Psych 220

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  • 1. 
    Which of the following statements about Piaget's theory is NOT true?
    • A. 

      Piaget believed that people go through four stages in understanding the world.

    • B. 

      Piaget believed that people go through six stages in understanding the world.

    • C. 

      Each of Piaget's stages represents a different way of understanding the world.

    • D. 

      Each of Piaget's stages is age-related.


  • 2. 
    Which of the following statements describing Skinner's theory of operant conditioning is NOT true?
    • A. 

      Rewards and punishments shape behavior

    • B. 

      A behavior followed by a rewarding stimulus is likely to be repeated.

    • C. 

      A behavior followed by a punishing stimulus is less likely to recur.

    • D. 

      A behavior that is ignored will be repeated.


  • 3. 
    Harry fights constantly with his parents. Bronfenbrenner would predict that Harry might have difficult related to his teacher because of a disruption in his. 
    • A. 

      Mesosystem

    • B. 

      Exosystem

    • C. 

      Chronosystem

    • D. 

      Macrosystem.


  • 4. 
    Which of the following statements about standardized tests is TRUE?
    • A. 

      They assume that a person's behavior is consistent and stable

    • B. 

      They do not provide any information about differences among people

    • C. 

      They assume that people will perform differently depending on the setting of the test

    • D. 

      They do not allow a person's performance to be compared with the performance of other people.


  • 5. 
    MRI uses -- to construct an image of the --
    • A. 

      Radioactive glucose, brain

    • B. 

      Electrical activity levels, heart

    • C. 

      X-rays, brain

    • D. 

      Radio waves, brain


  • 6. 
    Which of the following statements about experimental research is NOT true?
    • A. 

      Experimental design uses experimental control groups

    • B. 

      Experimental design uses experimental groups only

    • C. 

      All experiments involve at least one independent variable and one dependent variable

    • D. 

      Experiments must demonstrate cause and effect.


  • 7. 
    Which of the following is a drawback to conduction observational research in a laboratory?
    • A. 

      People must be paid for their time

    • B. 

      People may be too relaxed in a laboratory setting

    • C. 

      People who are willing to come to a laboratory might not be representative of the general population

    • D. 

      People behave more naturally when they are away from the stresses of the "real world."


  • 8. 
    Denise argues that early experiences are more important; Barbara believes that both early and later experiences are important. Denise's view is consistent --, while Barbara's view would be supported by --. 
    • A. 

      Freud, Erikson

    • B. 

      Eirkson, Blos

    • C. 

      Blos, Erikson

    • D. 

      Erikson, Freud


  • 9. 
    According to Jeffery Arnett, emerging adulthood is characterized by five key factors. Which of the following is NOT one of these featured?
    • A. 

      Identity exploration

    • B. 

      Stability

    • C. 

      Self focus

    • D. 

      Feeling in-between


  • 10. 
    Paul spends much of his time working in his garden and reading books on photography. He doesn't have as much strength as he used to have, but he is enjoying his time of decreased responsibility. Developmental psychologists would say that Paul is probably in?
    • A. 

      Terminal adulthood

    • B. 

      Emerging old age

    • C. 

      Middle adulthood

    • D. 

      Late adulthood


  • 11. 
    Which of the following is associated with the developmental period of early childhood?
    • A. 

      School readiness

    • B. 

      Beginning of symbolic thought

    • C. 

      Beginning of sensorimotor skills 3

    • D. 

      Extreme dependence on adults


  • 12. 
    The idea that no age period dominates development highlights the life-span perspective that development is...
    • A. 

      Lifelong

    • B. 

      Plastic

    • C. 

      Multidimensional

    • D. 

      Contextual


  • 13. 
    Psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, neuroscientists, and medical researchers all share in interest in unlocking the mysteries of development through the lifespan. This bears out how development is:
    • A. 

      Multidimensional

    • B. 

      Cultural

    • C. 

      Multidirectional

    • D. 

      Multidisciplinary


  • 14. 
    Individuals are changing beings in a changing world. Which characteristic of development is reflected in this statement?
    • A. 

      Development is elastic

    • B. 

      Development is contextual

    • C. 

      Development is multidisciplinary

    • D. 

      Development is multicultural


  • 15. 
    Contextual influences include biological processes such as puberty and menopause. They also include sociocultural, environmental processes such as beginning formal education and retirement. 
    • A. 

      Nonnormative life events

    • B. 

      Normative history-graded influence

    • C. 

      Normative age-graded influences

    • D. 

      Normative life-events


  • 16. 
    By age 51, most women enter menopause. This is an example of how a biological process can exert a...
    • A. 

      Multidirectional influence

    • B. 

      Bidirectional influence

    • C. 

      Nonnormative age-graded influence

    • D. 

      Normative age-graded influence


  • 17. 
    Latinos:
    • A. 

      Are an example of a broad ethnic group in the United States

    • B. 

      Are not an ethnic group since they are too broad a category

    • C. 

      Do not form an ethnic group, because there is a lack of diversity within this group

    • D. 

      Are an example of a broad ethnic group in the United States


  • 18. 
    Laws passed to reform the welfare system, house the homeless, provide relief for catastrophes, and improve education would be examples of...
    • A. 

      Socialized equity programs

    • B. 

      Social policy

    • C. 

      Programmatic legislation

    • D. 

      Socialized equity programs


  • 19. 
    Compared with earlier decades, U.S. adults today are....
    • A. 

      Less likely to be living alone

    • B. 

      More likely to be married

    • C. 

      Less likely to be living alone

    • D. 

      More likely to be childless


  • 20. 
    The average kindergartener would be in the developmental period of:
    • A. 

      Infancy

    • B. 

      Late childhood

    • C. 

      Early childhodd

    • D. 

      Middle childhood


  • 21. 
    According to the analysis included in the text, which of the following statements about the "young-old" is true?
    • A. 

      They have little potential for physical and cognitive fitness

    • B. 

