Mitosis And Meiosis - ChAPters 12-13 - AP Biology

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 mitosis and meiosis - chAPters 12-13 - AP biology

  
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  • 1. 
    The centromere is a region in which
    • A. 

      Chromatids are attached to one another.

    • B. 

      Metaphase chromosomes become aligned.

    • C. 

      Chromosomes are grouped during telophase.

    • D. 

      The nucleus is located prior to mitosis.

    • E. 

      New spindle microtubules form.


  • 2. 
    What is a chromatid?
    • A. 

      A chromosome in G1 of the cell cycle

    • B. 

      A replicated chromosome

    • C. 

      A chromosome found outside the nucleus

    • D. 

      A special region that holds two centromeres together

    • E. 

      Another name for the chromosomes found in genetics


  • 3. 
    What is the name for the special region on a duplicated chromosome that holds the sister chromatids together?
    • A. 

      Centrosome

    • B. 

      Centromere

    • C. 

      Kinetochore

    • D. 

      Desmosome

    • E. 

      Microtubule organizer region


  • 4. 
    Starting with a fertilized egg (zygote), a series of five cell divisions would produce an early embryo with how many cells?
    • A. 

      4

    • B. 

      8

    • C. 

      16

    • D. 

      21

    • E. 

      64


  • 5. 
    If there are 20 chromatids in a cell, how many centromeres are there?
    • A. 

      10

    • B. 

      20

    • C. 

      30

    • D. 

      40

    • E. 

      80


  • 6. 
    Which of the following statements is not true?
    • A. 

      Mitosis produces new nuclei with exactly the same chromosomal endowment as the parent nucleus.

    • B. 

      Mitosis may occur without cytokinesis.

    • C. 

      Mitosis and cytokinesis are required for asexual reproduction.

    • D. 

      All cells come from a preexisting cell.

    • E. 

      The mitotic spindles in prokaryotic cells are composed of microtubules.


  • 7. 

    The lettered circle in the figure above shows a diploid nucleus with four chromosomes. There are two pairs of homologous chromosomes, one long and the other short. One haploid set is symbolized as black and the other haploid set is gray. The chromosomes in the unlettered circle have not yet replicated. Choose the correct chromosomal conditions for the following stage. *At prometaphase of mitosis

  • 8. 

    The lettered circle in the figure above shows a diploid nucleus with four chromosomes. There are two pairs of homologous chromosomes, one long and the other short. One haploid set is symbolized as black and the other haploid set is gray. The chromosomes in the unlettered circle have not yet replicated. Choose the correct chromosomal conditions for the following stage. one daughter nucleus at telophase of mitosis

  • 9. 
                    A.     telophase                 B.     anaphase                 C.     prometaphase                 D.     metaphase                 E.     prophase Choose the answer from the above that best fits the description: Two centrosomes are arranged at opposite poles of the cell.

  • 10. 
                    A.     telophase                 B.     anaphase                 C.     prometaphase                 D.     metaphase                 E.     prophase   Choose the answer from above that best fits this description: Centrioles begin to move apart in animal cells.

  • 11. 
                    A.     telophase                 B.     anaphase                 C.     prometaphase                 D.     metaphase                 E.     prophase   Choose the answer from above that best fits this description: This is the longest of the mitotic stages. D

  • 12. 
                    A.     telophase                 B.     anaphase                 C.     prometaphase                 D.     metaphase                 E.     prophase   Choose the answer from above that best fits this description: Centromeres uncouple, sister chromatids are separated, and the two new chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell.

  • 13. 
    If cells in the process of dividing are subjected to colchicine, a drug that interferes with the functioning of the spindle apparatus, at which stage will mitosis be arrested?
    • A. 

      Anaphase

    • B. 

      Prophase

    • C. 

      Telophase

    • D. 

      Metaphase

    • E. 

      Interphase


  • 14. 
    A cell containing 92 chromatids at metaphase of mitosis would, at its completion, produce two nuclei containing how many chromosomes?
    • A. 

      12

    • B. 

      16

    • C. 

      23

    • D. 

      46

    • E. 

      92


  • 15. 

    If the cell whose nuclear material is shown above continues toward completion of mitosis, which of the following events would occur next?
    • A. 

      Cell membrane synthesis

    • B. 

      Spindle fiber formation

    • C. 

      Nuclear envelope breakdown

    • D. 

