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Sociology Final Review

97 Questions
Sociology Quizzes & Trivia

This includes I believe all of the chapters except 11, 12, 13 and 15. Hope it helps!

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The text explains that slavery
    • A. 

      No longer exists in today's world

    • B. 

      Is found today in a mumber of low income nations in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa

    • C. 

      Is found in every country of the world

    • D. 

      None of the above is correct

  • 2. 
    In poor countries, the disadvantages women face relative to men are
    • A. 

      About the same as in rich nations

    • B. 

      Not as great as in rich nations

    • C. 

      Greater than in rich nations

    • D. 

      Just about nonexistent

  • 3. 
    The concept  "absolute poverty" refers to
    • A. 

      A lack of resources that is life threatening

    • B. 

      The absolute number of poor people in any country

    • C. 

      The real poverty rates as opposed to what governements claim to be the case

    • D. 

      The poverty rate in low income countries

  • 4. 
    Compared to poverty in the United States, poverty in low income nations is
    • A. 

      More likely to involve men

    • B. 

      More widespread and severe

    • C. 

      Less likely to involve children

    • D. 

      A less serious problem

  • 5. 
    Where on the planet would you find most high income nations?
    • A. 

      Spread evenly throughout all world regions

    • B. 

      Mostly in the Northern Hemisphere

    • C. 

      All within North America

    • D. 

      Mostly in the Southern Hemisphere

  • 6. 
    Which of the following statements about high income nations is correct?
    • A. 

      They are at the forefront of the Information Revolution

    • B. 

      They make use of large factories and advanced energy sources

    • C. 

      They contain almost all of the world's financial markets

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 7. 
    Which type of slevery refers to one person owning another?
    • A. 

      Chattel slavery

    • B. 

      Child slavery

    • C. 

      Debt bondage

    • D. 

      Servile forms of marriage

  • 8. 
    Which type of slavery consists of employers holding workers by paying them too little to covert their debts?
    • A. 

      Chattel slavery

    • B. 

      Child slavery

    • C. 

      Debt bondage

    • D. 

      Servile forms of marriage

  • 9. 
    Dependency theory claims that poor nations
    • A. 

      Are responsible for their own poverty

    • B. 

      Were "underdeveloped" by colonialism

    • C. 

      Suffer from traditional culture

    • D. 

      Suffer from a "technology gap"

  • 10. 
    While modernization theory focuses on _________, dependency theory focuses on __________
    • A. 

      Rich nations; poor nations

    • B. 

      The future; the past

    • C. 

      The production of wealth; the distribution of wealth

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 11. 
    Talcott Parsons described gender in terms of
    • A. 

      Power differences

    • B. 

      Complementarity

    • C. 

      Biological differences

    • D. 

      The sexual objectification of women

  • 12. 
    Structural-functional analysis points out that industrialization encourages
    • A. 

      Men to take control of the workplace

    • B. 

      The lessening of gender differences and a trend towards gender equality

    • C. 

      Women to have more children

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 13. 
    Feminists claim that rape is mostly about
    • A. 

      Power

    • B. 

      Sex

    • C. 

      Money

    • D. 

      Moral weakness

  • 14. 
    Female genital mutilation is most common in
    • A. 

      North America

    • B. 

      Africa

    • C. 

      Latin America

    • D. 

      Asia

  • 15. 
    Talcott Parsons explained that males tend toward ______ behavior, and females tend to be more ______
    • A. 

      Instrumental; expressive

    • B. 

      Sympathetic; empathic

    • C. 

      Egalitarian; hierarchical

    • D. 

      Rational; traditional

  • 16. 
    All of the following except for one are goals of feminism. Which is NOT a goal of feminism?
    • A. 

      Eliminating gender stratification

    • B. 

      Ending sexual violence

    • C. 

      Expanding human choice

    • D. 

      Opposing the Equal Rights Amendment

  • 17. 
    Which type of feminism accepts the basic organization of US society, but seeks to expand the rights and opportunities of women?
    • A. 

      Liberal feminism

    • B. 

      Socialist feminism

    • C. 

      Radical feminism

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 18. 
    Young men show greater ________ ability than young women; young women show greater ____________ ability than young men.
    • A. 

      Intellectual; sensory

    • B. 

      Mathematical; verbal

    • C. 

      Verbal; mathematical

    • D. 

      Sensory; intellectual

  • 19. 
    The point of describing gender in the Israeli kibbutzim is
    • A. 

      To show that gender is basically biological

    • B. 

      To show that women can dominate men

    • C. 