      They can develop strategies to cope with the gains and losses of aging

    • C. 

      They show considerable loss in cognitive skills

    • D. 

      They are people between 60 and 70 years of age.


  • 22. 
    Development in the young-old and old-old is characterized by considerable --, but development in the oldest-old is characterized by --. 
    • A. 

      Plasticity, frailty

    • B. 

      Plasticity, adaptability

    • C. 

      Adaptability, flexibility

    • D. 

      Adaptability, plasticity


  • 23. 
    The -- the person's -- age, the longer the person is expected to live. 
    • A. 

      Older, psychological

    • B. 

      Younger, social

    • C. 

      Older, chronological

    • D. 

      Younger, biological


  • 24. 
    In predicting an adult woman's behavior, it may be more important to know that she is the mother of a 3-year-old child than to know whether she is 20 or 30 years old. This reflects the concept of:
    • A. 

      Social age

    • B. 

      Historical age

    • C. 

      Chronological age

    • D. 

      Psychological age


  • 25. 
    The 35-year-old grandmother, the 65-year-old father of a preschooler, the 15-year-old surgeon, and the 70-year-old student all serve to illustrate that...
    • A. 

      Chronological age is becoming irrelevant in the US

    • B. 

      Developmental age is becoming more irrelevant in the US

    • C. 

      Social age is becoming irrelevant in the US

    • D. 

      Chronological age is becoming increasingly relevant in the US


  • 26. 
    The concept of discontinuity is characterized by...
    • A. 

      Quantitative change

    • B. 

      Cumulative change

    • C. 

      Qualitative change

    • D. 

      Gradual change


  • 27. 
    With regard to the three important issues concerning developent -- nature-nutre, stability-change, and continuity-discontinuity, life span psychologists:
    • A. 

      Tend to align themselves rigidly with certain positions

    • B. 

      Do not take extreme positions

    • C. 

      Give primacy to the first issue

    • D. 

      Refuse to consider the opposite position.


  • 28. 
    Most contemporary psychoanalytic theorists believe that Sigmund Freud:
    • A. 

      Overemphasized cultural experiences as determinants of an individual's development

    • B. 

      Proposed a theory that has stood the test of time and needs no revisions

    • C. 

      Overemphasized sexual instincts

    • D. 

      Underestimated the role of the unconscious in determining development


  • 29. 
    Piaget's four stages of cognitive development:
    • A. 

      Span from conception to adulthood

    • B. 

      Span from birth to 15 years of age

    • C. 

      Span from conception to death

    • D. 

      Start at birth and continue through adulthood


  • 30. 
    A recent television documentary concluded that, from birth, girls are more nurturing than boys. You agree with this because females needed to be more nurturing to aid the survival of the species. Your view reflects the -- perspective of development
    • A. 

      Theological

    • B. 

      Existential

    • C. 

      Ecological

    • D. 

      Ethological


  • 31. 
    John Bowlby illustrated an important application of ethological theory to human development where he stressed that attachment to a caregiver -- has important consequences throughout the lifespan.
    • A. 

      In the first half of life

    • B. 

      Over the first year of life

    • C. 

      Within the first 2 years

    • D. 

      Through childhood


  • 32. 
    A criticism of ecological theory is that it underemphasizes -- and --
    • A. 

      Biology, cognitive influences

    • B. 

      Most social contexts, consequences of behavior

    • C. 

      Social contexts beyond the family, critical periods

    • D. 

      Connections between environment settings; cognitive processes


  • 33. 
    When researches use surface labels such as "Blacks," "Hispanics," and "Caucasians," they underrepresent the differences that exist among people within the same racial group, a practice referred to as...
    • A. 

      Euphemizing

    • B. 

      Assimilation

    • C. 

      Ethnic gloss

    • D. 

      Acculturation


  • 34. 
    In an experimental study, which group receives the treatment (independent variable)?
    • A. 

      Control group

    • B. 

      Experimental group

    • C. 

      Dependent group

    • D. 

      Independent group


  • 35. 
    Many individuals become wiser as they age, but their performance on tasks that require speend in processing information starts to decline. This illustrates how throughout life, some dimensions or componenets of a dimension expand and others shrink, or how development is:
    • A. 

      Multidirectional

    • B. 

      Plastic

    • C. 

      Contextual

    • D. 

      Multidimensional


  • 36. 
    Which of the following is NOT a trend related to families around the world?
    • A. 

      Smaller families

    • B. 

      Migration to rural areas

    • C. 

      Increase in mothers' employment

    • D. 

      Greater family mobility


  • 37. 
    Patrick suffers from --, a genetic abnormality in which delayed blood clotting causes internal and external bleeding. 
    • A. 

      PKU

    • B. 

      Sickle-cell anemia

    • C. 

      Tay-Sachs disease

    • D. 

      Hemophelia


  • 38. 
    Penny has been diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. Which of the following would be an appropriate course of treatment for her?
    • A. 

      Physical and oxygen theraphy, synthetic enzymes, and antibiotics

    • B. 

      Corrective surgery at birth, orthopedic devices

    • C. 

      Special diet

    • D. 

      Blood transfusions/injections


  • 39. 
    Mary and Jim are expecting a child and prenatal diagnostic procedures have confirmed that the fetus has --, a neural tube disorder that causes brain and spine abnormalities. Their physician has explained that this gene-linked abnormality could be treated with corrective surgery at birth, orthopedic devices, and physical or medical theraphy.
    • A. 

      Tay-Sachs disease

    • B. 

      PKU

    • C. 

      Spina Bifida

    • D. 

      Huntington disease


  • 40. 
    Lindsay's body does not produce enough insulin, causing an abnormal metabolism of sugar. She is receiving insulin treatment. Lindsay has...
    • A. 

      Spina bifida

    • B. 

      Diabetes

    • C. 

      Hemophelia

    • D. 

