Nurs 200 - Exam 2 - Chapter 27: Asepsis And Infection Control

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  • 1. 
    Fungi are present in
    • A. 

      Soil

    • B. 

      Air

    • C. 

      Water

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 2. 
    _____ is a disease state that restuls from the presence of pathogens. It occurs as a result of a cycllic process consisting of six components.

  • 3. 
    What is a disease-producing microorganism

  • 4. 
    What is the most significant and most ocmmonly ovbserved infection-causing agent in healthcare institutions?

  • 5. 
    Step one of the infection cycle is:

  • 6. 
    The second component of the infection cycle is:

  • 7. 
    The third step of the infection process is:

  • 8. 
    The fourth part of the infection cycle is:

  • 9. 
    The fifth step on the infection process:

  • 10. 
    The sixth part of the infection cycle is:

  • 11. 
    Which of the follownig is not used to categorize bacteria?
    • A. 

      Cocci

    • B. 

      Spirochete

    • C. 

      Gram positive

    • D. 

      Bacilli

    • E. 

      Mold


  • 12. 
    Gram-_____ bacteria are stained purple because they have thick cell walls that resist decolourization.

  • 13. 
    Most bacteria are aerobic or anaerobic?

  • 14. 
    The smallest of all microorganisms, visible only with an electron microscope is a

  • 15. 
    _____ of the organisms is its ability to cause disease

  • 16. 
    Bacteria that normally cause no problem but, with certain factors, may potentially be harmful are reffered to as ______.

  • 17. 
    E. coli is a
    • A. 

      Pathogen

    • B. 

      Normal flora

    • C. 

      Opportunist

    • D. 

      A and C

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 18. 
    ____ for growth and multiplication of microorganisms is the natural habitat of the organism. It could be humans, animals, soil, food, water, milk, and inanimate objects.

  • 19. 
    Some humans are reservoirs for the infectious agent but do not exhibit any manifestations of the disease, they are called:

  • 20. 
    In humans, which of the following is not a common portals of exit or escape routes:
    • A. 

      Respiratory tract

    • B. 

      Gastrointestinal tract

    • C. 

      Genitourinary tract

    • D. 

      Breaks in the skin

    • E. 

      Muscular system


  • 21. 
    Transmission can be through:
    • A. 

      Direct contact

    • B. 

      Blood

    • C. 

      Indirect contact

    • D. 

      Water

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 22. 
    Contaminated inanimate objects are

  • 23. 
    Nonhuman carriers that transmit organisms from one host ot another are known as

  • 24. 
    Lice or mosquitos can be a:
    • A. 

      Fomite

    • B. 

      Vector

    • C. 

      Direct contact transmission

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 25. 
    ______ transmission is when an infected host coughs, sneezes, or talks and less than 5um

  • 26. 
    When an organism becomes attached to dust particles it is considered a:
    • A. 

      Direct route

    • B. 

      Droplet route

    • C. 

      Airborne route

    • D. 

      Entry route

    • E. 

      Fomite


  • 27. 
    Droplet transmission is similar to airborne transmission, but it is larger than ____um

  • 28. 
    The entry route is usually _____ exit route.
    • A. 

      Same as

    • B. 

      Different than

    • C. 

      It depends


  • 29. 
    The correct progression of an infection phases is:
    • A. 

      Convalescent period, full stage of illness, prodromal stage, incubation period

    • B. 

      Incubation period, full stage of illness, prodromal stage, convalescent period

    • C. 

      Prodromal stage, incubation stage, full stage of illness, convalescent period

    • D. 

      Incubation period, prodromal stage, full stage of illness, convalescent period

    • E. 

      Incubation period, full stage of illness, prodromal stage, convalescan period.


  • 30. 
    During which stage of infection are the microorganisms growing and multiplying?

  • 31. 
    During which stage of infection is the person most infectous?

  • 32. 
    During which stage of infection are the signs and symptoms nonspecific?

  • 33. 
    True or False:A person may continually pass through the four phases with the same infectious process, based on only one infectious exposure.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 34. 
    Antigens and antibodies are part of the body's _____ response

  • 35. 
    The foreign material that stimulates an immune response is called a

  • 36. 
    The body commonly responds to antigens by producing a

  • 37. 
    Lymphocytes are a type of celll-mediated defense, or also known as:

  • 38. 
    Symptoms of systemic infections include:
    • A. 

