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Human A&p 2 - Endocrine System

99 Questions  I  By Ebs6778
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1.  The most important ________ is cortisol (hydrocortisone), cortisone, and corticosterone. 
A.
B.
C.
2.  Anterior Pituitary Hormones:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
3. 
  • Type 1 Diabetes 
  • Accounts for 3% of people with diabetes Mellitus 
  • Decreased insulin secretion
  • develops from an autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islets
  • most commonly develops in young people
  • Therapy - Insulin Injections
A.
B.
C.
4.  Oxytocin
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
5.  Mechanism of Steroid Hormones (and thyroid hormones):
  • Diffuse easily across plasma membrane 
  • Binds to an ___________ _________
  • Homone-receptor complex moves into __________ and binds with _______ (this stimulates _________)
  • _______ moves to cytoplasm where it is translated to a _________
6.  The Pituitary Gland is also called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Response of Target Cells depends on:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
8.  TSH stands for ____________
9.  ADH Deficiency leads to Diabetes Insipidus
A.
B.
10.  Causes include: 
  • a missing or abnormally developed thyroid gland
  • pituitary gland's failure to stimulate the thyroid
  • defective or abnormal formation of thyroid hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  The __________ is both endocrine and exocrine tissue 
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  The Neuroendocrine Gland is the ___________
13.  An autoimmune disease where abnormal antibodies mimic TSH so blood TH levels are high. 
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  Muscle and bone loss, water and salt retention, hypertension (edema/moon face), redistribution of fat to posterior neck, and severe infections are all results of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  Organs containing endocrine tissue
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
16.  ________ primary effects are:
  • Gluconeogenesis 
  • Breakdown proteins and reuse amino acids for repair
  • Works with adrenalin to increase blood pressure for rapid delivery of fuel and nutrients to cells
  • Prevents over-activity of the immune system
  • During periods of stress blood levels of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids dramatically rise 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
17.  Most important hormone at controlling blood calcium levels 
18.  A Trophic hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  Regulates electrolyte concentrations, particularly sodium and potassium 
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  A hormone regulates cell metabolism by:
  • changing membrane __________ through ion channels
  • Stimulating _________ _________
  • Activating and Deactivating __________
  • Induce _______ of molecules from cells
  • Stimulate ___________
21.  When the number of receptors on a target cell increases this is called ______ ________
22.  Alcohol is a ______ and it inhibits ______ secretion causing and increase in ______ output.
23.  _____ -> ACTH -> _______ -> _________
24. 
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Accounts for 97% of people with Diabetes Mellitus
  • Inability of tissues to respond to insulin
  • Leptin may play a role 
  • In some cases abnormal receptors may be produced or Abs may bind to receptors and deactivate them 
A.
B.
C.
25.  Growth Hormone Pathology
A. Pituitary Dwarfism
A.
B. Acromegaly
B.
C. accelerated aging
C.
D. Gigantism
D.
E. thickening of soft tissue
E.
F. Aquired GHD
F.
G.
G.
26.  Parafoliicular Cells in the Thyroid produce _____
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  A hormone is a chemical messenger released by cells in order to ______________________________. Hormones are either _________ __________ based or _______________.
28.  ______ makes glucose from molecules other than starch and sugar: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Secretes Melatonin
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  In the Anterior Pituitary gland, the Hypophyseal Portal System carries _______ and ______ hormones from the ventral hypothalamus to the _________
31.  Hyperthyroidism
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
32.  ________ gland is located in the anterior trachea just below the larynx. 
33.  _________ can be a lack of either Aldosterone or Cortisol
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  ______ -> TSH -> ______ -> ________
35.  ______ Gland is unique in its ability to store hormone extracellularly 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  Calcitonin is used to treat
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  In the pancreas, _______ causes release of glucose into the blood, mainly targets the liver, causes breakdown of stored glucose (glycogen).
38.  Prolactin's release is stimulated by _______ from the hypothalamus. Release is inhibited by _______ which is also known as dopamine. In females it stimulates __________. In males it enhances _________ production. 
39.  The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus via the
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  Cretinism Symptoms:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
41.  ______ -> FSH+LH  -> ______ -> ________
42.  Insulin ________ transport of glucose from blood to muscle and fat cells 
43.  The Posterior Pituitary Gland
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
44.  The endocrine glands are _______ _______ _______ _______ and  _______.
45.  In the Pancreas:
A. Insulin
A.
B. Glucagon
B.
C. release of glucose into the blood
C.
D. lowers glucose levels
D.
46.  Most important and abundant mineralocorticoid 
47. 
  • Produces erythropoetin (epo)
  • signals bone marrow to increase red blood cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  _______ is a symptom of ______
A. muscle twitches, excitable neurons, loss of sensation
A.
B. stones, bones, abdominal moans, and psychiatric overtones
B.
49.  The Body's major metabolic hormone that affects almost every cell in the body 
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  3 distinct layers of the Adrenal Cortex: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
51.  Hypothyroidism
A. In adults
A.
B. In children
B.
C. ?
C.
52. 
  • Produces ANP 
  • Works at kdney tubules to increase production of 'salty' urine
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  Features of the Endocrine system
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
54.  The anterior pituitary is glandular and has no neural connection to the hypothalamus
A.