      PKU


  • 41. 
    Joshua, 2, has been diagnosed with --, a blood disorder that limits the body's oxygen supply and can cause joint swelling and heart and kidney failure. This genetic disorder can be treated through penicillin, pain medication, antibiotics, and blood transfusions. His doctor has indicated that a study named Baby HUG may offer a better drug in the future. 
    • A. 

      Spina Bifida

    • B. 

      Tay Sachs

    • C. 

      Huntington disease

    • D. 

      Sickle-cell anemia


  • 42. 
    Benny has been diagnosed with a gene-linked abnormality characterized by deceleration of mental and physical development caused by an accumulation of lipids in the nervous system. He has been put on medication and a special diet, but his family has been told that he will probably not live beyond the age of five. Benny is suffering from...
    • A. 

      Tay-Sachs disease

    • B. 

      PKU

    • C. 

      Huntington disease

    • D. 

      Spina Bifida


  • 43. 
    Evolution takes place:
    • A. 

      Almost immediately

    • B. 

      Over many generations

    • C. 

      When the species is ready for it

    • D. 

      After active attempts at change on the part of the species


  • 44. 
    A fertilized human egg cannot grow into a crocodile, duck, or fish specifically because of:
    • A. 

      Natural selection

    • B. 

      Adaptive behavior

    • C. 

      Evolution

    • D. 

      Genetic code


  • 45. 
    Combining the genes of two parents in offspring is one of the ways in which -- increases in the population, which is valuable for a species because it provides more characteristics for natural selection to operate on. 
    • A. 

      Gender variability

    • B. 

      The number of males

    • C. 

      Genetic variability

    • D. 

      The number of females


  • 46. 
    Most individuals who have X-linked diseases are...
    • A. 

      Females

    • B. 

      Intersex

    • C. 

      Hemopheliacs

    • D. 

      Males


  • 47. 
    Which of the following statements about the working of genes is NOT true?
    • A. 

      Genes work together to specify our characteristics

    • B. 

      Each gene programs one protein

    • C. 

      Genes are influences by their environment

    • D. 

      Events inside and outside of the cell can excite or inhibit gene expression.


  • 48. 
    Which of the following best exemplifies an evocative genotype-environment correlation?
    • A. 

      Parents suggest music lessons for their musically talented children.

    • B. 

      A nervous adolescent displays anxiety at school

    • C. 

      A highschool student bound for an agricultural college signs up for courses in plant biology

    • D. 

      Musical parents buy a piano for their children.


  • 49. 
    Researchers are exploring the potential for using NIPD to diagnose a baby's sex, as early as five weeks after conception, and Down Syndrome. However, being able to detect an offspring's sex and various diseases and defects so early through NIPD raises ethical concerns about...
    • A. 

      A nature versus nurture

    • B. 

      Physical and psychological consequences for children

    • C. 

      Couples' motivation to terminate a pregnancy

    • D. 

      Causing mental retardation in fetuses.


  • 50. 
    Which of the following statements is true regarding the differences between outcomes for adopted and nonadopted children?
    • A. 

      Adoptees were no more likely to be using mental health serices than their nonadopted counterparts.

    • B. 

      Children who are adopted very early in their lives are more likely to have positive outcomes than children adopted later in life

    • C. 

      Nonadopted children are likely to experience more school-related problems than adopted children

    • D. 

      Adopted adolescents were more likely to be withdrawn.


  • 51. 
    Parents' personalities or intellectual orientation, the family's socioeconomic status, and the neighborhood in which they live are all instances of the -- of siblings. 
    • A. 

      Nonshared genetic traits

    • B. 

      Nonshared environmental experiences

    • C. 

      Shared genetic traits

    • D. 

      Shared environmental traits


  • 52. 
    Parents often interact differently with each sibling, and siblings interact differently with parents. Even these experiences occurring within the family can be part of the -- of siblings. 
    • A. 

      Shared environment

    • B. 

      Nonshared genes

    • C. 

      Shared genes

    • D. 

      Nonshared environment


  • 53. 
    Behavior geneticist Robert Plomin has found that shared environment accounts for -- of the variation in children's personality or interests.
    • A. 

      Little

    • B. 

      Most

    • C. 

      All

    • D. 

      Some


  • 54. 
    -- is the evolutionary process by which those individuals of a species that are best adapted are the ones that survive and reproduce
    • A. 

      Genetic selection

    • B. 

      Natural adaptation

    • C. 

      Natural selection

    • D. 

      Genetic survival


  • 55. 
    -- behavior is behavior that promotes an organism's survival in the natural habitat.
    • A. 

      Adaptive

    • B. 

      Aggressive

    • C. 

      Dominant

    • D. 

      Adjusting


  • 56. 
    According to evolutionary development psychologists, many evolved psychological mechanisms are --. That is, the mechanisms apply only to a specific aspect of a person's makeup. 
    • A. 

      Maladjusted

    • B. 

      Domain-specified

    • C. 

      General purpose devices

    • D. 

      Non-operational


  • 57. 
    Cody is the star pitcher for his high school baseball team. His father is a retired minor league baseball pitcher, and his mother played softball in college. The epigenic view of development would say that Cody's pitching ability is the result of...
    • A. 

      Luck

    • B. 

      Hard work and practice; genes have little or nothing to do with his ability

    • C. 

      His genetically inherited ability to accurately throw a ball

    • D. 

      A combination of heredity and environment


  • 58. 
    Which of the following statements regarding environmental experience is TRUE?
    • A. 

      Environment is much more important than genetics in development of personality

    • B. 

      Shared environment accounts for most of the variation in adolescent personality and interests

    • C. 

      There is no relationship between genetics and environment

    • D. 

      Heredity influences the nonshared environment of siblings.


  • 59. 
    Typical prenatal development lasts between:
    • A. 

      24 to 30 weeks

    • B. 

      38 to 40 weeks

    • C. 

      20 to 28 weeks

    • D. 

      28 to 33 weeks


  • 60. 
    The period of development that includes the creation of the zygote, attachment to the uterine wall, and the continued cell division is known as the -- period. 
    • A. 

