Hypoxemia is defined as the low amount of oxygen in the blood. In layman's term, it is the deficiency of oxygen in arterial (that contains oxygenated blood only) blood. Some people replace hypoxemia with hypoxia but both are different terminologies.
Late clinical signs and symptoms of hypoxemia are as follows:
Confusion and stupor
Cyanosis of skin and mucous membranes
Hence, the correct answer is optionE. All of the above.
Hypoxemia is the inadequate supply of oxygen to the body tissues. It can be due to a number of reasons. However, it often displays similar symptoms which allows doctors to diagnose it. All the symptoms mentions hold true. A patient in hypoxemia often has tachypnea, tachycardia and restlessness during the early phases. As the hypoxemia worsens, the skin and mucous membranes become pale.
Slowly, the heart rate increases and the blood pressure rises in an attempt to deliver more blood containing oxygen to the tissues. Slowly the muscles start to fatigue and give way. Failing of the respiratory muscles leads to respiratory distress. During the late stages, the person slips into a stupor and finally into a coma as the brain is unable to receive an adequate supply of oxygen.
Clinical signs and symptoms of hypoxemia
-Early: Tachypnea, Tachycardia, Restlessness, Pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, Elevated blood pressure, Symptoms of respiratory distress (use of accessory muscles, nasal flaring, tracheal tugging, adventitious lung sounds)
-Late: Confusion and stupor, Cyanosis of skin and mucous membranes, Bradypnea, Hypotension, Cardiac dysrhythmias