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Sociology Final Exam

67 Questions
Sociology Quizzes & Trivia

All questions from chapters 9, 10, and 15. Questions beginning with * are the ones our professor quizzed us on in class. Questions beginning with ++ are not in the book, but our professor told us we needed to know them.

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    ______ A set of ideas used to justify and defend the majority's interests and actions is known as
    • A. 

      An ideology

    • B. 

      A doctrine

    • C. 

      A dogma

    • D. 

      A code of ethics

    • E. 

      A philosophy

  • 2. 
    People who possess some distinctive physical or cultural characteristics, are dominated by the majority, and are denied equal treatment are known as
    • A. 

      A minority

    • B. 

      A race

    • C. 

      An ethnic group

    • D. 

      A subculture

    • E. 

      A caste

  • 3. 
    • A. 

      The weight of current scientific evidence supports a connection between genetically determined physical characteristics and innate superiority or inferiority of certain races.

    • B. 

      There is no scientific proof that races differ in there innate mental characteristics.

    • C. 

      Recent reports attribute existing differences in measured IQ to racial differences rather than to the social environment.

    • D. 

      Social scientists are now becoming more interested in biological races than in social races.

    • E. 

      Social scientists have stopped doing research on what they consider a closed issue.

  • 4. 
    • A. 

      The melting pot

    • B. 

      Anglo-conformity

    • C. 

      Cultural pluralism

    • D. 

      Accommodation

    • E. 

      Population transfer

  • 5. 
    The unequal treatment of individuals based on their membership in some minority is known as
    • A. 

      Stereotyping.

    • B. 

      Prejudice.

    • C. 

      Racism.

    • D. 

      The ideal-type method.

    • E. 

      Discrimination.

  • 6. 
    • A. 

      Racism.

    • B. 

      Stereotyping.

    • C. 

      Discrimination.

    • D. 

      Prejudice.

  • 7. 
    The _____________ contends that barring others from social, political, and economic opportunities strengthens the boundaries of the majority.
    • A. 

      Conflict perspective

    • B. 

      Psychological perspective

    • C. 

      Interactionist perspective

    • D. 

      Functionalist perspective

  • 8. 
    • A. 

      Stereotyping.

    • B. 

      Discrimination.

    • C. 

      A self-fulfilling prophecy.

    • D. 

      Agitation.

  • 9. 
    * Forcing Native Americans onto reservations is an example of
    • A. 

      Anglo-conformity.

    • B. 

      Subjugation.

    • C. 

      Demographic transition.

    • D. 

      Partition.

    • E. 

      Population transfer.

  • 10. 
    According to the text, which of the following statements regarding the current condition of African Americans is false?
    • A. 

      Their median income is substantially below that of white households.

    • B. 

      Their poverty rate is four times that of whites.

    • C. 

      African American median family income decreased in the 1980's.

    • D. 

      Less than one-third of African American men are employed in the highest occupational categories.

    • E. 

      Young African American families hold less than one-fifth of the wealth of young white families.

  • 11. 
    The United States' policy toward the Native Americans over the years has
    • A. 

      Been consistently paternalistic.

    • B. 

      Been consistently neglectful.

    • C. 

      Vacillated between paternalism and neglect.

    • D. 

      Attempted to unite the various tribes so they can help themselves.

    • E. 

      Been based on the concept of workfare.

  • 12. 
    * According to the text, Asian Americans have been especially successful because they
    • A. 

      Possess superior intelligence.

    • B. 

      Profit from illegal activities such as gambling and prostitution.

    • C. 

      Refuse to work at jobs that do not pay well.

    • D. 

      Embrace education as they key to success.

    • E. 

      Place little value on human life.

  • 13. 
    The success of Jewish Americans can be attributed to all of the following except
    • A. 

      Their willingness to work hard.

    • B. 

      Their emphasis on family responsibility.

    • C. 

      The high value they place on education.

    • D. 

      The skills many Jewish immigrants brought with them.

    • E. 

      Their easy assimilation into mainstream American society.

  • 14. 
    According to dual labor market theory, minority workers tend to be trapped in the ________ labor market, with low-paying jobs and little hope for advancement.
    • A. 