      Gamete

    • B. 

      Blastocyst

    • C. 

      Germinal

    • D. 

      Cytocyst


  • 61. 
    Implantatin of the blastocyst to the uterine wall occurs at about -- days after conception. 
    • A. 

      11 to 15

    • B. 

      6 to 8

    • C. 

      8 to 10

    • D. 

      14 to 16


  • 62. 
    Chu-Lin's doctor tells her that her baby will have problems with its respiratory and digestive systems. The doctor explains that the problems originated when the zygote divided into three major cell layers. Evidently, there was a problem in the formation of the...
    • A. 

      Ectoderm

    • B. 

      Mesoderm

    • C. 

      Blastocyst

    • D. 

      Endoderm


  • 63. 
    When baby Juan was born, he had problems with his sensory systems. There were noticeable defects in his eyes, ears, and nose. Most likely, Juan's problems came from defects in the formation of the ---
    • A. 

      Trophoblast

    • B. 

      Ectoderm

    • C. 

      Mesoderm

    • D. 

      Endoderm


  • 64. 
    The life support system for the embryo consists of the:
    • A. 

      Umbilical cord, placenta, and amnion

    • B. 

      Circulatory, nervous, and digestive systems.

    • C. 

      Digestive system, umbilical cord, amnion.

    • D. 

      Nervous system, digestive system, and umbilical cord


  • 65. 
    Marsha is 6 months pregnant and she has just slipped and fallen on her hardwood floor. If Marsha's -- is working properly, her baby will likely not suffer any damage from her fall. 
    • A. 

      Umbilical cod

    • B. 

      Chorion

    • C. 

      Amnion

    • D. 

      Placenta


  • 66. 
    The process of organ development during the first 2 months of prenatal development is known as...
    • A. 

      Spermatogenesis

    • B. 

      Urogenises

    • C. 

      Oogenesis

    • D. 

      Organogenesis


  • 67. 
    Which of the following organs or systems develop FIRST in prenatal development?
    • A. 

      Spinal cord

    • B. 

      Urogenital system

    • C. 

      Liver

    • D. 

      Visual system


  • 68. 
    The basic architecture of the human brain is assembled during the...
    • A. 

      Second and third trimester of prenatal development

    • B. 

      First two trimesters of prenatal development

    • C. 

      Third trimester of prenatal development

    • D. 

      First trimester of prenatal development


  • 69. 
    A straregy that can help prevent neural tube defects is for women to take:
    • A. 

      Food rich in vitamin C

    • B. 

      Food less in mercury

    • C. 

      Antidiabetic medication

    • D. 

      Adequate amounts of the B vitamin Folic acid


  • 70. 
    Neuronal migration occurs at approximately -- weeks after conception. 
    • A. 

      6 to 24

    • B. 

      1 to 8

    • C. 

      3 to 12

    • D. 

      4 to 15


  • 71. 
    A teratogen is any agent that can cause...
    • A. 

      Premature birth

    • B. 

      Fetal movement

    • C. 

      Maternal back pain

    • D. 

      Birth defects


  • 72. 
    During which period of fetal development is the unborn baby MOST at risk of developing a structural defect due to the effects of a teratogen?
    • A. 

      At conception

    • B. 

      During the embryonic period

    • C. 

      During the germinal period

    • D. 

      During the fetal period


  • 73. 
    Ameera is pregnant and is a heavy smoker. Which of the following is her baby MORE likely to have than is the baby of a nonsmoker?
    • A. 

      Facial and limb deformities

    • B. 

      Sudden infant death syndrome

    • C. 

      Cleft palate

    • D. 

      Tremors and increase general irritability


  • 74. 
    Prenatal cocaine exposure has been linked to all the following EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Increased head circumference and lower excitability

    • B. 

      Less effective self-regulation

    • C. 

      Lower quality of reflexes at one month of age

    • D. 

      Impaired motor development at 2 years of age


  • 75. 
    Angelo is 7 years old and has been diagnosed with a learning disability. In addition, he often seems highly excitable and is impulsive. It is possible that Angelo's mother used -- while pregnant. 
    • A. 

      Nicotine

    • B. 

      Caffeine

    • C. 

      Marijuana

    • D. 

      Cocaine


  • 76. 
    Which of the following statements about the effects of the use of marijuana on offspring is TRUE?
    • A. 

      Research has concluded that marijuana use by pregnant women is associated with memory deficits in their offspring.

    • B. 

      Research has shown that mothers who use marijuana while pregnant risk that their offspring will use marijuana by age 14.

    • C. 

      Research has indicated that mothers who use marijuana while pregnant have higher risk of having a child who develops depression by age 10

    • D. 

      Research has concluded that controlled doses of marijuana is associated with increased memory in the developing offspring.


  • 77. 
    Which of the following statements is FALSE about the effect of substance abuse by pregnant mothers?
    • A. 

      Marijuana exposure is related to higher intelligence in children.

    • B. 

      Infants whose mothers are addicted to heroin show several behavioral difficulties at birth including withdrawal symptoms.

    • C. 

      Babies born to mothers who use methamphetamine during pregnancy are at risk of high infant mortality

    • D. 

      Children born to cocaine addicted mothers exhibit impaired motor development at 2 years of age


  • 78. 
    Giovanna was found to be Rh incompatible with her first child. To prevent her body from producing antibodies that will attack any future Rh-incompatible fetuses, her doctor gave her:
    • A. 

      Rhohypnol

    • B. 

      Hemoglobin

    • C. 

      RhSYS

    • D. 

      RhoGAM


  • 79. 
    Which of the following is NOT one of the ways in which AIDS can be transmitted from the mother to the infant?
    • A. 

      After birth through breastfeeding

    • B. 

      During delivery through contact with maternal blood or fluids

    • C. 

      During gestation across the placenta

    • D. 

      During sperm/egg adhesion in the fertilization process


  • 80. 
    Which of the following maternal diseases carries the risk of delivering overweight babies weighing 10 pounds or more?
    • A. 