      Formation of telophase nuclei

    • E. 

      Synthesis of chromatids


  • 16. 
    All of the following occur during prophase of mitosis in animal cells except
    • A. 

      The centrioles move toward opposite poles.

    • B. 

      The nucleolus can no longer be seen.

    • C. 

      The nuclear envelope disappears.

    • D. 

      Chromosomes are duplicated.

    • E. 

      The spindle is organized.


  • 17. 
    If there are 20 centromeres in a cell at anaphase, how many chromosomes are there in each daughter cell following cytokinesis?
    • A. 

      10

    • B. 

      20

    • C. 

      30

    • D. 

      40

    • E. 

      80


  • 18. 
    If there are 20 chromatids in a cell at metaphase, how many chromosomes are there in each daughter cell following cytokinesis?
    • A. 

      10

    • B. 

      20

    • C. 

      30

    • D. 

      40

    • E. 

      80


  • 19. 
    Where do the microtubules of the spindle originate during mitosis in both plant and animal cells?
    • A. 

      Centromere

    • B. 

      Centrosome

    • C. 

      Centriole

    • D. 

      Chromatid

    • E. 

      Kinetochore


  • 20. 
    All of the following occur during mitosis except the
    • A. 

      Condensing of chromosomes.

    • B. 

      Uncoupling of chromatids at the centromere.

    • C. 

      Formation of a spindle.

    • D. 

      Synthesis of DNA.

    • E. 

      Disappearance of the nucleolus.


  • 21. 
    If a cell has 8 chromosomes at metaphase of mitosis, how many chromosomes will it have during anaphase?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      4

    • D. 

      8

    • E. 

      16


  • 22. 
    Cytokinesis usually, but not always, follows mitosis. If a cell completed mitosis but not cytokinesis, the result would be a cell with
    • A. 

      A single large nucleus.

    • B. 

      High concentrations of actin and myosin.

    • C. 

      Two abnormally small nuclei.

    • D. 

      Two nuclei.

    • E. 

      Two nuclei but with half the amount of DNA.


  • 23. 
    Regarding mitosis and cytokinesis, one difference between higher plants and animals is that in plants
    • A. 

      The spindles contain microfibrils in addition to microtubules, whereas animal spindles do not contain microfibrils.

    • B. 

      Sister chromatids are identical, but they differ from one another in animals.

    • C. 

      A cell plate begins to form at telophase, whereas animals a cleavage furrow is initiated at that stage.

    • D. 

      Chromosomes become attached to the spindle at prophase, whereas in animals chromosomes do not become attached until anaphase.

    • E. 

      Spindle poles contain centrioles, whereas spindle poles in animals do not.


  • 24. 
    How do the daughter cells at the end of mitosis and cytokinesis compare with their parent cell when it was in G1 of the cell cycle?
    • A. 

      The daughter cells have half the amount of cytoplasm and half the amount of DNA.

    • B. 

      The daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.

    • C. 

      The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.

    • D. 

      The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and the same amount of DNA.

    • E. 

      The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and twice the amount of DNA.


  • 25. 
    The formation of a cell plate is beginning across the middle of a cell and nuclei are re-forming at opposite ends of the cell. What kind of cell is this?
    • A. 

      An animal cell in metaphase

    • B. 

      An animal cell in telophase

    • C. 

      An animal cell undergoing cytokinesis

    • D. 

      A plant cell in metaphase

    • E. 

      A plant cell undergoing cytokinesis


  • 26. 
    Taxol is an anticancer drug extracted from the Pacific yew tree. In animal cells, taxol disrupts microtubule formation by binding to microtubules and accelerating their assembly from the protein precursor, tubulin. Surprisingly, this stops mitosis. Specifically, taxol must affect
    • A. 

      The fibers of the mitotic spindle.

    • B. 

      Anaphase.

    • C. 

      Formation of the centrioles.

    • D. 

      Chromatid assembly.

    • E. 

      The S phase of the cell cycle.


  • 27. 
    Which of the following are primarily responsible for cytokinesis in plant cells?
    • A. 

      Kinetochores

    • B. 

      Golgi-derived vesicles

    • C. 

      Actin and myosin

    • D. 

      Centrioles and basal bodies

    • E. 

      Cyclin-dependent kinases


  • 28. 
    Which of the following organisms does not reproduce cells by mitosis and cytokinesis?
    • A. 

