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Have both similarities and differences.
Are similar in almost every way.
Are different in almost every way.
Have the same instructional needs, but differ in ability level.
The ability to hide their disabilities.
The eradication of their disabilities.
Instruction in a special class.
Improved achievement and behavior.
Consultation by a special educator.
Instruction by an itinerant teacher.
Instruction in a resource room.
Instruction by a regular classroom teacher.
Knowledge of special education law
Instruction of students with serious learning problems
Management of serious behavior problems
Participating in writing individualized education plans
The teacher recommends it.
Careful assessment indicates he or she is unable to make satisfactory progress in the regular school program.
A parent requests it.
A teacher has recorded observations of behavior and assessment of academic performance for at least two months.
Modify or adapt the student's instructional program.
Communicate concerns to parents.
Examine student's school record.
Administer diagnostic tests.
Structured arrangement of the learning environment.
Placement in the least restrictive environment.
Emphasis on functional, life skills.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Civil Rights Act
Integration into society, inclusion in schools, and early intervention
Prevention, integration, and labeling.
Labeling, early intervention, and prevention.
Transition, mainstreaming, and handicapism.
Students attend the school within their district that has the best facilities, regardless of its proximity to their home.
All schools offer a continuum of special education placements, ranging from self-contained classes to full-time regular education.
Placements are made according to developmental readiness rather than chronological age.
General education, not special education, assumes primary responsibility for students with disabilities.
It teaches children of ethnic minorities about their ancestors.
It provides bilingual education for non-English speakers.
It provides equal educational opportunities to all students.
It involves parents in their child's education.
Seeks to socialize students to a multicultural norm of acceptance and respect for people with different cultures.
Undermines the central purpose of school, which is to ensure academic competence.
Focuses too much on rebuilding the moral foundation of society.
Instruction, assessment, and law
Law, socialization, and curriculum
Assessment, instruction, and socialization
Curriculum, instruction, and socialization
Values and behavior styles
Frames of reference
To promote pride in positive aspects of one's own cultural heritage
To foster positive attitudes toward cultural diversity.
To satisfy a large, tax-paying constituency.
To ensure equal educational opportunities for all students.
A psychologist observes the student in the classroom.
The student is asked to perform a series of tasks.
A parent, teacher, and/or professional answer questions related to the student's behavior on a rating form.
The teacher fills out a behavior rating form.
Daily living skills.
Deficits in critical thinking.
Psychological processing problems.
Poor impulse control.
A history of neglect.
Learning problems due to visual, hearing, or motor handicaps, or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage
Neurological evidence of brain injury
Deficits in adaptive behavior
Must require the use of severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement, but may permit the use of RtI.
Must not require the use of severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement, and must permit the use of RtI.
Must require the use of severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement, and must require the use of RtI.
Must not require the use of severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement, and must not require the use of RtI.
Structural and functional differences in the brain.
Allergies to food additives.
Deficits in all academic areas.