      AIDS

    • B. 

      Gestational diabetes

    • C. 

      Gestational herpes

    • D. 

      Syphilis


  • 81. 
    A research review indicated that when newborns have physical defects:
    • A. 

      They are more likely to be born to mothers who are below 35 years of age

    • B. 

      They are more likely to have HIV positive mothers

    • C. 

      They are more likely to be born to mothers who have a history of substance abuse

    • D. 

      They are more likely to have diabetic mothers


  • 82. 
    Obesity during pregnancy increased all of the following risks to the fetus EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Stillbirth

    • B. 

      Admission to the NICU

    • C. 

      Neonatal diabetes mellitus

    • D. 

      Itrauterine fetal death


  • 83. 
    Tammy is pregnant with her first child. She tells you that she loves swordfish and has it for dinner two or three times a week. Based on current research, what should you advise Tammy about her diet?
    • A. 

      Swordfish is not recommended for pregnant women because it can contain high levels of mercury

    • B. 

      Swordfish is not one of the fish that Tammy should avoid

    • C. 

      Swordfish is a great source of protein and she should continue to consume it

    • D. 

      Swordfish is not as good for her as kin mackerel; she should try to eat more mackerel.


  • 84. 
    Marlena, who just found out she's pregnant, has very poor eating habits. She eats few total calories, very little protein, and unbalanced amounts of vitamins and minerals. If she continues her present habits, which of the following is MOST likely to occur?
    • A. 

      The baby will not be affected

    • B. 

      The baby is more likely to be malformed

    • C. 

      The baby will develop Down Syndrome

    • D. 

      The baby might be affected during the early, but not the later, months of gestation.


  • 85. 
    Which of the following disorders is LEAST likely to happen to the child of a mother 16 to 34 years old?
    • A. 

      Klinefelter's syndrome

    • B. 

      Bell's palsy

    • C. 

      Down syndrome

    • D. 

      Turner syndrome


  • 86. 
    Which maternal age group has increased risks of low birth weight, preterm delivery, and fetal death?
    • A. 

      18 years or younger

    • B. 

      Between 18 and 25

    • C. 

      Between 19 and 30 years

    • D. 

      Over 35


  • 87. 
    The second stage of childbirth begins with the -- and ends with the --. 
    • A. 

      Emergence of the child's head; delivery of the placenta

    • B. 

      Opening of the cervix; delivery of the placenta

    • C. 

      Emergence of the child's head; delivery of the child out of the mother

    • D. 

      Opening of the cervix; delivery of the child out of the mother


  • 88. 
    Which of the following is TRUE of the stages of childbirth?
    • A. 

      The final stage is the shortest of the three birth stages

    • B. 

      For women having the second or later child, the first stage is usually longer than the first birth

    • C. 

      Uterine contractions are usually five minutes apart

    • D. 

      The first stage terminates when the baby completely emerges from the mother's body


  • 89. 
    French obstetrician Ferdinand Lamaze developed a method similar to natural childbirth that is known as....
    • A. 

      Induced childbirth

    • B. 

      Simulated delivery

    • C. 

      Organic delivery

    • D. 

      Prepared childbirth


  • 90. 
    Which of the following is NOT a feature of the prepared childbirth program?
    • A. 

      The pregnant woman's partner serves as a coach

    • B. 

      Midwife to assist in the process of childbirth

    • C. 

      Detailed education about anatomy and physiology

    • D. 

      Special breathing technique to control pushing


  • 91. 
    Linda's baby is about to be born. The baby's head is at the top of the uterus, and the baby's lower extremeties are on the cervix. This situation is:
    • A. 

      Called a breach position

    • B. 

      Called a precipitate position

    • C. 

      Normal for delivery

    • D. 

      Called afterbirth


  • 92. 
    Which of the following techniques is used to overcome the threat of problems related to the breech position during delivery?
    • A. 

      Massage therapy

    • B. 

      Acupuncture

    • C. 

      Music therapy

    • D. 

      Cesarean section


  • 93. 
    Which of the following is the Apgar scale especially good at determining?
    • A. 

      The newborn's lactose intolerance

    • B. 

      The newborn's immunity to congenital infections

    • C. 

      Identifying newborn's susceptibility to common postnatal complications

    • D. 

      The newborn's ability to respond to stress of delivery


  • 94. 
    A pediatrician is testing baby Rosaria. The doctor rates Rosaria in response to a rattle, reflexes, and reactions to people and objects. Rosaria's pediatrician is using the...
    • A. 

      WISC

    • B. 

      Infant IQ test

    • C. 

      Brazleton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment scale

    • D. 

      Apgar scale


  • 95. 
    Dakota was born after 40 weeks of gestation and weighed 4 lbs. Dakota would be considered:
    • A. 

      Preterm

    • B. 

      Low birth weight

    • C. 

      Premature

    • D. 

      Normal and average for babies born today


  • 96. 
    Malorie was born during her mother's 32nd week of pregnancy. Malorie would be termed a -- baby. 
    • A. 

      Preterm

    • B. 

      Premature

    • C. 

      Low-birth-weight

    • D. 

      Normal and average


  • 97. 
    Jasmine and her fetus are Rh incompatible. This means that:
    • A. 

      Jasmine may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus

    • B. 

      Jasmine has type A blood, whereas her fetus has type B

    • C. 

      The fetus will need a blood transfusion immediately after birth

    • D. 

      The fetus' immune system will attack the mother's blood during the fetal stage


  • 98. 
    Currently, the two most popular NICU interventions that involve parents are -- and --
    • A. 

      Bottle feeding; music therapy

    • B. 

      Massage therapy; kangaroo care

    • C. 

      Breast feeding; raccoon care

    • D. 

      Bottle feeding; kangaroo care


  • 99. 
    What does a very low NBAS score indicate?
    • A. 

      Low heart rate

    • B. 

      High blood pressure

    • C. 