      Cow

    • B. 

      Bacterium

    • C. 

      Mushroom

    • D. 

      Cockroach

    • E. 

      Banana tree


  • 29. 
    Chromosomes first become visible during ________ of mitosis.
    • A. 

      Prometaphase

    • B. 

      Telophase

    • C. 

      Prophase

    • D. 

      Metaphase

    • E. 

      Anaphase


  • 30. 
    The correct sequence of steps in the M phase of the cell cycle is
    • A. 

      Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.

    • B. 

      Prophase, metaphase, prometaphase, anaphase, telophase.

    • C. 

      Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis.

    • D. 

      Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis.

    • E. 

      Cytokinesis, telophase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase.


  • 31. 
    During which phases of mitosis are chromosomes composed of two chromatids?
    • A. 

      From interphase through anaphase

    • B. 

      From G1 of interphase through metaphase

    • C. 

      From metaphase through telophase

    • D. 

      From anaphase through telophase

    • E. 

      From G2 of interphase through metaphase


  • 32. 
    Which of the following is false regarding the bacterial chromosome?
    • A. 

      It consists of a single, circular DNA molecule.

    • B. 

      DNA replication begins at the origin of replication.

    • C. 

      Its centromeres uncouple during metaphase of mitosis.

    • D. 

      It is highly folded within the cell.

    • E. 

      It has genes that control binary fission.


  • 33. 
    In which group of eukaryotic organisms does the nuclear envelope remain intact during mitosis?
    • A. 

      Seedless plants

    • B. 

      Dinoflagellates

    • C. 

      Diatoms

    • D. 

      B and C only

    • E. 

      A, B, and C


  • 34. 
    Movement of the chromosomes during anaphase would be most affected by a drug that
    • A. 

      Reduces cyclin concentrations.

    • B. 

      Increases cyclin concentrations.

    • C. 

      Prevents elongation of microtubules.

    • D. 

      Prevents shortening of microtubules.

    • E. 

      Prevents attachment of the microtubules to the kinetochore.


  • 35. 
    Measurements of the amount of DNA per nucleus were taken on a large number of cells from a growing fungus. The measured DNA levels ranged from 3 to 6 picograms per nucleus. In which stage of the cell cycle was the nucleus with 6 picograms of DNA?
    • A. 

      G0

    • B. 

      G1

    • C. 

      S

    • D. 

      G2

    • E. 

      M


  • 36. 
    A group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following mitosis and is found to have an average of 8 picograms of DNA per nucleus. Those cells would have ________ picograms at the end of the S phase and ________ picograms at the end of G2.
    • A. 

      8; 8

    • B. 

      8; 16

    • C. 

      16; 8

    • D. 

      16; 16

    • E. 

      12; 16


  • 37. 
    The somatic cells derived from a single-celled zygote divide by which process?
    • A. 

      Meiosis

    • B. 

      Mitosis

    • C. 

      Replication

    • D. 

      Cytokinesis alone

    • E. 

      Binary fission


  • 38. 
    Cytoskeletal elements play important roles in cell division.  The mitotic spindle apparatus is made of ________ and pulls sister chromatids apart, whereas the contractile ring is made of ________ and required for the separation of daughter cells at the end of the mitotic phase of the cell cycle.
    • A. 

      Intermediate filaments; actin microfilaments

    • B. 

      Microtubules; actin microfilaments

    • C. 

      Microtubules; contractile filaments

    • D. 

      Intermediate filaments; contractile filaments

    • E. 

      Actin microfilaments; myosin


  • 39. 
    Imagine looking through a microscope at a squashed onion root tip. The chromosomes of many of the cells are plainly visible. In some cells, replicated chromosomes are aligned along the center (equator) of the cell. These particular cells are in which stage of mitosis?
    • A. 

      Telophase

    • B. 

      Prophase

    • C. 

      Anaphase

    • D. 

      Metaphase

    • E. 

      Prometaphase


  • 40. 
    If mammalian cells receive a go-ahead signal at the G1 checkpoint, they will
    • A. 

      Move directly into telophase.

    • B. 

      Complete the cycle and divide.

    • C. 

      Exit the cycle and switch to a nondividing state.

    • D. 

      Show a drop in MPF concentration.

    • E. 

      Complete cytokinesis and form new cell walls.


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