      Fever

    • B. 

      Increase pulse

    • C. 

      Increase respiratory rate

    • D. 

      Lethargy

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 39. 
    The practice of _____ includes all activities to prevent infection or break the chain of infection

  • 40. 
    Which of these is untrue about medical asepsis:
    • A. 

      Also called clean technique

    • B. 

      Invovles procedures and practices that reduce the number and transfer of pathogens

    • C. 

      Keeps objects and areas free of microorganisms

    • D. 

      E.g. hand hygiene

    • E. 

      E.g. wearing gloves


  • 41. 
    Which of the following is untrue about surgical asepsis?
    • A. 

      Includes practices used to render and keep objects and areas free from microorganisms

    • B. 

      Such procedures include inserting urinary catheter or IV catheter

    • C. 

      Also known as sterile technique

    • D. 

      Involves actions such as handwashing

    • E. 

      Such tecniques are used continuously both within and outside health agencies


  • 42. 
    What is the most effective way to help prevent the spread of organisms?
    • A. 

      Sterile technique

    • B. 

      Medical asepsis

    • C. 

      Use of ultraviolet properties

    • D. 

      Eliminating normal flora

    • E. 

      Hand hygiene


  • 43. 
    What classification of bacteria, although usually easily removed by thorough handwashing, when they are present in large numbers over a long period of time can become resident bacteria.

  • 44. 
    What classification of bacteria has the potential to adjust to the environment

  • 45. 
    True or False:Alcohol-based handrubs are not as effective in reducing bacterial counts on the hands than does antimicrobial soap.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 46. 
    _____ nails are not recommended because they harbour more bacteria than do natural nails. They are also at risk for funcgal infection in the nail bed and are associated with less vigorous scrubbing.

  • 47. 
    Which of the following is not involved in breaking the cycle of infection?
    • A. 

      Cleansing

    • B. 

      Disinfection

    • C. 

      Sterilization

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 48. 
    ________ destroys all pathogenic organisms except spores. It is used when preparing the skin for a procedure or cleaning a piece of equipment that does not enter a sterile body part.

  • 49. 
    _____ destroys all microorganisms including spores

  • 50. 
    True or False:Gloves are a good substitute for good hand hygiene
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 51. 
    Double gloving is recommended if the healtcare worker is going to be exposed to ____ or ____ fluids. (separate answers with a space)

  • 52. 
    True or False:There is a cure for latex gloves
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 53. 
    Which of the following is not true about aerosols?
    • A. 

      Can be inhaled

    • B. 

      Travel short distances (about 3 feet)

    • C. 

      Masks help prevent inhalation

    • D. 

      Remain suspended in the air

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 54. 
    OSHA resquires that healthcare agencies have ____ _____ ____ (PPE), such as gloves, gowns, masks, and protective eyewear, available.

  • 55. 
    Small-particle droplet _____ can remain suspended in the air and travel longer distanches than aerosols.

  • 56. 
    True or False:A mask is worn only once but can be lowered around the neck and then brought back over the mouth and nose for reuse.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 57. 
    Wich types of mask rilter inspitred air in addition to filtering expired air?
    • A. 

      N95

    • B. 

      High-effficiency particulate air mask

    • C. 

      HEPA mask

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 58. 
    Surgical masks filter only _________ air

  • 59. 
    _____ used to describe a protective procedure that limits the spread of infectous diseases among hospitalized patients, hospital personnel, and visitors was historically used. Hospitals specializing in this procedure have closed.

  • 60. 
    Which government agency requires that employers offier HBV vaccine free of charge to employees, establishes minimum health and safety standards for works, regulations for use of universal precautions in settings in which occupational exposures to blood were possible.

  • 61. 
    The precautions used in the care of all hospitalized individuals regardless of their diagnosis or possible infectous status and were set forth by the CDC.

  • 62. 
    These CDC precausions are used in addition to standard precausions for patients in the hospital with suspected infection with pathogens that can be transmitted by airborne, droplet, or contact routes.

  • 63. 
    Which of the following is not true about transmission-based precautions?
    • A. 

      Three types

    • B. 

      Focus on airborne, droplet, or contact precautions

    • C. 

