Psychology Study Guide Questions

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Psychology Quizzes & Trivia
Russel Fordhardt and Helen Dust Study Guide to Psychology for Psychology by Schacter, Gilbert, and Wegner

  
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  • 1. 
    The early roots of psychology are firmly planted in philosophy and:
    • A. 

      Anatomy

    • B. 

      Logic

    • C. 

      Dualism

    • D. 

      Physiology


  • 2. 
    Historians generally credit the official emergence of psychology as a science to:
    • A. 

      Broca

    • B. 

      Helmholtz

    • C. 

      Wundt

    • D. 

      Titchener


  • 3. 
    Willam James is to                 as Wilhelm Wundt is to                
    • A. 

      Functionalism; behaviorism

    • B. 

      Functionalism; structuralism

    • C. 

      Structuralism; behaviorism

    • D. 

      Structuralism; functionalism


  • 4. 
    Structuralist psychologists' beliefs were diametrically opposed to what                psychologists believed.
    • A. 

      Functionalist

    • B. 

      Behavioral

    • C. 

      Gestalt

    • D. 

      Cognitive


  • 5. 
    Humanistic psychologists accented the              , where as Freud's view of human nature was largely                .
    • A. 

      Constructive; prospective

    • B. 

      Negative; positive

    • C. 

      Optimistic; pessimistic

    • D. 

      Positive; negative


  • 6. 
    Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, is best known for his: 
    • A. 

      Experiments with salivating dogs

    • B. 

      Experiments with head-bobbing pigeons

    • C. 

      Work with clinically depressed clients

    • D. 

      Experiments with rats and mazes


  • 7. 
    Sue's first-grade teacher gives yellow smiley faces for good work in the hopes of encouraging the children to do their best. According to principles of reinforcement, smiley faces would be:
    • A. 

      Positive reinforcement

    • B. 

      Stimuli

    • C. 

      Reactionary agents

    • D. 

      Negative reinforcement


  • 8. 
    Willhelm Wundt is to structuralism as Jean Piaget is to
    • A. 

      Functionalism

    • B. 

      Humanism

    • C. 

      Evolutionary psychology

    • D. 

      Cognitive psychology


  • 9. 
    Dr. Dixon studies what adolescents conform to the behaviors and opinions of other adolescents. Which are of psychology does her research best represent?
    • A. 

      Cognitive psychology

    • B. 

      Clinical psychology

    • C. 

      Social psychology

    • D. 

      Culturual psychology


  • 10. 
    The American Psychological Association was formed in:
    • A. 

      1892 on the campus of Clark University

    • B. 

      1939 at the beginning of World War II

    • C. 

      At the turn of the century in 1900


  • 11. 
    Nurture is to nature as experience is to:
    • A. 

      Nativism

    • B. 

      Adaptation

    • C. 

      Behaviorism

    • D. 

      Phrenology


  • 12. 
    The first lab devoted exclusively to psychology as an independent field of study opened in 
    • A. 

      Berlin in 1879

    • B. 

      Berlin in 1889

    • C. 

      Leipzig in 1889

    • D. 

      Leipzig in 1879


  • 13. 
    Which school of psychology was most concerned with the adaptive importance of mental processes?
    • A. 

      Structualism

    • B. 

      Behaviorism

    • C. 

      Functionalism

    • D. 

      Empiricism


  • 14. 
    Edward Titcherner is to Sigmund Freud as                 is to                .
    • A. 

      Inner sensations; the unconscious

    • B. 

      Psychoanalysis; functionalism

    • C. 

      Empiricisim; structuralism

    • D. 

      Structuralism; functionalism


  • 15. 
    The branch of psychology that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings is called:
    • A. 

      Humanistic psychology

    • B. 

      Gestalt psychology

    • C. 

      Cognitive psychology

    • D. 

      Idealistic psychology


  • 16. 
    Which psychologists insisted that psychology focus entirely on the study of behavior-what people do- rather than what people experience?
    • A. 

      Functionalists

    • B. 

      Behaviorists

    • C. 

      Structuralists

    • D. 

      Gestalt psychologists


  • 17. 
    B.F. Skinner used a "conditioning chamber" in his research with:
    • A. 

      Rats

    • B. 

      Sea slugs

    • C. 

      Cats

    • D. 

      Dogs


  • 18. 
    The advent of                        in the 1950s had an enormous conceptual impact on the development of cognitive psychology.
    • A. 

      Statistical programming

    • B. 

      Stimulus-response

    • C. 

      Conditioning

    • D. 

      Computers


  • 19. 
    The study of the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior is called:
    • A. 

      Interpersonal psychology

    • B. 

      Cause and effect

    • C. 

      Behavioral psychology

    • D. 

      Social psychology


  • 20. 
    Some psychologists believe that newborn babies turn away from noxious odors because this behavior increases their chance of survival. This perspective would be typical of                  psychologists. 
    • A. 

      Cultural

    • B. 

      Psychoanalytic

    • C. 

      Evolutionary

    • D. 