      To show that cultures define gender in different ways

    • D. 

      To show that boys and girls should not be raised by biological parents

  • 20. 
    The chapter argues that gender is not a matter just of difference, but also a matter of difrences in
    • A. 

      Power

    • B. 

      Wealth

    • C. 

      Privileges

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 21. 
    All of the following are elements of George Herbert Mead's theory of the social self except
    • A. 

      To understand intention, you must imagine a situation from the point of view of the other

    • B. 

      The self develops mainly through the normal evolution of an individual from one stage of development to another

    • C. 

      It is by taking the role of another that we become self aware

    • D. 

      In the end, social experience is the exchange of symbols

  • 22. 
    According to Carol Gilligan, males use a ___________ perspective for moral reasoning
    • A. 

      Care and responsibility

    • B. 

      Justice

    • C. 

      Mechanical

    • D. 

      Indpendent

  • 23. 
    Most children's exposure to people from different backrounds occurs from
    • A. 

      School

    • B. 

      The peer group

    • C. 

      The mass media

    • D. 

      The total institution

  • 24. 
    Studies of childhood isolation consistently conclude that
    • A. 

      There is not enough data to show what happens when children are isolated

    • B. 

      Everyone goes through socialization differently

    • C. 

      Social isolation in infancy causes permanent development damage

    • D. 

      What happens in infancy is not important to the socialization process

  • 25. 
    Elisabeth Kubler-Ross described death as an orderly transition involving five specific stages. All of the following are her stages except
    • A. 

      Resignation

    • B. 

      Envy

    • C. 

      Negotiation

    • D. 

      Acceptance

  • 26. 
    Ageism refers to
    • A. 

      The form of sical organization in which the elderly have the most wealth, power and prestige

    • B. 

      Prejudice and discrimination against older people

    • C. 

      The study of aging and the elderly

    • D. 

      The process where, among the elderly, bones become more brittle and injuries take longer to heal

  • 27. 
    Our basic drives or needs as humans are reflected in the Freuds concept of
    • A. 

      Superego

    • B. 

      Ego

    • C. 

      Id

    • D. 

      Generalized other

  • 28. 
    The concept of the "looking glass self" refers to
    • A. 

      Watsons behaviorist notion that enviornment alone shapes peoples behavior

    • B. 

      Cooleys idea that a persons self-conception is based on the responses of others

    • C. 

      Piagets view that cognitive development takes place through a combination of biological maturation and social experience

    • D. 

      Freuds argument that through psychoanalysis we can uncover our unconscious thoughts and feelings

  • 29. 
    According to Jean Piaget, it is during the preoperational stage of cognitive development that a child begins to use language and other symbols
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 30. 
    The level of human development at which individuals first see casual connections in their surroundings is
    • A. 

      The preoperational stage

    • B. 

      The formal operational stage

    • C. 

      The concrete operational stage

    • D. 

      The sensorimotor stage

  • 31. 
    Any social position that an individual occupies is called a(n)
    • A. 

      Role

    • B. 

      Ascribed status

    • C. 

      Status

    • D. 

      Master status

  • 32. 
    An example of an achieved status is
    • A. 

      Being a daughter

    • B. 

      Being a life-long New Yorker

    • C. 

      Being a member of a minority racial group

    • D. 

      Being a member of chess club

  • 33. 
    As a worker you are torn between the demands of your boss and your coworkers. This experience is an example of
    • A. 

      Role conflict

    • B. 

      Role exit

    • C. 

      Role strain

    • D. 

      Role set

  • 34. 
    The social construction of reality idea is most closely related to the ____ theoretical approach
    • A. 

      Symbolic-interaction

    • B. 

      Social conflict

    • C. 

      Structural functional

    • D. 

      Social exchange

  • 35. 
    People "construct" reality from
    • A. 

      Unfamiliar elements of their enviornment

    • B. 

      Their genetic heritage

    • C. 

      Their surrounding culture

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 36. 
    "The presentation of self" involves
    • A. 

      The study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance

    • B. 

      A persons efforts to create specific impressions in the minds of others

    • C. 

      The way people make sense of their everyday surroundings

    • D. 

      The process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction

  • 37. 
    Humor is created when which of the following occurs?
    • A. 

      Some conventional and unconventional realities are placed in contrast

    • B. 

      The topic is sex

    • C. 

      People hear a taboo discussed

    • D. 

      Someone constructs reality well

  • 38. 
    The greater social power of men is evident in which trait of womens behavior?
    • A. 

      Women craft their personal performances with greater formality

    • B. 