      Transmission-based precautions can be used in place of standard precautions

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 64. 
    The greatest risk of seoconversion (development of antibodies in response to an infection) after a needlestick injury is
    • A. 

      Hepatitis B

    • B. 

      Hepatitis C

    • C. 

      HIV

    • D. 

      Hepatitis A

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 65. 
    Which type of precautions is used for a patient whose immune system is compromised (eg one recovering from transplant surgery or receiving chemotherapy)

  • 66. 
    Which is not a disinfecting method available for use in the home?
    • A. 

      Acetic acid (white vinegar)

    • B. 

      Bleach

    • C. 

      Isopropyl alcohol (50%)

    • D. 

      Boiling water

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 67. 
    Which asepsis is considered contaminated if it bears or is suspected of bearing pathogens?

  • 68. 
    Which asepsis is considered contaminated if it is touched by any object that is not without pathogens, microorganisms, and spores.

  • 69. 
    Most sterile solutions are considered sterile for ____ hours after being opened.

  • 70. 
    Before pouring a sterile solution from a bottle that has been previously used, ____ it by pouring a small amount out into a waste receptable to "clean" the rim of the bottle.

  • 71. 
    True or False:HAIs are the same as nosocomial infections
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    • C. 

      Sometimes


  • 72. 
    The term _____ is used specifically to indicate an infection originating or takng place in a hospital.

  • 73. 
    True or False:The source of infection is always exogenous.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 74. 
    An infection is referred to as _____ when the causative organisms is acquired rom other people.

  • 75. 
    An infection is referred to as _____ when the causative organism comes from microbial life harboured in the person.

  • 76. 
    An infection is referred to as _____ when it results from a treatment or diagnostic procedure.

  • 77. 
    True or False:Since iatrogenic infections result from a treatment or diagnostic procedure, all nosocomial infections are iatrogenic.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 78. 
    Which of the following is not a measure used by healthcare agencies to reduce the incidence of HAIs.
    • A. 

      Use of infection-control comittees and nurse epidemiologists

    • B. 

      Use of antibiotics

    • C. 

      Meeting patients needs for nutrition, fluids, rest, oxygen, and comfort and security

    • D. 

      Written infection prevention practices

    • E. 

      Adherence to hand-hygiene recommendations


  • 79. 
    True or False:A high RN-to-patient ratio has a higher correlation of HAIs.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 80. 
    True or False:A new RN is more likely to adhere to hand hygiene techniques than a long-time employed RN
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 81. 
    True or False:Most states have a mandatory public reporting of HAIs.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 82. 
    Most healthcare-associated infections are caused by which microorganisms?

  • 83. 
    Urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and bloodstream infections are the three most common sources for ______ infections.

  • 84. 
    Which of the following is not a most common source for nosocomial infections?
    • A. 

      Urinary tract infections

    • B. 

      Bloodstream infections

    • C. 

      Bronchitis

    • D. 

      Pneumonia

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 85. 
    Which of the following is is not a typical access site for nosocomial infections?
    • A. 

      Surgical wounds

    • B. 

      Urinary catheters

    • C. 

      IV catheters

    • D. 

      Mechanical ventilation

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 86. 
    Which of the following is the most serious of the listed antibiotic-resistant organisms?
    • A. 

      Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)

    • B. 

      Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA)

    • C. 

      Vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. auresus (VISA)

    • D. 

      None of the above


  • 87. 
    Linzolid (Zyvox), administered orally or by IV, is effectively used to treat this species of resistant microorganisms (the nonresistant species is often found in normal intestinal and female genita tracts)

  • 88. 
    A ______ test determnies which antibiotic is most effective against a resistant microorganism.

  • 89. 
    MRSA and VRE are most often transmitted by _____.

  • 90. 
    [MRSA/VRE] is morelikely to be spread through contaminated surfaces, such as side rails or an overbed table, because it lives much longer in the environment.

  • 91. 
    An infection-control professional (ICP) is not responsible for which of the followign:
    • A. 

      Survey laboratory reports and review records for patients at risk

    • B. 

      Develop a plan to respond to an act of bioterrorism

    • C. 

      Doing recommended or mandatory reporting of HAIs

    • D. 

      Evaluating new products

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 92. 
    Hi you_____ asepsis techniques are appropriate for most procedures in the home.

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