      Low respiratory capacity

    • D. 

      Brain damage


  • 100. 
    The Apgar Scale is a method used to assess the health of newborns. A score of 3 would:
    • A. 

      Indicate that the newborn's condition is good.

    • B. 

      Signal that there may be some developmental difficulties

    • C. 

      Signal an emergency because the baby's survival is in doubt

    • D. 

      Indicate that the evaluator has not made a proper reading.


  • 101. 
    Julianne has lost her baby early in her pregnancy. Which of the following paternal factors could have possibly led to this outcome?
    • A. 

      Her partner was a heavy smoker

    • B. 

      Her partner was overweight

    • C. 

      Her partner is deficient in Vitamin C

    • D. 

      Her partner was undergoing severe emotional stress


  • 102. 
    Which of the following is false regarding the complications of Rh incompatibility? 
    • A. 

      The risks associated with Rh incompatibility are miscarriage or stillbirth, anemia, jaundice, heart defects, brain damage, or death soon after birth.

    • B. 

      Babies affected by Rh incompatibility can be given blood transfusions before or right after birth

    • C. 

      If the fetus' blood is Rh-positive and the mother's is Rh-negative, the mother's immune system may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus.

    • D. 

      With each subsequent pregnancy, the risk of complications for an Rh-positive baby of an Rh-negative mother is reduced.


  • 103. 
    Which of the following is FALSE about development of organs after conception?
    • A. 

      At the second week after conception, the developing organism is just over 1 inch long.

    • B. 

      In the third week after conception, the neural tube that eventually becomes the spinal cord forms.

    • C. 

      By the time most women know they are pregnant, the major organs have begun forming

    • D. 

      During the fourth week arm and leg buds emerge


  • 104. 
    Which of the following is TRUE regarding the impact of teratogens?
    • A. 

      After organogenesis is complete, teratogens are more likely to cause anatomical defects

    • B. 

      The probability of a structural defect is greatest early in the germinal period

    • C. 

      The critical period for the nervous system is earlier than for arms and legs

    • D. 

      Exposure during the fetal period is less likely instead to stunt growth or to create problems in the way organs function


  • 105. 
    Which of the following statements about teratogens is TRUE?
    • A. 

      The effect of a teratogen is absent if the mother was exposed to it before conception

    • B. 

      Male fetuses are far more likely to be affect by teratogens than female fetuses

    • C. 

      Few fetuses are actually exposed to teratogens

    • D. 

      Teratogenic factors related to the father do not affect the developing baby


  • 106. 
    Sarah is a 20 year old college student who is paralyzed from the waist down. She can walk with difficulty with crutches but prefers her wheelchair. Sarah tells you that her condition is due to a birth defect. Which of the following birth defects did Sarah MOST likely have?
    • A. 

      Spina bifida

    • B. 

      Multiple sclerosis

    • C. 

      Anencephaly

    • D. 

      Neuronal migration


  • 107. 
    Two birth defects that are related to a failure of the neural tube to close at about 24 days after conception are -- and --. 
    • A. 

      ADHD, autism

    • B. 

      Down syndrome, Tay-Sach's disease

    • C. 

      Spina bifida; anencephaly

    • D. 

      Trisomy 13, Trisomy 18


  • 108. 
    Marta recently went to see her doctor and learned that her unborn child was not receiving enough oxygen or nutrients from her. She was informed that there was a problem with the --
    • A. 

      Placenta

    • B. 

      Embryo

    • C. 

      Amnion

    • D. 

      Umbilical cord


  • 109. 
    Prenatal development can be divided into three periods: --, --, and --. 
    • A. 

      Germinal, embryonic, and fetal

    • B. 

      Fertile, embryonic, postterm

    • C. 

      Preterm, germinal, postnatal

    • D. 

      Gestational, embryonic, fetal


  • 110. 
    Mariah had a new baby last month. Mariah cries and worries a lot, is depressed, is not able to sleep well, and has extreme changes in appetite. Given what researchers know about the postpartum period, Mariah:
    • A. 

      Is having a normal reaction

    • B. 

      Should relax and help herself adjust

    • C. 

      Should seek professional counseling

    • D. 

      Will score low on the Apgar scale


  • 111. 
    Brie has taken as few drugs as possible during delivery, so she can be alert after her baby is born. She also wants the baby to sleep in her room, so that they can be together after birth. Brie is trying to:
    • A. 

      Avoid postpartum depression

    • B. 

      Improve involution with the baby

    • C. 

      Reduce her need for support from other people

    • D. 

      Increase her chances of bonding with her new baby


  • 112. 
    Michael and Jessica are having their first child and have told their physician that they would like a rooming-in arrangement. This means that:
    • A. 

      Jessica's baby will stay in her room

    • B. 

      Jessica will stay in the hospital in the first two months after pregnancy

    • C. 

      Michael can stay overnight in Jessica's room

    • D. 

      Jessica's hospital room will be more like a nursery


  • 113. 
    Which of the following statements is true of how neurons change in the first years of life?
    • A. 

      Myelination, the process of encasing axons with fat cells, begins prenatally and stops at birth.

    • B. 

      The synaptic connections made at birth will last for the duration of the life-span of the individual

    • C. 

      The synaptic connections that are used become strengthened and survive, while the unused ones are replaced

    • D. 

      The human brain actually needs more than twice of the neural connections made in the first years of life


  • 114. 
    When babies engage in physical activity or use language, some synaptic connections will be strengthened, while the unused ones are replaced by other pathways or disappear. A neuroscientists would identify this process as...
    • A. 

      Pruning

    • B. 

      Myelination

    • C. 

      Paring

    • D. 

      Trimming


  • 115. 
    Which of the following statements about infants and REM sleep is true?
    • A. 

      Older adults are the only group that spends more time in REM sleep than infants

    • B. 

      When infants are three months old, the amount of time they spend in REM sleep begins to increase

    • C. 

      Most infants spend about 70% of their sleeping time in REM sleep

    • D. 

