins and polypeptides

    • E. 

      Production of all of the codons


  • 11. 
    Ribosomes are complex arrangements of
    • A. 

      RNA and DNA

    • B. 

      RNA and large proteins

    • C. 

      RNA and sugars

    • D. 

      DNA and proteins

    • E. 

      Nucleosomes and RNA


  • 12. 
    The sites A, P, and E are progressively occupied by amino acids being assembled into a chain in  protein synthesis. These sites are part of
    • A. 

      Small ribosomal subunit

    • B. 

      MRNA

    • C. 

      TRNA

    • D. 

      DNA (the gene itself)


  • 13. 
    Each amino acid has a specific tRNA molecule that can transport it to the site of protein synthesis.  Therefore, in humans the number of different tRNA molecules would be
    • A. 

      3

    • B. 

      20

    • C. 

      40

    • D. 

      80

    • E. 

      Thousands


  • 14. 
    In eukaryotic cells, mRNA is made as a copy of the DNA coding information in the
    • A. 

      Cytoplasm

    • B. 

      Mitochondria

    • C. 

      ER

    • D. 

      Nucleus

    • E. 

      Plasma membrane


  • 15. 
    Gene expression includes which two of the following processes?
    • A. 

      Transcription and replication

    • B. 

      Replication and repression

    • C. 

      Protein synthesis and replication

    • D. 

      Mutation and cell division

    • E. 

      Transcription and translation


  • 16. 
    The enzyme that initiates transcription is
    • A. 

      RNA polymerase

    • B. 

      DNA polymerase

    • C. 

      Carbonic anhydrase

    • D. 

      ATP synthetase

    • E. 

      Transformation principle


  • 17. 
    Because nucleic acid sequence information is changed into amino acid sequence information,  polypeptide synthesis is known as
    • A. 

      Breaking the code

    • B. 

      Decoding

    • C. 

      Transcription

    • D. 

      Translocation

    • E. 

      Translation.


  • 18. 
    The number of nucleotides required to specify an amino acid is
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      4

    • E. 

      A variable number


  • 19. 
    The genetic code operates on all the following principles except
    • A. 

      All four of the nucleotide bases must be used

    • B. 

      Each combination of any three nucleotides can act as a codon

    • C. 

      The first nucleotide in every codon is always the same

    • D. 

      A particular codon always specifies the same amino acid


  • 20. 
    How many unique mRNA codons can be constructed from the four different RNA nucleotides?
    • A. 

      4

    • B. 

      8

    • C. 

      16

    • D. 

      32

    • E. 

      64


  • 21. 
    The 3-nucleotide sequence of an mRNA is called the
    • A. 

      Codon

    • B. 

      Anticodon

    • C. 

      Amino acid

    • D. 

      Transcript

    • E. 

      Template


  • 22. 
    Besides the triplet nature of the genetic code, the other major piece of information that was  provided by Crick and his coworkers is that
    • A. 

      Each codon specified a different amino acid.

    • B. 

      The code of all DNA molecules is the same

    • C. 

      The proteins made from the coded information are always the same.

    • D. 

      The reading of the code occurs without any punctuation.

    • E. 

      The genetic code is the same in all organisms with no exceptions.


  • 23. 
    The tRNA nucleotide sequence that lines up on the mRNA is
    • A. 

      An intron

    • B. 

      An exon.

    • C. 

      A release factor

    • D. 

      An initiation factor

    • E. 

      An anticodon


  • 24. 
    Protein synthesis proceeds by the ribosome
    • A. 

      Alternating between many chains

    • B. 

      Moving three nucleotides at a time on the mRNA.

    • C. 

      Attaching amino acids in a random fashion.

    • D. 

      Selecting the tRNA molecule that fits.

    • E. 

      Attaching amino acids to the growing chain without charged tRNAs


  • 25. 
    Specific amino acids are attached to tRNA molecules by
    • A. 

      Activating enzymes.

    • B. 

      Codons.

    • C. 