      Social


  • 21. 
    Aristotle is to philosophical empiricism as Plato is to:
    • A. 

      Philosophical structuralism

    • B. 

      Nativism

    • C. 

      Phrenology

    • D. 

      Physiology


  • 22. 
    Which of the following people used the method of introspection to scientifically focus on basic elements of the mind?
    • A. 

      Wilhelm Wundt

    • B. 

      William James

    • C. 

      John Watson

    • D. 

      Rene Descartes


  • 23. 
    Wundt set up the first psychology research lab in Europe in 1879;                      set up the first research lab in the United States in 1881.
    • A. 

      William James

    • B. 

      Charles Darwin

    • C. 

      Willhelm Wundt

    • D. 

      G. Stanley Hall


  • 24. 
    When his parents put him in his car seat and start up the truck, 2-year old Mark almost immediately goes to sleep. The sound of the truck engine is a:
    • A. 

      Response

    • B. 

      Stimulus

    • C. 

      Reinforcement

    • D. 

      Reactionary agent


  • 25. 
    Jean Piaget is to                        as Edward Titchener is to                 .
    • A. 

      Cognitive psychology; structuralism

    • B. 

      Humanism; functionalism

    • C. 

      Cognitive psychology; functionalism

    • D. 

      Humanism; structualism


  • 26. 
    All of the following were cognitive psychologists EXCEPT: 
    • A. 

      Sir Frederic Bartlett

    • B. 

      Jean Piaget

    • C. 

      Kurt Lewin

    • D. 

      William James


  • 27. 
    All of the following contributed to the rise of cognitive neuroscience EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      The developmental of noninvasive brain-scanning techniques

    • B. 

      Increased use of introspection techniques

    • C. 

      The advent of PET scans

    • D. 

      The use of MRI scanners


  • 28. 
    Dr. Coblentz believes that most women prefer to choose young, physically health men for their life partners because this boosts their chances for producing healthy offspring. This outlook illustrates the                     perspective.
    • A. 

      Cultural

    • B. 

      Evolutionary

    • C. 

      Behavioral

    • D. 

      Developmental


  • 29. 
    Today about half of all members of the APA are American women, quite a contrast to the late 1800s when nearly all members were: 
    • A. 

      European males

    • B. 

      Majority and minority males

    • C. 

      European females

    • D. 

      White males


  • 30. 
    The first woman to serve as president of the American Psychological Associations was:
    • A. 

      Mary Calkins

    • B. 

      Karen Horney

    • C. 

      Margaret Floy Washburn

    • D. 

      Mary Clark


  • 31. 
    The belief that accurate knowledge of the world can be obtained by simply trusting the views and opinions of more experienced people is called:
    • A. 

      Empiricism

    • B. 

      Methodology

    • C. 

      Dogmatism

    • D. 

      Pragmatism


  • 32. 
    The property of measuring device to measure the same way each time is is used is called:
    • A. 

      Accuracy

    • B. 

      Validity

    • C. 

      Infallibility

    • D. 

      Reliability


  • 33. 
    When measuring large samples of people, psychologists usually examine:
    • A. 

      Selected cases chosen at random

    • B. 

      The most extreme score

    • C. 

      Average scores within the group

    • D. 

      Each score individually


  • 34. 
    Correlation is:
    • A. 

      A way of explaining observations.

    • B. 

      A pattern of covariation between two variables.

    • C. 

      An explanation for cause-and-effect relationships

    • D. 

      The sum of observations made on a sample of participants.


  • 35. 
    The third-variable problem refers to:
    • A. 

      The fact that a causal relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from the correlation between two variables

    • B. 

      The fact that correlations can only be caused by another variable

    • C. 

      The fact that each variable in correlation exerts a causal influence on the other.

    • D. 

      The fact that third variable act causally on some other variables, but not all other variables.


  • 36. 
    The outcome that gets measured in an experiment is called the:
    • A. 

      Independent variable

    • B. 

      Control variable

    • C. 

      Dependent variable


  • 37. 
    In a study in which college students are punished (given large amounts of homework, 8:00 a.m. classes, and a steady diet of cafeteria food) to see whether this will affect their scores in their psychology course, what is the independent variable?
    • A. 

      Whether students were punished or not

    • B. 

      Students' scores on the next psychology midterm

    • C. 

      Students' previous scores (or baseline) on psychology midterms

    • D. 

      Students' scores on the next midterm minus the baseline score


  • 38. 
    Ideally, a measurement process should have                , reliability, and power in order for scientists to use it.
    • A. 

      Definition

    • B. 

      Stability

    • C. 

      Validity

    • D. 

      Consistency


  • 39. 
    The law of larger numbers urges researchers to:
    • A. 

      Collect many small samples of research participants if they can't collect one large sample

    • B. 

      Take larger samples from a population, rather than smaller ones, when studying a question of interest

    • C. 

      Use large numbers of scientists to verify a claim independently in their laboratories

    • D. 

      Avoid measuring samples, and measure populations directly.