      Secondary or peripheral

    • B. 

      Core

    • C. 

      Primary

    • D. 

      Inferior

    • E. 

      Malfunctioning

  • 15. 
    * The evidence clearly shows that race is declining in importance in America, T or F?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    Contrary to popular opinion, white ethnics in the United States are politically more liberal than Protestant blue-collar workers. T or F?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 17. 
    According to Gordon Allport, children learning prejudice move from a pre-generalized learning method to a stage of total __________.
  • 18. 
    The attitudes and practices associated with _________ in the American slave system help account for the long-term prejudice and discrimination experienced by African Americans.
  • 19. 
    * Almost ________ percent of all Americans will be members of minority groups in 2050.
  • 20. 
    Which of the following is not always a characteristic of a minority?
    • A. 

      Distinctive physical or cultural characteristics

    • B. 

      Smaller in number than the majority

    • C. 

      Dominated by the majority

    • D. 

      Denied equal treatment

    • E. 

      A sense of collective identity

  • 21. 
    * Whereas _______ is a biological term, _________ is a psychological and cultural term.
    • A. 

      Gender; sex

    • B. 

      Identity; role

    • C. 

      Gender; gender identity

    • D. 

      Sex; gender

    • E. 

      Phenotype; genotype

  • 22. 
    * The debate over explanations for sex differences persists, with the ______ distinction still at the heart of the controversy. 
    • A. 

      Nature versus nurture

    • B. 

      Culture versus socialization

    • C. 

      Innate vorces versus genetic forces

    • D. 

      Gender roles versus gender identity

    • E. 

      Testosterone versus estrogen

  • 23. 
    Although given credit for its insights into the original emergence of gender roles, functionalism is often criticized on the grounds that
    • A. 

      It tends to support a male bias.

    • B. 

      It is too conservative and inadequate to explain recent changes in gender definitions.

    • C. 

      Its proposition that gender roles are functional is detrimental to women.

    • D. 

      It does not address the issue of gender-based inequality.

    • E. 

      It fails to take the biological basis of gender roles into account.

  • 24. 
    * According to conflict theory, gender roles persist because
    • A. 

      Men and women have differential access to the resources needed to succeed outside the home.

    • B. 

      They are beneficial and efficient for human living.

    • C. 

      Gender roles are incorporated into the self-concept through role taking and the looking-glass self.

    • D. 

      They are essential to human survival.

    • E. 

      Women are naturally better suited to perform certain tasks.

  • 25. 
    Symbolic interactionists believe that traditional gender roles persist because
    • A. 

      Men and women have differential access to the resources needed to succeed outside the home.

    • B. 

      They are beneficial and efficient for human living.

    • C. 

      Gender is incorporated to the self-concept through role taking and the looking-glass self.

    • D. 

      They are essential for human survival.

    • E. 

      Of innate biological differences.

  • 26. 
    • A. 

      Nursery schools now attempt to ignore gender roles and do not encourage conformity to them.

    • B. 

      Teenagers who most closely fulfill gender role expectations are given the greatest respect.

    • C. 

      Acceptance or rejection by peers is having less and less influence on the adolescent's self-concept.

    • D. 

      Boys are more concerned than girls with gender role socialization.

    • E. 

      In schools today, children are often encouraged to act out in the roles appropriate to the opposite sex.

  • 27. 
    * Women are hurt by the set of beliefs, norms, and values used to justify sexual inequality, known as
    • A. 

      Sexism.

    • B. 

      Prejudice.

    • C. 

      Gender identity.

    • D. 

      Discrimination.

    • E. 

      Gender roles.

  • 28. 
    * On the average, women in the Unites States are now earning _________ cents for every dollar earned by men.
    • A. 

      45

    • B. 

      52

    • C. 

      60

    • D. 

      76

    • E. 

      83

  • 29. 
    * According to the text, the political position of women in the United States is
    • A. 

      Among the worst in the Western world.

    • B. 

      More favorable than that of women in Scandinavian countries.

    • C. 

      Harmed by "women's lib."

    • D. 

      Actually superior to that of men because women vote in greater numbers.

    • E. 

