The Romans invented concrete to erect taller and more stable structures. They developed the arch wheel and the trade wheel. These wheels gave them a significant mechanical advantage. The Romans also invented the onager, which is a very powerful sling catapult for launching heavy rock projectiles.
The catapults of the Middle Age were modeled after the onager. The most significant achievement of the Romans was what historians call the Roman architectural revolution, or the concrete revolution. This entailed the extensive use of concrete, the barrel arch, and the vaulted arch.
These three elements propelled the Romans well beyond Greek methods of construction. Oddly enough, the Romans also invented ice-cream. They mixed fruit like berries and snow from the mountains around Rome and froze it again, using snow. The Romans also discovered fast curing cement, which was very important to them.