      Women intrude into mens personal space

    • C. 

      Women take up more space than men do

    • D. 

      Women asser themselves in social interaction

  • 39. 
    When a male attaches a female pronoun to an object, he does so to
    • A. 

      Reflect respect or affection

    • B. 

      Reflect ownership or control

    • C. 

      Reflect favoritism

    • D. 

      None of the above are true

  • 40. 
    Although the same basic emotions appear to be biologically programmed into all human beings, our culture guides all of the following except
    • A. 

      What triggers our emotions

    • B. 

      How we display our emotions

    • C. 

      The facial expressions we use to show our basic emotions

    • D. 

      What value we attach to emotions

  • 41. 
    All of the following are benefits of the sociological perspective except
    • A. 

      It helps educate us about the moral positions to take on current issues

    • B. 

      It helps us critically assess "commonsense" ideas

    • C. 

      It helps us see the opportunities and constraints in our lives

    • D. 

      It empowers us to be active participants in our society

  • 42. 
    Emile Dirkheims study on suicide concluded that cateregories of people with strong group ties tend to have lower suicide rates while more individualistic people had high suicide rates
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 43. 
    _______ is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
    • A. 

      The socio-biological approach

    • B. 

      The social-conflict approach

    • C. 

      The structural-functional approach

    • D. 

      The symbolic-interaction approach

  • 44. 
    _________ is any relatively stable pattern of social behavior
    • A. 

      Sociological perspective

    • B. 

      Research methadology

    • C. 

      Theoretical approach

    • D. 

      Social structure

  • 45. 
    ___________ refers to consistency in measurement and ________ refers to the extent to which you actually measuring what it is you intended to measure
    • A. 

      Variability;replication

    • B. 

      Reliability; validity

    • C. 

      Replication; validity

    • D. 

      Validity; reliability

  • 46. 
    A concept refers to a value that changes from case to case
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 47. 
    The _______ methadology is used by sociologists to investigate under controlled labratory conditions the cause and effect relationships between two (or more) variables
    • A. 

      Interview

    • B. 

      Survey

    • C. 

      Experiment

    • D. 

      Manifest data

  • 48. 
    The methodological orientation in sociology in which the researcher focuses on needed social change is referred to as ____________ sociology
    • A. 

      Critical

    • B. 

      Research

    • C. 

      Interpretive

    • D. 

      Scientific

  • 49. 
    Which of the following methodological orientations in sociology views society as being organized so that some categories of people dominate others?
    • A. 

      Interpretive Sociology

    • B. 

      Scientific Sociology

    • C. 

      Research Sociology

    • D. 

      Critical Sociology

  • 50. 
    All of the following are reasons to investigate social life beyond our own borders except
    • A. 

      That societies through the world are increasingly interconnected

    • B. 

      Where we live makes a great deal of difference in shaping our lives

    • C. 

      Thinking globally is a good way to learn more about ourselves

    • D. 

      We face much more serious social problems in the US than in other countries and need to look elsewhere for solutions to problems like ourse

  • 51. 
    All of the following are components of culture except
    • A. 

      Values and beliefs

    • B. 

      Norms

    • C. 

      The people within society

    • D. 

      Technology

  • 52. 
    The fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural system is referred to as
    • A. 

      Cultural lag

    • B. 

      Cultural universals

    • C. 

      Cultural relativism

    • D. 

      Cultural integration

  • 53. 
    This sociological approach to culture draws attention to the link between culture and inequality
    • A. 

      The structural-functional approach

    • B. 

      The social-conflict approach

    • C. 

      The symbolic interaction approach

    • D. 

      The sociobiological approach

  • 54. 
    Arguments for supporting multiculturalism include all of the following except
    • A. 

      That it is a way to come to terms with our countries increasing social diversity

    • B. 

      That it will pave the way for English to be the official language of the US

    • C. 

      That it is a good way to strengthen the academic achievment of Black children

    • D. 

      That it will break down barriers of historical traditions

  • 55. 
    All of the following have been considered a counterculture in the US except
    • A. 

      Hippies during the 1960's

    • B. 

      Members of religious militant groups

    • C. 

      Members of al-Qaeda

    • D. 

      Members of the Republican party

  • 56. 
    Culturally defined standards that people use to assess desirability, goodness, and beauty and that serve as broad guidelines for social living are
    • A. 

      Norms

    • B. 

      Values

    • C. 

      Folkways

    • D. 

      Ideal culture

  • 57. 
    _______ refers to cultural patters than distinguish a societys elite and ____ refers to cultural patterns that are widespread among the societys population.
    • A. 