      Measured by the dependency ratio.

  • 30. 
    The women's movement was an identifiable mass movement at the end of the _______ century.
    • A. 

      Sixteenth

    • B. 

      Seventeenth

    • C. 

      Eighteenth

    • D. 

      Nineteenth

    • E. 

      Twentieth

  • 31. 
    The social movement aimed at the achievement of sexual equality is generally known as
    • A. 

      Sexism.

    • B. 

      Feminism.

    • C. 

      Genderism.

    • D. 

      Communism.

    • E. 

      Comparable worth.

  • 32. 
    According to the text, the most likely form of gender roles in the future is
    • A. 

      Conservative pluralism.

    • B. 

      The melting pot.

    • C. 

      Assimilation to the male model of success.

    • D. 

      Female inclusion.

    • E. 

      Emergent pluralism.

  • 33. 
    ++ Sexual harassment laws passed in
    • A. 

      1964

    • B. 

      1991

    • C. 

      2002

    • D. 

      1983

  • 34. 
    Which of the following is not a true statement?
    • A. 

      Boys are less assertive in class than girls.

    • B. 

      Illustrated children's books present very traditional gender definitions.

    • C. 

      Parents' perceptions of the physical characteristics of their children are influenced very little by their children's gender.

    • D. 

      Nursery school children who fail to conform to their "appropriate" gender are met with resistance from their peers.

  • 35. 
    The idea that victory is the most positive reinforcement for all men is an example of
    • A. 

      Sex.

    • B. 

      A sex stereotype.

    • C. 

      A gender role.

    • D. 

      A value uniquely held by men.

  • 36. 
    Societies that do not follow traditional gender roles are exceptions to the rule. T or F?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 37. 
    Sex stereotypes and gender roles are essentially the same thing. T or F?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 38. 
    Gender is acquired through the process of ________. 
  • 39. 
    According to the __________ perspective, the division of labor based on sex has survived because it is beneficial and efficient for human living.
  • 40. 
    According to the _________ perspective, traditional gender definitions exist because they provide greater rewards and privileges to men than to women.
  • 41. 
    _____________ is the theoretical perspective that attempts to explain how gender is acquired.
  • 42. 
    * Although _________ constitute only about 10 percent of health-care workers in the United States, they establish the framework within which everyone else works.
    • A. 

      Hospice personnel

    • B. 

      Physicians

    • C. 

      Registered nurses

    • D. 

      Practical nurses

    • E. 

      Medical consultants

  • 43. 
    Talcott Parsons uses the term ___________ to describe the complex set of rights and responsibilities associated with biological illness. 
    • A. 

      Illness syndrome

    • B. 

      Sick role

    • C. 

      Doctor-patient nexus

    • D. 

      Instrumental role nexus

    • E. 

      Mutual contact

  • 44. 
    According to Marxist scholar Vicente Navarro, the success of the medical profession in the United States is due to
    • A. 

      Clever lobbying by the American Medical Association.

    • B. 

      The high quality of American medical schools.

    • C. 

      The dedication of nurses and volunteers.

    • D. 

      Its connection with dominant societal power blocs.

    • E. 

      Its roots in religion.

  • 45. 
    Which of the following statements would conflict theory be most likely to assert?
    • A. 

      Medical schools socialize students to accept the beliefs, norms, values, and attitudes associated with the medical profession.

    • B. 

      Those political and economic forces that determine the nature of capitalism also determine the nature of the health-care system.

    • C. 

      "Sickness and "illness" are now seldom used social labels to stigmatize people in the United States.

    • D. 

      The experience of pain is not affected by cultural differences.

    • E. 

      Because it is now known that AIDS cannot be acquired through casual social interaction, this disease is on the way to losing its negative symbolic baggage.

  • 46. 
    Epidemiologists have demonstrated that health and illness are strongly influenced by  __________ factors.
    • A. 

      Social psychological

    • B. 

      Demographic and social class

    • C. 

      Anthropological

    • D. 

      Genetic

    • E. 

      Spiritual

  • 47. 
    * With the exception of _________, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States have poorer health than the general white population.
    • A. 

      Native Americans

    • B. 