  • 40. 
    Simple observation can tell us what happened, but                  invokes knowing why an event happened.
    • A. 

      Explanation

    • B. 

      Inferential statistics

    • C. 

      A population

    • D. 

      Double-blind observation


  • 41. 
    You've noticed that there is a correlation of -.95 between talking speed and the number of questions answered by your professor. What is the most likely explanation for this correlation?
    • A. 

      Increased talking speed causes decreased question-answering.

    • B. 

      Increased question-answering causes decreased talking speed.

    • C. 

      A third variable causes both increased talking speed and decreased question-answering

    • D. 

      Any of these explanations could be correct


  • 42. 
    The variable that gets manipulated in an experiment is called the:
    • A. 

      Dependent variable

    • B. 

      Covariance variable

    • C. 

      Independent variable

    • D. 

      Experimental variable


  • 43. 
    When research participants have an equal chance of ending up in the experimental group or the control group of a study, the process of                     has been used. 
    • A. 

      Self-selection

    • B. 

      Matched selection

    • C. 

      Correlation matching

    • D. 

      Randomization


  • 44. 
    A                   is what gets tested directly when a scientific study is conducted.
    • A. 

      Hypothesis

    • B. 

      Theory

    • C. 

      Prediction

    • D. 

      Explanation


  • 45. 
    The ethical principle of                     means that research participants are given enough information about a study to make a reasonable decision about whether they will participate.
    • A. 

      Freedom form coercion

    • B. 

      Informed consent

    • C. 

      Debriefing

    • D. 

      Protection from harm


  • 46. 
    Which of the following is one of the major ethical principles that psychologists must follow when conducting research?
    • A. 

      Informed consent

    • B. 

      Debriefing

    • C. 

      Risk-benefit analysis

    • D. 

      All of these are principles a researcher must follow


  • 47. 
    Generalizability is synonymous with the concept of:
    • A. 

      Internal validity

    • B. 

      External validity

    • C. 

      Experimental manipulation

    • D. 

      Causality


  • 48. 
    A hypothetical account of how and why a phenomenon occurs is called a(n).
    • A. 

      Hypothesis

    • B. 

      Explanation

    • C. 

      Experimental result

    • D. 

      Theory


  • 49. 
    The ethical principle of                   means that participants must be told the true purpose and nature of an experiment after it is over. 
    • A. 

      Protection from harm

    • B. 

      Freedom from coercion

    • C. 

      Debriefing

    • D. 

      Informed consent


  • 50. 
    A description of a property in measurable terms is called a(n).
    • A. 

      Operational definition

    • B. 

      Hypothesis

    • C. 

      Theory

    • D. 

      Rule set


  • 51. 
    When an operational definition of a property is unrelated to other operational definitions of that same property, it is said to be low in:
    • A. 

      Predictive validity.

    • B. 

      Construct validity.

    • C. 

      Essential validity

    • D. 

      Reliability


  • 52. 
    You're interested in the shirt sizes of members of your introductory psychology class. After collecting all the students' sizes, you graph the scores from lowest through highest and record how many people had each shirt size. In doing so, you are constructing a(n).
    • A. 

      Average.

    • B. 

      Frequency distribution.

    • C. 

      Population

    • D. 

      Median of scores


  • 53. 
                          is a research technique that helps reduce bias due to prior expectations.
    • A. 

      The case method

    • B. 

      Double-blind observation

    • C. 

      A correlation coefficient

    • D. 

      Median of scores


  • 54. 
    Correlation coefficients reveal both the magnitude and                    of a correlation between two variables.
    • A. 

      Strength

    • B. 

      Cause

    • C. 

      Type

    • D. 

      Direction


  • 55. 
    Experimentation is related to                  , whereas observation is related to                       .
    • A. 

      Measurement of variables; manipulation of variables

    • B. 

      Unobtrusiveness; correlation

    • C. 

      Single variables; multiple variables

    • D. 

      Manipulation of variables; measurement of variables


  • 56. 
    When an independent variable is manipulated, it produces an experimental group and a: 
    • A. 

      Reactionary group.

    • B. 

      Secondary group

    • C. 

      Control group.

    • D. 

      Correlational group.


  • 57. 
    The odds that psychologists typically use to determine if random assignment has failed in an experiment are:
    • A. 

      2% chance that is has failed

    • B. 

      5%chance that is has failed

    • C. 

      10%chance that is has failed

    • D. 

      25% chance that is has failed.


  • 58. 
    Dr. Horton made it clear to his intro psychology students that if they didn't participate in his research, they would receive a failing grade in his class. What ethical principle has Dr. Horton violated?
    • A. 

      Freedom from coercion

    • B. 

      Informed consent

    • C. 

      Debriefing

    • D. 

      Protection from harm


  • 59. 
                          involves relying on assumptions and beliefs about the world, whereas                 involves making direct observations of the world.
    • A. 

      Methodology; dogmatism

    • B. 

      Dogmatism; empiricism

    • C. 

      Empiricism; dogmatism

    • D. 

      Empiricism; methodology


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