Test 2 Ch.4-8

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Test 2 Ch.4-8

  
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1.  Which of the following rocks is likely to have the most quartz within it and why?
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  Why do magmas rise toward Earth's surface?
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  A________ forms at very high pressures and moderately low temperatures associated with subduction of oceanic crust and sediments.
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  Kilauea is an example of a __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  Which statement concerning mechanical weathering is NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  ____________ is a major dissolved volatile constituent in both magmas and volcanic gases?
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  What volcanic events formed Crater Lake, OR? When did it happen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  Why does “an increase in” minerals that did not exist in the “parent rock” form during metamorphism of a rock (e.g., garnet in schist)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  A_______ is a intrusive, igneous rock body that is tabular and concordant.
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  Why would a plume of solid silicate rock rising slowly from deep in the mantle begin melting as it neared the base of the lithosphere?
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  Assuming that water filling a crack in a rock undergoes cycles of freezing and melting. Which of the following statements is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  During metamorphism, what is the major effect of chemically active fluids?
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  The 1991 Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines caused brilliantly colored sunrises and sunsets to be seen for the next few years. What caused this phenomenon?
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  Which type of basaltic lava has a fairly smooth, unfragmented ropey surface?
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  Paricutin is an example of a __________
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  A sedimentary facies is the sedimentary rock’s ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  What fundamental concept states that in a horizontal sequence of conformable sedimentary strata, each higher bed is younger than the bed below it?
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  The Columbia Plateau in Washington and Oregon is_______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  What do pumice and obsidian have in common?
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  Detrital grains of which minerals are extremely rare in detrital sediments? Why?
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  An Unconformity is a buried -
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  Which of the following is associated with deep mantle hot spots?
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  Igneous rocks are produced largely by ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  What two factors speed up rates of chemical reaction and weathering in rocks and soils?
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  _______ magma is the most abundant type erupted at oceanic spreading centers.
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  What is the most important factor for whether magma cools slowly or quickly?
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  Which of the following best describes sets of fractures in relatively fresh bedrock, such as granite, that are roughly parallel to the land surface?
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Which are sedimentary rocks?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  What does Bowen’s Reaction Series describe?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  Sedimentary rocks compose approximately _______ percent of Earth's outermost 10 miles.
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Lava flows are typically finer grained than intrusive igneous rocks. Why?
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  Which response lists the rocks in increasing grade of metamorphism?
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  In the Rocky Mountain region of the United States, north-facing slopes (downhill direction is toward the north) are typically more moist and heavily forested than south-facing slopes. Why?
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  Which sedimentary rock consists of clay and fine silt size particles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  The ____ is the idea or concept that ancient life forms succeeded each other in a definite, evolutionary pattern and that the contained assemblage of fossils can determine geologic ages of strata?
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  Which best describes the “soil profile” and its relevance to weathering?
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  ____, a common mineral found in igneous rocks, is the most abundant mineral in detrital sedimentary rocks.
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  Glassy igneous rocks form when the magma ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  As the rate of cooling increases, the size of the crystals that form __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  Which response best represents the conditions of contact metamorphism?
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  How do you classify sedimentary rocks?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  The most violent volcanic activity is associated with __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Which are the four most important physical processes of mechanical weathering?
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  The radioactive isotopes Uranium-238, Uranium-235, and Thorium-232 eventually decay to different, stable, daughter isotopes of -
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  ___ is characterized by segregation of light-and dark-colored minerals into thin layers or bands.
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  Oolitic limestone is most likely to form in what type of depositional environment?
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Which of the following sedimentary features can each be used to determine paleocurrent directions?
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  ____ forms from the metamorphism of limestone or dolostone
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  If you knew the metamorphic facies of a metamorphic rock (example: Zeolite), what can you deduce about the rock?
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  This dense, nonfoliated metamorphic rock is produced most often from sandstone.
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  Which of the following sedimentary rocks would you expect to have originally been deposited by fast-moving streams?
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  Which of the following igneous rocks exhibit aphanitic texture?
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  In which setting would regional metamorphism be most likely?
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  In terrain with steep hill slopes, which crop and cultivation technique will minimize soil erosion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  ____ refers to the process of fossilization where the internal cavities and pores of the original organism are filled with precipitated mineral matter.
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Frost wedging is the major weathering process contributing to the formation of which regolith material?
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  Why is the humus layer typically thicker in a cool, temperate, forest soil than in a tropical rainforest soil?
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  Which is the greater erosive force: wind or water?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  What platy, parallel, mineral grains are the most visual aspect of foliated metamorphic rocks?
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  ________ is the most common type of chemical sedimentary rock.
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  What term describes the zone of contact metamorphism surrounding an intrusive magma body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
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