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Goes beyond senses and motor skills
Includes logical reasoning
Is characterized by reversibility of thought
Is comprised of simple abstractions
Be static thinkers
Reverse things in their perception
A focus on appearences only
An apprenticeship in thinkng
Interact with a mentor to accomplish a task
Is told instructions for a task only once
Is allowed to discover the solution to a task on his or her own
Be assisted by an adult until the child can perform the task well on his own.
Needs several experiences with a word to learn it.
Grasps the meaning of words describing emotions
Has a clear understanding of all words he uses
Learns some words after a single exposure to them.
Gross motor skills
Fine motor skills
Development and growth
Conservation of volume
Conservation of area
Conservation of number
Conservation of matter
David helps his son build a model airplane by assembling it while his son watches.
Howard and priscilla buy a Wii for their 5 year old daughter Rebecca. They set it up for her and then allow her to figure out hyow to turn it on and use the remote.
Richard buys a do it yourself kite kit for his 6 year old daughter Angela. He lays al;l of the pieces out for her and then allows her to read the instructions for herself.
Miriam helps her son Benm make cookies. She measures all of the ingredients out and placfes them on the counter in small bowls. She reads the recipe aloud while simplifying it as ben places the ingredients in the bowl and mixes them together with a spoon.
Initiative vs guilt
Phallic pride vs penis envy
The preoperational stage
Autonomy vs inferiority
At the same time as
Expectations for maturity
Jamie tries to share his toys with Jill.
Mark intentionally knocks over simons blocks
Holly watches while other children are playing jump rope.
Courtney helps her mom rake the leaves.
When the child is less than 2
Once the child can use words to express emotions
If the child prefers to be with other children
If the child is over 8 years old.
High blood pressure
A lower incidence of asthma
lower levels of cholesterol
Better school achievement
Having a physician, nurse or dentist as a parent
Receiving all of the required immunications before starting school
Seing the doctor and dentist by age 3
Having parents teachers anjd peers who demonstrate healthy lifestyle habits.
Groups that experienced food deprvation a few generations ago but now have plenty of food.
Children in Eastern Europe
Groups that have experienced prosperity for several decades
Children in the US
Ability to field balls
Abnormal psychool9ogy of childhood
An anxiety disorder
They are both equally likely to be prescribed medication
There is not enough research evidence to allow us to predict who would be prescribed medication
Has notable vision or hearing problems.
Is of low intelligence
Lives in stressful environments
Has no apparent handicap.
With fine motor skills
Engaging in solitary play
Inhibiting social interaction
Noise and light
Genetic factors alone
Parents early child-care methods
Genetic vulnerability coupled with other factors
Uncaring, cold parents, especially the mother.
Think logically about tangible things
Think logically about abstract things
Consistently make good decisions
Solve most problems on their own.
Abstractions such as truth and justive
Chemistry and physics
Concrete and visible examples
Questions and social justice
High level business companies
Thinking about remembering
Remembering about remembering
Thinking about thinking
Remembering about thinking
Personal and cultural experiences
A teacher-directed curriculum.
A child-centered curriculum
Limited to facts and knowledge gained 6through repetition.
Limited to highly emotional experiences and objective information
Unolimited regarding information but limited to highly emotional experiences.
Scoring high on an IQ test
Well developed fine motor skills
Piaget emphasized the child's own discovery processes, while Vygotsky stressed the importance of instruction.
Vygotsky emphasizede the child own discovery processes, while piget stressed the importance of instruction.
Piaget believed that school age children were capable of rote memorization and Vygotsky believed they were not.
Vygotsky beloieved that shcool age children were capable of rote memorization and piagetg believed they were not.