      REM sleep might promote the brain's development in infancy


  • 116. 
    Sine 1992, the American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that -- to reduce the risk of SIDS
    • A. 

      Parents practice shared sleeping with their infants

    • B. 

      Babies be fed on demand instead of on a schedule

    • C. 

      Infants be placed to sleep on their backs

    • D. 

      All fans in the room be turned off while putting the baby down to sleep


  • 117. 
    A national study of more than 3,000 randomly selected 4 to 24 month olds documented that:
    • A. 

      Many US parents are feeding their babies too many fruits and not enough vegetables

    • B. 

      US parents are feeding their babies enough fruits and vegetables, and are not feeding them too much junk food.

    • C. 

      By 1 year, bananas were the most common fruit that babies ate.

    • D. 

      By 15 months, french fries were the most common vegetable that babies ate.


  • 118. 
    Kimberly, a mother of two, is planning to have a third child. Since both of her children are struggling with weight issues, Kimberly wants to know how she can give her third child a better chance at achieving a healthy weight. You would advocate that she do all of the following EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Bring her pre-pregnancy weight down to a healthy level

    • B. 

      Bottle feed her baby

    • C. 

      Control her own weight during pregnancy

    • D. 

      Ensure that fruits are included in the baby's diet


  • 119. 
    Some people take Baruti's swollen belly to be a sign that he is well-fed and healthy. But the boy suffers from a condition that causes his vital organs to collect the nutrients that are present, thus depriving other body parts of those nutrients. Baruti's thin, brittle, and colorless hair, swollen feet and stomach, and listless behavior are all tell-tale signs that he suffers from:
    • A. 

      Marasmus

    • B. 

      Binswanger's disorder

    • C. 

      Malenthorpe's disorder

    • D. 

      Kwashiorkor


  • 120. 
    Pedro and Maria are 7 year olds who live in rural Guatemala. Pedro's mother had taken nutritional supplements when she was pregnant with him. Pedro was also given nutritional supplements as an infant. Maria's parents simply feed her a normal age-appropriate diet. The findings of a study that linked the diets of rural Guatemalan infants with their social development at the time they entered elementary school would indicate that:
    • A. 

      Pedro will show better social development

    • B. 

      Maria will show better social development

    • C. 

      There will be no difference in the social development of the children

    • D. 

      Pedro will develop faster socially, but Maria will eventually catch up.


  • 121. 
    Kyle and Amy want their baby to walk early, so they place the baby's favorite toy where the child cannot reach it from a crawling position. Kyle and Amy believe that this will motivate the baby to stand upright to retreive the toy and will thus result in him walking sooner. Their belief is most consistent with the -- view of development. 
    • A. 

      Maturational systems

    • B. 

      Dynamic systems

    • C. 

      Evolutionary systems

    • D. 

      Static systems


  • 122. 
    Whenever baby Beth hears a loud noise she responds with a -- reflex where she arches her back, throws back her head, flings out her arms and legs, and then rapidly closes her arms and legs. 
    • A. 

      Rooting

    • B. 

      Grasping

    • C. 

      Moro

    • D. 

      Fencing


  • 123. 
    3-month old Hermes' mother is Jamaican. She gives him daily massages and stretches his limbs. Robert's mother is Irish-American and does not provide any such physical stimulation. Research in cultural diversity and developmental milestones would suggest that...
    • A. 

      Robert will walk sooner

    • B. 

      They will both walk about the same time

    • C. 

      Robert will crawl sooner, but they will both walk at the same time

    • D. 

      Hermes will walk sooner


  • 124. 
    Jake, age 11 months, is able to pick up cereal and bits of fruit off the tray of his high chair by grasping them with his thumb and forefinger. Jake has developed the:
    • A. 

      Moro reflex

    • B. 

      Pincer grip

    • C. 

      Palmer grasp

    • D. 

      Fencing reflex


  • 125. 
    Baby Jane, three days old, is shown four drawings. One is a bright blue square, one is a white oval, and one is a drawing of a face. In view of Fantz' work, which will she probably prefer to look at?
    • A. 

      The oval

    • B. 

      The square

    • C. 

      The face

    • D. 

      She is too young to distinguish between the three


  • 126. 
    When you see an airplane in the air flying away from you, it appears to get smaller. However, you know that it stays the same size. The difference between your sensation and your perception of the plane illustrates the concept of:
    • A. 

      Perceptual consistency

    • B. 

      Sensory confusion

    • C. 

      Sensory consistency

    • D. 

      Perceptual disparity


  • 127. 
    Amber knows that a dinner plate is the same object whether it is flat on the table or standing in the dish drainer. Amber has developed:
    • A. 

      Size constancy

    • B. 

      Color constancy

    • C. 

      Depth perception

    • D. 

      Shape constancy


  • 128. 
    Winnie is considering the use of anesthesia during the circumcision of her newborn son. She wants to know if newborns can feel pain. What would you tell her?
    • A. 

      No; most infants sink into a deep sleep right after surgery

    • B. 

      Yes; recent research indicates that infants can feel pain

    • C. 

      Maybe; research on the matter is inconclusive as of now

    • D. 

      No, infants feed and interact normally with caregivers soon after surgery


  • 129. 
    Bo, two months old, weighs 10 pounds. His father wants to know how many calories he should be consuming everyday. What would you tell him?
    • A. 

      100

    • B. 

      200

    • C. 

      800

    • D. 

      500


  • 130. 
    Of the following infants, who is most at risk for SIDS?
    • A. 

      Mimi; her mother smokes

    • B. 

      Grace, she was born weighing more than most babies

    • C. 

      Megumi, she uses a pacifier when she goes to sleep

    • D. 

      Sylvia, she sleeps in firm bedding


  • 131. 
    Melissa is 10 days old. She sleeps about 18 hours a day. She:
    • A. 

      Sleeps as much as a typical newborn

    • B. 

      Is not sleeping as much as most babies her age

    • C. 