      Cultural; folk culture

    • B. 

      High culture; low culture

    • C. 

      High culture; popular culture

    • D. 

      Prestige culture; folk culture

  • 58. 
    The authors use the idea of ____ to refer to the idea that many nationalities blend together to make a single "American" culture
    • A. 

      Melting pot

    • B. 

      Multiculturalism

    • C. 

      Mainstream culture

    • D. 

      Eurocentrism

  • 59. 
    Gerhard Lenski proposed a pattern of sociocultural evolution that included all of the following stages except
    • A. 

      Hunting and gathering

    • B. 

      Horticulture and pastorialism

    • C. 

      Mound-building

    • D. 

      Agriculture

  • 60. 
    A criticism of the global culture thesis is that it assumes that people everywhere are able to afford the new goods and services brought about by elements of the global culture
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 61. 
    What is the term that describes the biological distinction between females and males?
    • A. 

      Sexual orientation

    • B. 

      Bisexuality

    • C. 

      Transsexuals

    • D. 

      Sex

  • 62. 
    The term sex is synonymous with gender
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 63. 
    A person's reproductive organs are
    • A. 

      Primary sex characteristics

    • B. 

      Heterosexuality

    • C. 

      Secondary sex characteristics

    • D. 

      Asexuality

  • 64. 
    Married people have more sex with partners than do singles.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 65. 
    People who have some combination of male and female genitalia are
    • A. 

      Transsexual

    • B. 

      Asexual

    • C. 

      Intersexual

    • D. 

      Heterosexual

  • 66. 
    Pornography has generated criticism and controversy from a number of groups
    • A. 

      On moral grounds

    • B. 

      As a power issue

    • C. 

      As a free speech issue

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 67. 
    In the hierarchy of prostitutes, the lowest status is held by
    • A. 

      Escort service workers

    • B. 

      Call girls

    • C. 

      Brothel workers

    • D. 

      Street walkers

  • 68. 
    In the US during the twentieth century, the sexual revolution was associated with
    • A. 

      Kinseys pioneering study of sexual practices

    • B. 

      Urbanization that occured during the 1920s

    • C. 

      The counter culture movement of the 1960s

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 69. 
    The sexual counterrevolution occured
    • A. 

      As a reaction to the sexual freedom that marked that late 1960s and 1970s

    • B. 

      As a response to WWII affluence

    • C. 

      As a reaction to the "Roaring Twenties"

    • D. 

      Because of fear of AIDS

  • 70. 
    The growing body of knowledge that challanges societys heterosexual bias is
    • A. 

      Structural-functional theory

    • B. 

      Social conflict theory

    • C. 

      Queer theory

    • D. 

      Feminist theory

  • 71. 
    Instrumental leadership is group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 72. 
    A large and impersonal group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity is a
    • A. 

      Secondary group

    • B. 

      Tactical group

    • C. 

      Primary group

    • D. 

      Reference group

  • 73. 
    Sociologists describe group leadership in terms of its decision making style
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 74. 
    Institutions of higher learning, the military, and governmental agencies are all examples of
    • A. 

      Secondary groups

    • B. 

      Aggregates

    • C. 

      Formal organizations

    • D. 

      Primary groups

  • 75. 
    All of the following are characteristics of bureaucracies except
    • A. 

      A hierarchy of offices

    • B. 

      Rapid crises response

    • C. 

      Impersonality

    • D. 

      Technical competence

  • 76. 
    Deborah Tannen argues that men have a greater "information focus" and more readily ask questions in order to understand an issue when compared to women
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 77. 
    All of the following are factors in the orginizational enviornment that faced by formal organizations except
    • A. 

      Technological change

    • B. 

      Authoritarian leadership

    • C. 

      Economic and political trends

    • D. 

      Population patterns

  • 78. 
    When Japanese work organizations, the text points to all of the following except
    • A. 

      That people are hired individually, making it competive in nature

    • B. 

      That there is a strong sense of loyalty to the organization

    • C. 

      That workers are often hire for life

    • D. 

      That the company plays a large role in the lives of workers

  • 79. 
    _____ leadership is appropriate for promoting the well being of members and for raising group moral
    • A. 

      Expressive

    • B. 

      Autocratic

    • C. 

      Instrumental

    • D. 

      Laissez-Faire

  • 80. 
    McDonalidaztion of society involves all of the following organizational principles except
    • A. 

      Efficiency

    • B. 

      Standardization

    • C. 

      Uniformity

    • D. 