      Anticodons.

    • D. 

      Ribosomes.

    • E. 

      Initiation factors.


  • 26. 
    The codons that serve as "stop" signals for the protein synthesis are called
    • A. 

      Anticodons

    • B. 

      Stop codons.

    • C. 

      Nonsense codons.

    • D. 

      Amino acid codons

    • E. 

      TRNA codons


  • 27. 
    The bond that forms between the newly added amino acid and the previous amino acid on the chain  is called a
    • A. 

      Hydrogen bond.

    • B. 

      Hydrophobic bond.

    • C. 

      Hydrophilic bond

    • D. 

      Phosphodiester bond.

    • E. 

      Peptide bond.


  • 28. 
    The initiation complex for protein synthesis contains all of the following except
    • A. 

      A small ribosomal subunit.

    • B. 

      MRNA

    • C. 

      TRNA with methionine.

    • D. 

      A release factor.

    • E. 

      An initiation factor.


  • 29. 
    The different components of the protein synthesizing machinery include all of the following  except
    • A. 

      MRNA.

    • B. 

      TRNA

    • C. 

      Ribosomes.

    • D. 

      Amino acids.

    • E. 

      RNA polymerase.


  • 30. 
    Eukaryotic mRNA molecules are occasionally interspersed with non-coding sequences that must  be removed before protein synthesis. These are called
    • A. 

      Anticodons.

    • B. 

      Introns.

    • C. 

      Exons.

    • D. 

      Nucleosomes.

    • E. 

      Chromomeres.


  • 31. 
    The location of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells is the
    • A. 

      Nucleus.

    • B. 

      Cytoplasm.

    • C. 

      Plasma membrane.

    • D. 

      Golgi apparatus.

    • E. 

      Vacuole.


  • 32. 
    In eukaryotes, mRNA processing involves all of the following events except
    • A. 

      Elongation of the transcript.

    • B. 

      Addition of a 5' cap.

    • C. 

      Addition of a poly A to the 3' end.

    • D. 

      Pre-mRNA splicing.

    • E. 

      Association with the spliceosome.


  • 33. 
    In eukaryotes, the empty RNA molecules exit the ribosome from the
    • A. 

      E site.

    • B. 

      P site.

    • C. 

      A site.

    • D. 

      Active site.

    • E. 

      Allosteric site.


  • 34. 
    The Central Dogma of biology is stated as
    • A. 

      Proteins RNA DNA.

    • B. 

      RNA DNA proteins.

    • C. 

      DNA proteins RNA.

    • D. 

      DNA RNA proteins.


  • 35. 
    The transfer of information from DNA to mRNA is referred to as
    • A. 

      Transcription.

    • B. 

      Translation.

    • C. 

      Transformation.

    • D. 

      Transference.

    • E. 

      Translocation.


  • 36. 
    If the sequence of bases in a section of DNA is ATCGCTCC, what is the corresponding  sequence of bases in mRNA?
    • A. 

      ATCCGATT

    • B. 

      TAGGCUGG

    • C. 

      UAGCGAGG

    • D. 

      TATCGGCC

    • E. 

      AUCCGAUU


  • 37. 
    If the DNA triplet code were ATG CGT, the tRNA anticodons would be
    • A. 

      AUG CGU.

    • B. 

      ATG CGT.

    • C. 

      UAC GCA.

    • D. 

      UAG CGU.


  • 38. 
    Humans and a bacterium make human insulin. How is this possible?
    • A. 

      The human insulin gene appears naturally in the bacteria.

    • B. 

      The human insulin gene is a mutated form of a bacterial gene for bacterial insulin

    • C. 

      The human insulin gene was inserted into a bacterium's genome, and since the genetic code is nearly universal, the bacterium is able to produce human insulin

    • D. 

      The human insulin gene appears in bacteria that have been exposed to radiation treatments for diabetes.

    • E. 

      The human insulin gene appears naturally in the bacteria that is an inhabitant of the GI tract of diabetic patients


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