      Sleeps longer than most newborns

    • D. 

      Sleeps more like a premature infant than a full-term infant


  • 132. 
    14-year-old Michael Rehbein had the left hemisphere of his brain removed to end uncontrollable seizures, and gradually his right hemisphere began to reorganize and take over functions that normally occur in the brain's left hemisphere. This case study is cited in the text in order to demonstrate that:
    • A. 

      Myelination varies in different areas of the brain

    • B. 

      The effects of deprived environments on the brain is irreversible

    • C. 

      The brain is both flexible and resilient

    • D. 

      The brain can adapt and function only when whole


  • 133. 
    Emily has suffered damage to her temporal lobes due to a fall from the changing table and her doctor has told her parents that this would probably affect her:
    • A. 

      Taste

    • B. 

      Hearing

    • C. 

      Vision

    • D. 

      Voluntary movement


  • 134. 
    While scooting on the floor, baby Giovanni fell down the stairs. If she can no longer see, it is likely that her -- lobe was damaged. 
    • A. 

      Temporal

    • B. 

      Frontal

    • C. 

      Parietal

    • D. 

      Occipital


  • 135. 
    Mark fell down the stairs and the doctor told his parents that his parietal lobe was damaged. Mark's parents were told that he would have difficult with:
    • A. 

      Registering spatial locations

    • B. 

      Processing auditory information

    • C. 

      Vision

    • D. 

      Initiating movement


  • 136. 
    While watching a football game, Martin jumped up to cheer and dropped baby Theresa to the floor. If she later has trouble with voluntary movement, it could indicate that her -- lobe was damaged. 
    • A. 

      Parietal

    • B. 

      Occipital

    • C. 

      Frontal

    • D. 

      Temporal


  • 137. 
    On his second birthday, Robbie is 3 feet tall. Approximately how tall is he likely to be as an adult?
    • A. 

      5'2"

    • B. 

      6'

    • C. 

      5'5"

    • D. 

      7'


  • 138. 
    Infants control the muscles of their trunk and arms before they control their hands and finers, and they use their whole hands before they can control several fingers. This indicates a -- pattern of growth. 
    • A. 

      Ceophalodistal

    • B. 

      Cephalocaudal

    • C. 

      Proximocaudal

    • D. 

      Proximodistal


  • 139. 
    Infants can see objects before they can control their torso, and they can use their hands long before they can crawl or walk. This would indicate that they have a -- pattern of growth. 
    • A. 

      Proximocaudal

    • B. 

      Cephalocaudal

    • C. 

      Cephalodistal

    • D. 

      Proximodistal


  • 140. 
    Baby Kendra, who is 6 days old, is presented with two nursing pads. One comes from her mother, and the other has not been used. Which one will Kendra probably prefer?
    • A. 

      Won't show any preference

    • B. 

      Clean nursing pad

    • C. 

      Depends whether she has been fed recently or not

    • D. 

      She will prefer her mother's nursing pad


  • 141. 
    Which of the following contributes to unhealthy weight gain in infants?
    • A. 

      Mother's rate of post-pregnancy weight loss

    • B. 

      Breast feeding

    • C. 

      Inclusion of fruits in the baby's diet

    • D. 

      Bottle feeding


  • 142. 
    In which of the following circumstances is it recommended that a mother should not breastfeed?
    • A. 

      If the mother has active tuberculosis

    • B. 

      If the mother plans to return to full-time work soon

    • C. 

      If the baby is overweight

    • D. 

      If the mother is 40 or older


  • 143. 
    Which of the following is an issue in interpreting the benefits of breast feeding that was underscored in a recent large-scale research review?
    • A. 

      Breast fed babies could be healthier because women who breast feed are wealthier, older, more educated, and likely more health-conscious.

    • B. 

      Research findings highlighting a number of breast feeding benefits for children and mothers imply causality.

    • C. 

      Breast versus bottle feeding studies are experimental and not correlational

    • D. 

      Research undertaken in recent times have covered small sample sizes and cannot be seen as representing the whole population


  • 144. 
    Four-month-old infants rely greatly on -- to determine how they will grip an object; 8-month-olds are more likely to use -- as a guide. 
    • A. 

      Touch; vision

    • B. 

      Fine motor skills; gross motor skills

    • C. 

      Vision; touch

    • D. 

      Their caregivers; their own experiences


  • 145. 
    Perceptual constancy is reflected when:
    • A. 

      Sensory stimulation remains constant but perception of the world changes.

    • B. 

      Constant sensory stimulation receives a constant perceptual response

    • C. 

      Sensory stimulation is changing but perception of the physical world remains constant

    • D. 

      Perception of the physical world remains constant owing to limited visual acuity.


  • 146. 
    "The Cat in the Hat" study was conducted to investigate if a fetus would prefer a story after birth if the story had been read while the fetus was in the womb. What did they find?
    • A. 

      There was no noticeable difference in the infants' response to the familiar and unfamiliar story.

    • B. 

      Some children seemed to prefer the familiar story, while others did not.

    • C. 

      Most infants recognized the familiar story for a week after birth

    • D. 

      The infants recognized the pattern and tone of the familiar story


  • 147. 
    Amanda is 6 days old. Which of the following statements about Amanda's hearing is true?
    • A. 

      Amanda is more able to hear high-pitched sounds than low-pitched sounds.

    • B. 

      Amanda can hear soft sounds as well as adults

    • C. 

      Amanda is more able to hear low-pitched sounds than high-pitched sounds

    • D. 

      Amanda cannot determine the general location from where a sound is coming.


  • 148. 
    Which of the following statements about perceptual motor coupling in infants is true?
    • A. 

      Babies coordinate their movements with perceptual information.

    • B. 

      Perception and motor activity occur in isolation from each other for babies.

    • C. 

      Children do not develop the concept of perceptual-motor coupling until age 2 to 3 years

    • D. 

      Perceptual-motor coupling develops in children only by the age of 5


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