      Uniqueness

  • 81. 
    According to karl Marx, differences in wealth and power between the capitalists and proletarians leads to
    • A. 

      Class conflict

    • B. 

      Negotiation and compromise

    • C. 

      The abolition of work itself

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 82. 
    Davis and Moore point out that an egalitarian society
    • A. 

      Could never really exist

    • B. 

      Could exist, but only if people were willing to have anyone to perform any job

    • C. 

      Would be more productive than a stratified society

    • D. 

      Has existed in one place or another throughout history

  • 83. 
    The belief that social inequality is fair because social position relfects personal talent and effort is a form of ideology most widely found in
    • A. 

      Caste systems

    • B. 

      Class systems

    • C. 

      Classless societies

    • D. 

      All societies

  • 84. 
    Max Weber argued that, in agrarian societies, which dimension of social inequality has the greatest importance
    • A. 

      Economic class

    • B. 

      Social prestige or honor

    • C. 

      Power

    • D. 

      Control of information

  • 85. 
    Evidence suggests that, as the US moves into the post-industrial phase of economic development, economic inequality is
    • A. 

      Likely to disappear

    • B. 

      Decreasing

    • C. 

      Holding at about the same level

    • D. 

      Increasing

  • 86. 
    Read the following statements about jobs. Which statement is not true?
    • A. 

      Most of the highest-ranked occupations in the US are dominated by women.

    • B. 

      Occupational rankings are much the same in all high income nations

    • C. 

      Most high-prestige jobs require extensive education and training

    • D. 

      Occupations are a source of both prestige and income

  • 87. 
    Near the middle of the class hierarchy in the US we find
    • A. 

      Relatively low levels of status consistency

    • B. 

      Families with average incomes

    • C. 

      Relatively high levels of social mobility

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 88. 
    Which of the following statements comes closest to the correct view of the role of biology in causing people to commit crimes?
    • A. 

      Males with certain body types commit most serious crimes

    • B. 

      Lombroso proved a century ago that biological factors are a major cause of crime

    • C. 

      Biological factors may have a real but small effect in causing some people to commit crimes

    • D. 

      Genetics research has succeeded in explaining most criminality

  • 89. 
    Every society regulates the thoughts and behavior or individuals. This process of regulation is called
    • A. 

      Neighborhood watch

    • B. 

      Childhood socialization

    • C. 

      Social control

    • D. 

      The legal system

  • 90. 
    Which of the following is a function of deviance noted by Emile Durkheim?
    • A. 

      Deviance affirms cultural values and norms

    • B. 

      Responding to deviance promotes social unity

    • C. 

      Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 91. 
    Which of the following concepts is used in Robert Mertons strain theory of deviance to refer to the process of seeking conventional goals but rejecting conventional means to get there.
    • A. 

      Innovation

    • B. 

      Ritualism

    • C. 

      Retreatism

    • D. 

      Rebellion

  • 92. 
    Cloward and Ohlin  extend Mertons theory of deviance stating that crime
    • A. 

      Reflects not only limited legitimate opportunity but also accessible illefitimate opportunity

    • B. 

      Is more common among the rich who have more resources

    • C. 

      Is define in such a way as to overly criminanlize the poor

    • D. 

      Is typically a result of drug dependence or other substance addiction

  • 93. 
    In his subcultural theory of deviance, Walter Miller claimed that street criminality is most common among
    • A. 

      High income males

    • B. 

      Middle class men and women

    • C. 

      Low income youths

    • D. 

      Women at all class levels

  • 94. 
    Edwin Lemert described "primary deviance" as
    • A. 

      The most serious episode of deviance

    • B. 

      Actions that parents or other family members define as deviant

    • C. 

      A passing episode of deviance that has little effect on the persons self-concept

    • D. 

      The experience of deviance early in life

  • 95. 
    The concept "retrospective labeling" refers to the process of
    • A. 

      Interupeting someones past as consistent with present deviance

    • B. 

      Defining someone as deviant for things done long before

    • C. 

      Delinquent children growing into criminal adults

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 96. 
    According to the social-conflict approach, what a society labels as deviant is based mostly on
    • A. 

      How often certain acts occur

    • B. 

      The moral foundation of the culture

    • C. 

      How harmful the act is to the public as a whole

    • D. 

      Patterns of inequality and who has more power

  • 97. 
    Using a Marxist approach, Steven Spitzer claims that a capitalist society is likely to label which of the following categories of people as deviant?
    • A. 

      Someone who threatens to take the property of others

    • B. 

      People who are not very productive

    • C. 

      Radicals who call for basic change in society itself

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct