Psychology Study Guide Questions

59 Questions  I  By Deguz91 on November 10, 2010
Russel Fordhardt and Helen Dust Study Guide to Psychology for Psychology by Schacter, Gilbert, and Wegner

  

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1.  Aristotle is to philosophical empiricism as Plato is to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  Correlation is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  Structuralist psychologists' beliefs were diametrically opposed to what                psychologists believed.
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  All of the following contributed to the rise of cognitive neuroscience EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  Today about half of all members of the APA are American women, quite a contrast to the late 1800s when nearly all members were: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  You're interested in the shirt sizes of members of your introductory psychology class. After collecting all the students' sizes, you graph the scores from lowest through highest and record how many people had each shirt size. In doing so, you are constructing a(n).
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Ideally, a measurement process should have                , reliability, and power in order for scientists to use it.
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, is best known for his: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  Which of the following is one of the major ethical principles that psychologists must follow when conducting research?
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  Historians generally credit the official emergence of psychology as a science to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  A                   is what gets tested directly when a scientific study is conducted.
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  The odds that psychologists typically use to determine if random assignment has failed in an experiment are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  Sue's first-grade teacher gives yellow smiley faces for good work in the hopes of encouraging the children to do their best. According to principles of reinforcement, smiley faces would be:
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  A description of a property in measurable terms is called a(n).
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  Dr. Coblentz believes that most women prefer to choose young, physically health men for their life partners because this boosts their chances for producing healthy offspring. This outlook illustrates the                     perspective.
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  Generalizability is synonymous with the concept of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  Edward Titcherner is to Sigmund Freud as                 is to                .
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  Experimentation is related to                  , whereas observation is related to                       .
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  Which psychologists insisted that psychology focus entirely on the study of behavior-what people do- rather than what people experience?
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  The variable that gets manipulated in an experiment is called the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  Which of the following people used the method of introspection to scientifically focus on basic elements of the mind?
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  Dr. Horton made it clear to his intro psychology students that if they didn't participate in his research, they would receive a failing grade in his class. What ethical principle has Dr. Horton violated?
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  The ethical principle of                   means that participants must be told the true purpose and nature of an experiment after it is over. 
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.                        involves relying on assumptions and beliefs about the world, whereas                 involves making direct observations of the world.
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  The property of measuring device to measure the same way each time is is used is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  When research participants have an equal chance of ending up in the experimental group or the control group of a study, the process of                     has been used. 
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  Which school of psychology was most concerned with the adaptive importance of mental processes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  The American Psychological Association was formed in:
A.
B.
C.
29.  When measuring large samples of people, psychologists usually examine:
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.                        is a research technique that helps reduce bias due to prior expectations.
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  The first lab devoted exclusively to psychology as an independent field of study opened in 
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  Willhelm Wundt is to structuralism as Jean Piaget is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  Simple observation can tell us what happened, but                  invokes knowing why an event happened.
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  Dr. Dixon studies what adolescents conform to the behaviors and opinions of other adolescents. Which are of psychology does her research best represent?
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  B.F. Skinner used a "conditioning chamber" in his research with:
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  The ethical principle of                     means that research participants are given enough information about a study to make a reasonable decision about whether they will participate.
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  The belief that accurate knowledge of the world can be obtained by simply trusting the views and opinions of more experienced people is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  The law of larger numbers urges researchers to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  A hypothetical account of how and why a phenomenon occurs is called a(n).
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  The branch of psychology that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  The advent of                        in the 1950s had an enormous conceptual impact on the development of cognitive psychology.
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  All of the following were cognitive psychologists EXCEPT: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Willam James is to                 as Wilhelm Wundt is to                
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  In a study in which college students are punished (given large amounts of homework, 8:00 a.m. classes, and a steady diet of cafeteria food) to see whether this will affect their scores in their psychology course, what is the independent variable?
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  The study of the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  When an operational definition of a property is unrelated to other operational definitions of that same property, it is said to be low in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Some psychologists believe that newborn babies turn away from noxious odors because this behavior increases their chance of survival. This perspective would be typical of                  psychologists. 
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  You've noticed that there is a correlation of -.95 between talking speed and the number of questions answered by your professor. What is the most likely explanation for this correlation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  When his parents put him in his car seat and start up the truck, 2-year old Mark almost immediately goes to sleep. The sound of the truck engine is a:
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  The third-variable problem refers to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  The outcome that gets measured in an experiment is called the:
A.
B.
C.
52.  The early roots of psychology are firmly planted in philosophy and:
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  When an independent variable is manipulated, it produces an experimental group and a: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  Jean Piaget is to                        as Edward Titchener is to                 .
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  The first woman to serve as president of the American Psychological Associations was:
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Wundt set up the first psychology research lab in Europe in 1879;                      set up the first research lab in the United States in 1881.
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  Humanistic psychologists accented the              , where as Freud's view of human nature was largely                .
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  Correlation coefficients reveal both the magnitude and                    of a correlation between two variables.
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  Nurture is to nature as experience is to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
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