B.
55.  The pituitary gland secretes __ major hormones:
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Each layer of the Adrenal Cortex produces a certain hormone:
A. Glomerulosa
A.
B. Fasiculata
B.
C. Reticularis
C.
57.  ______ Gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  ________ help to regulate the metabolic rate of most cells in the body in an effort to resist stress, helps body to adapt to intermittent food intake, keeps blood sugar and volume levels constant.
59.  Release of TSH from the ____________ gland is triggered by release of ______ ( ________________ ) from the _________
60.  _______ increases the body's use of glucose and increases metabolic rate of cells 
61.  Diabetes Mellitus 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
62.  Aldosterone: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
63.  Pathology of aldosterone: 
A. Addison's Disease
A.
B. Aldosteronism
B.
C. excess sodium in blood, hypertension, and edema
C.
D. low sodium in the blood, high potassium levels, hypotension, dehydration
D.
64.  _______ stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones 
65.  Myxedema Symptoms: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
66. 
  • Large in infants and children 
  • shrinks with age and becomes adipose and connective tissue
  • involved in producing T cells and the immune system
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  ______ and ______ both inhibit TSH secretion as a negative feedback mechanism 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  In females ____ estrogen leads to increased _____ 
A. low
A.
B. high
B.
69.  Insufficient insulin 
A.
B.
70.  PTH is the opposite of ______
71.  If blood becomes too concentrated, _______ goes to the kidney tubules and causes water to be reabsorbed and less urine is produced.
72.  Myxedema 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
73.  Most common cause of hyperthyroidism
74.  Mechanism of Amino-Based Hormones:
A. Binds to protein recpetors in
A.
B. Receptor binds to
B.
C. Gs activates
C.
D. Adenylate Cyclase produces
D.
E. cAMP activates
E.
F. Kinase A phosphorylates...
F.
G. Gi ______ Adenylate Cyclase
G.
H. G protein is inactive as GTP converts to
H.
75.  The anterior pituitary
A.
B.
76.  _____ is produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland
A.
B.
C.
77.  Aldosterone pumps ______ out of kidney tubules and into the blood while it pumps ______ out of blood and into the kidney tubules. 
78.  ___________ includes sex hormones and is mostly androgens (testosterone). Insignificant, however to the amounts made by gonads. May play a role in the onset of puberty and in women, may be involved in sex drive. 
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  Anti diuretic Hormone (ADH)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
80.  Secretion of ________ results in ________ of Growth Hormone
A. GHIH
A.
B. GHRH
B.
81.  Process of Thyroid Hormone Production...
A. Walls of follicles made of
A.
B. ...produce
B.
C. _____ is covalently bound to these molecules
C.
D. The two make a sticky _______ that is stored in the follicles
D.
E. Small globules of this colloid are endocytosed then ________ digest iodinated thyroglobulin
E.
F. this releases ______
F.
82.  Calcitonin
  • ______ blood calcium and phosphate
  • ______ osteoblast activity and the uptake of calcium into the bone
  • ______ osteoclasts and the breakdown of bones 
83.  PTH
  • ______ osteoclasts to breakdown bone and release calcium 
  • ______ loss of calcium in urine
  • ______ absorption of calcium from intestine 
84. 
  • Releases leptin into the body 
  • Targets CNS and signals satiety
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  Production of hormones in the posterior pituitary gland:
A. 1 Hypothalamic neurons synthesize
A.
B. Oxytocin and 2 ADH and oxytocin are transported to the
B.
C. 3 ADH and Oxytocin are then stored in
C.
D. 4 Oxytocin and ADH are released into the blood when
D.
86.  _____ + _____ = Gonadotrophins 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
87.  Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine into blood, is sympathetic nervous tissue, activated by sudden stress, produced fight-or-flight response
A.
B.
88.  Produced by Anterior Pituitary. Major target is Bones and Skeletal Muscle. Nontrophic.
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  The four Trophic hormones in the Anterior pituitary
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
90.  Glucocorticoid levels significantly rise during:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
91.  Excess cortisol results in _________. 
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  Cortisol pathology 
A. Excess Cortisol
A.
B. Lack of Cortisol
B.
93.  Pancreatic Islets form _____ kinds of hormone producing cells: ______________
94.  When the number of receptors on a target cell decreases this is called ________ _________
95.  During Glucose Tolerance Test, if after one our, blood values are less than _____ mg/dl and after 2 hours less than _____ mg/dl one is considered normal. But if The level is greater than ______ one is considered diabetic. If after two hours the level is between _____ and _____ one is considered pre-diabetic. 
96.  In the pancreas
A. High blood sugar
A.
B. Low blood sugar
B.
C. Glucagon
C.
D. Insulin
D.
E. Lowers glucose levels in blood
E.
F. Increases glucose levels in blood
F.
97.  The Adrenal Glands have two parts the adrenal ______(true endocrine tissue) and _____(neural tissue). 
98.  Pancreatic hormones...
A. Primarily targets the liver - has some affect on adipose and skeletal muscle
A.
B. Targets the liver, adipose and muscle
B.
C. Glucagon
C.
D. Insulin
D.
99.  Aldosterone secretion is stimulated by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
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