      Dominicans

    • C. 

      Asian Americans

    • D. 

      Aleuts

    • E. 

      Puerto Ricans

  • 48. 
    Which of the following statements regarding health-care reform in the United States is accurate?
    • A. 

      Few modern societies provide health care as a free or inexpensive service through their governments.

    • B. 

      The United States is one of the few highly developed countries with national health insurance

    • C. 

      Only the poorest Americans are without access to medical care on a nonemergency basis.

    • D. 

      Only a little more than 1 million children in the United States are not covered by health insurance.

    • E. 

      A major reason for health-care reform in the United States is the substantial proportion of Americans who do not have access to medical care, except on an emergency basis.

  • 49. 
    Which of the following was not discussed as a basic health-care reform option for the United States?
    • A. 

      Modified competitiveness

    • B. 

      Managed competition

    • C. 

      All payer

    • D. 

      Single player

    • E. 

      Play or pay

  • 50. 
    Age stratification is justified by
    • A. 

      Scientific research.

    • B. 

      Legal precedent.

    • C. 

      Society.

    • D. 

      Economic reality.

  • 51. 
    * Graying (the aging of a population) is most common in
    • A. 

      Developing countries.

    • B. 

      Highly industrialized countries.

    • C. 

      Preindustrial societies.

    • D. 

      African and Asian countries.

  • 52. 
    Which of the following factors does not affect the age structure of a population?
    • A. 

      Fertility rate

    • B. 

      Age stratification

    • C. 

      Mortality rate

    • D. 

      Life expectancy

  • 53. 
    * The proportion of persons under age fifteen and over sixty-four to those between fifteen and sixty-four is known as the
    • A. 

      Dependency ratio.

    • B. 

      Age cohort.

    • C. 

      Population pyramid.

    • D. 

      Ageism.

  • 54. 
    Including the "near poor" in the number of at-risk elderly means that about one in  _______ of those age sixty-five and older is poor.
    • A. 

      Ten

    • B. 

      Twenty

    • C. 

      Two

    • D. 

      Six

  • 55. 
    The major reason the United States does not have a national health-care system is because its citizens want different results from health-care programs than citizens of other developed societies. T or F?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 56. 
    * The aging of the population is largely confined to the most highly industrialized societies. T or F?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 57. 
    The _______ embraces the professional services, organizations, training academies, and technological resources that are committed to the treatment, management, and prevention of disease.
  • 58. 
    * If a sick person in American society does not attempt to recover, he or she will be labeled a _______.
  • 59. 
    According to ________ theory, affordable health care is not provided to the poor in the United States because of the desire for profit.
  • 60. 
    _______ refers to a set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, and values used to justify age-based prejudice and discrimination.
  • 61. 
    Health-care expenditures now amount for about ________ percent of the American GDP.
    • A. 

      5

    • B. 

      10

    • C. 

      16

    • D. 

      21

  • 62. 
    Nurses are caught in a conflict between their values and their work environment. Which of the following perspectives best helps us understand this situation?
    • A. 

      Functionalism

    • B. 

      Conflict theory

    • C. 

      Symbolic interactionism

    • D. 

      Exchange theory

  • 63. 
    Of the following, which is an accurate statement?
    • A. 

      Since 1960, the economic situation for the elderly in the United States has deteriorated.

    • B. 

      The poverty rate for Americans over sixty-five is lower than the official count indicates.

    • C. 

      The elderly who are members of racial or ethnic minorities are in much worse condition than any other older people are.

    • D. 

      Only about one-fourth of American families in poverty have female heads of household.

  • 64. 
    * By 2050, the population pyramid of the United States is expected to resemble
    • A. 

      A triangle.

    • B. 

      A classic pyramid.

    • C. 

      A rectangle.

    • D. 

      An inverted pyramid.

  • 65. 
    The poverty rate for Americans over 65 is lower than the official count indicates. T or F?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 66. 
    ++ In the film "The Gods Must Be Crazy," the tribe began having problems after they found a ________.
  • 67. 
    ++ Our professor asked us one more question about "The Gods Must Be Crazy," but I do not recall what it was. Just remember that the answer is conflict theory.