Intrusive magma is cooler because it is well insulated by the surrounding rock.
Intrusive magma flows onto the Earth's surface and cools very slowly, allowing many small mineral grains to grow.
The extrusive magma cools quickly so the mineral grains do not have time to grow.
The extrusive magma, because it is deep below the surface, cools very slowly, producing very small mineral grains.
The pressures that different minerals are formed in metamorphic rocks
Which minerals are recrystallized in a sedimentary rock
The temperatures at which different minerals crystallize out of a melt
All of the above
None of the above
Granite; intrusive rock that formed from cooling of relatively high silica magma.
Rhyolite; extrusive rock that formed from cooling of relatively low silica magma.
Diorite; intrusive rock that formed from the cooling of relatively intermediate silica magma.
Basalt; extrusive rock that formed from cooling of relatively low silica lava.
Temperature of the environment – lower T = slower magma cooling.
The presence or absence of volatiles (gases) – more gases = slower magma cooling.
Temperature of the environment – higher T = slower magma cooling.
Pressure of the environment – lower P = slower magma cooling.
The changing of a rock from one set of minerals to another
The compaction of metamorphic rocks
The melting of sedimentary rocks
The cooling of magma
Both c and d are correct.
Cools so fast that mineral grains cannot crystallize and grow
Cools so slowly that only one mineral is formed
Is a rhyolitic type
Cools at an extremely high temperature
The rock heats up and expands at lower pressures, causing it to liquefy.
Temperatures remain high as lowered pressures decrease melting temperatures.
The lowered pressures cause rapid heat loss accompanied by melting.
None of the above.
Magmas are more viscous than solid rocks in the crust and upper mantle.
Most magmas are richer in silica than most crustal and upper mantle rocks.
Magmas are mainly liquid and contain dissolved fluids and gases such as water; most are less dense than the adjacent solid rock.
All of the above.
The crater of a large, extinct cinder cone filled with water; 5 million years ago
Caldera collapse followed major ash and pyroclastic-flow eruptions; 6,000 years ago
Landslides and volcanic mudflows dammed the Mazama River; 500 years ago
A powerful explosion blew away the top of a stratovolcano: 10 million years ago
A thick stack of welded-tuff layers
A field of large stratovolcanoes
A flood basalt plateau
A caldera filled with rhyolitic lava flows
The eruption added large amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
The eruptive cloud destroyed parts of the Earth's protective ozone layer.
Radioactive atoms blown into the atmosphere glowed red as they decayed.
Sulfur dioxide and other erupted gases formed aerosols in the stratosphere.
Frost wedging, exfoliation, biological activity, dissolution
Exfoliation, thermal expansion, biological activity, hydrolysis
Exfoliation, frost wedging, expansion, hydrolysis
Frost wedging, unloading expansion, thermal expansion, biological activity
Soil-forming processes occur from the bottom-up. This causes vertical variations in soil composition, texture, structure, and color.
Soil-forming processes occur from top-down. This causes vertical variations in soil composition, texture, structure, and color.
Soil-forming processes occur in single layers at a time. This causes each layer to appear differently in composition, texture, structure, and color.
Soil-forming processes occur laterally in the same layer, so different vertical profiles allows geologists to determine that variation from place to place.
Less humus is produced in the tropical rainforest because the B horizon is so poorly developed.
Less humus is produced in the cool, temperate forest but the rate of decay and oxidation is slower than in a tropical rainforest.
More humus is produced in the tropical rainforest, but it is quickly washed away by the heavy rains.
In a tropical rainforest, the forest-floor litter is often burned during the dry season.
Corn; rows trending straight down the slope, frequent cultivation.
Apples; land between the trees is planted in grass and not cultivated.
Winter wheat; after the harvest, the field is plowed and left idle until next fall.
Beans; rows are spaced wider than on a level field.
North-facing slopes receive more sunlight in the summer; snow melts faster and more soil moisture is available for the trees.
South-facing slopes receive more moisture and sunlight; rock weathering is slower.
North-facing slopes receive about the same amount of precipitation as south-facing slopes; less moisture evaporates from north-facing slopes.
South-facing slopes receive less moisture, yet rock weathering is faster.
Reduces the grain sizes of rock particles
Allows for faster rates of chemical weathering
Is important in the formation of talus slopes
Involves a change in the mineral composition of the weathered material
Usually wind unless there have been very heavy rainstorms in the area
Usually water unless it is very dry in the region
Both are approximately equal in terms of power globally.
Crystal structure of each grain
Temperature at which it was formed
Environment of deposition
Method of turning into a metamorphic rock
Shale and slate
Granite and limestone
Schist and sandstone
Conglomerate and mudstone
Phyllite and siltstone
Grain size and cooling rate
Color and amount of silica
Texture and grain size
Texture and composition
None of the above
Quiet, muddy lagoons and bays
Shallow, clear marine waters with vigorous current activity
Deep marine waters below most wave action
Acidic, organic-rich waters in freshwater swamps and bogs
Fossils and mudcracks
Ripple marks and cross-stratification
Grain size sorting and ripple marks
Mudcracks and ripple marks
At shallow depths below an oceanic ridge or rift zone
At shallow depths along major transform faults in the continental crust
At great depths in the crust where two continents are colliding
At shallow depths beneath the seafloor where water pressures are immense
No T and P conditions cause spontaneous weathering and destruction of the rock’s minerals, giving way to new ones
An increase in T and P conditions cause a change in the stability in the rock’s minerals
Similar” T and P conditions cause no change in the stability in the rock’s minerals
Any of these
Increase the pressures in deeply buried, regional-metamorphic zones
Aid in the movement of dissolved silicate constituents and facilitate growth of the mineral grains
Prevent partial melting so solid rocks can undergo very high temperature regional metamorphism
Facilitate the formation of schistosity and gneissic banding in hornfels and slates
High pressure, deep burial, and temperatures raised by the Earth’s internal heat
Low pressures, shallow burial, and heat supplied by a nearby magma body
Heat generated by shearing and mechanical movements along faults
Shallow depths, temperatures, and pressures so high that the rock partially melts
Schist, slate, phyllite, gneiss
Phyllite, gneiss, slate, schist
Gneiss, slate, schist, phyllite
Slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss
Pressure and temperature of formation
What minerals it has
Where in the Earth you could expect to find it
All of the above
C soil horizons
Low temps; very dry
Warm temps; vert moist
Low temps; very moist
High temps; very dry
Water expands as it melts, causing the crack walls to be pushed apart
Water expands as it freezes, causing the crack walls to be pushed apart
Water shrinks as it melts, causing the crack walls to be pulled closer together
Water shrinks as it freezes, causing the crack walls to be drawn closer together
Clays; they are rare in soils and regoliths
Quartz; it is very hard and soluble
Feldspar; they occur only in granites
Calcites; it is soft and relatively soluble
Fault or fracture with older rocks above and younger rocks below
Surface of erosion with older strata above and younger strata below
Fault or fracture with younger strata above and older strata below
Surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older strata below
Law of superposition
Theory of correlative deposition
Theory of supersition
Law or original correleation
Law of fossil regression
Principle of cross correlation
Principle of faunal succession
Law or correlative indexing
Is not affected
None of these
Vesuvius and the other volcanoes of Italy
The volcanoes of Hawaii and Yellowstone National Park
The very young cinder cones scattered across the southwestern United States
Mt. St. Helens and other volcanoes of the Cascade Mountains