Human A&p 2 - Endocrine System

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1.  Pancreatic hormones...
A. Primarily targets the liver - has some affect on adipose and skeletal muscle
A.
B. Targets the liver, adipose and muscle
B.
C. Glucagon
C.
D. Insulin
D.
2.  The Body's major metabolic hormone that affects almost every cell in the body 
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  Excess cortisol results in _________. 
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  Pancreatic Islets form _____ kinds of hormone producing cells: ______________
5.  The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus via the
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  The Posterior Pituitary Gland
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
7.  Cretinism Symptoms:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
8.  The four Trophic hormones in the Anterior pituitary
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
9.  Mechanism of Amino-Based Hormones:
A. Binds to protein recpetors in
A.
B. Receptor binds to
B.
C. Gs activates
C.
D. Adenylate Cyclase produces
D.
E. cAMP activates
E.
F. Kinase A phosphorylates...
F.
G. Gi ______ Adenylate Cyclase
G.
H. G protein is inactive as GTP converts to
H.
10.  The pituitary gland secretes __ major hormones:
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  Secretes Melatonin
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  _______ is a symptom of ______
A. muscle twitches, excitable neurons, loss of sensation
A.
B. stones, bones, abdominal moans, and psychiatric overtones
B.
13.  Glucocorticoid levels significantly rise during:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
14.  When the number of receptors on a target cell increases this is called ______ ________
15.  ______ makes glucose from molecules other than starch and sugar: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  TSH stands for ____________
17.  Insufficient insulin 
A.
B.
18.  Production of hormones in the posterior pituitary gland:
A. 1 Hypothalamic neurons synthesize
A.
B. Oxytocin and 2 ADH and oxytocin are transported to the
B.
C. 3 ADH and Oxytocin are then stored in
C.
D. 4 Oxytocin and ADH are released into the blood when
D.
19.  Calcitonin is used to treat
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  3 distinct layers of the Adrenal Cortex: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
21.  Organs containing endocrine tissue
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
22.  Secretion of ________ results in ________ of Growth Hormone
A. GHIH
A.
B. GHRH
B.
23.  In the Pancreas:
A. Insulin
A.
B. Glucagon
B.
C. release of glucose into the blood
C.
D. lowers glucose levels
D.
24.  A Trophic hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  The endocrine glands are _______ _______ _______ _______ and  _______.
26.  Each layer of the Adrenal Cortex produces a certain hormone:
A. Fasiculata
A.
B. Glomerulosa
B.
C. Reticularis
C.
27.  ___________ includes sex hormones and is mostly androgens (testosterone). Insignificant, however to the amounts made by gonads. May play a role in the onset of puberty and in women, may be involved in sex drive. 
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Mechanism of Steroid Hormones (and thyroid hormones):
  • Diffuse easily across plasma membrane 
  • Binds to an ___________ _________
  • Homone-receptor complex moves into __________ and binds with _______ (this stimulates _________)
  • _______ moves to cytoplasm where it is translated to a _________
29.  Pathology of aldosterone: 
A. Addison's Disease
A.
B. Aldosteronism
B.
C. excess sodium in blood, hypertension, and edema
C.
D. low sodium in the blood, high potassium levels, hypotension, dehydration
D.
30.  The anterior pituitary
A.
B.
31. 
  • Releases leptin into the body 
  • Targets CNS and signals satiety
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  Aldosterone: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
33.  ______ Gland is unique in its ability to store hormone extracellularly 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34. 
  • Large in infants and children 
  • shrinks with age and becomes adipose and connective tissue
  • involved in producing T cells and the immune system
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  Calcitonin
  • ______ blood calcium and phosphate
  • ______ osteoblast activity and the uptake of calcium into the bone
  • ______ osteoclasts and the breakdown of bones 
36.  ______ and ______ both inhibit TSH secretion as a negative feedback mechanism 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  Insulin ________ transport of glucose from blood to muscle and fat cells 
38.  Features of the Endocrine system
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
39.  In females ____ estrogen leads to increased _____ 
A. low
A.
B. high
B.
40.  Causes include: 
  • a missing or abnormally developed thyroid gland
  • pituitary gland's failure to stimulate the thyroid
  • defective or abnormal formation of thyroid hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  Diabetes Mellitus 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
42.  In the pancreas
A. High blood sugar
A.
B. Low blood sugar
B.
C. Glucagon
C.
D. Insulin
D.
E. Lowers glucose levels in blood
E.
F. Increases glucose levels in blood
F.
43.  The Pituitary Gland is also called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  ________ primary effects are:
  • Gluconeogenesis 
  • Breakdown proteins and reuse amino acids for repair
  • Works with adrenalin to increase blood pressure for rapid delivery of fuel and nutrients to cells
  • Prevents over-activity of the immune system
  • During periods of stress blood levels of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids dramatically rise 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
45.  In the pancreas, _______ causes release of glucose into the blood, mainly targets the liver, causes breakdown of stored glucose (glycogen).
46.  Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine into blood, is sympathetic nervous tissue, activated by sudden stress, produced fight-or-flight response
A.
B.
47.  Aldosterone pumps ______ out of kidney tubules and into the blood while it pumps ______ out of blood and into the kidney tubules. 
48. 
  • Type 1 Diabetes 
  • Accounts for 3% of people with diabetes Mellitus 
  • Decreased insulin secretion
  • develops from an autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islets
  • most commonly develops in young people
  • Therapy - Insulin Injections
A.
B.
C.
49. 
  • Produces erythropoetin (epo)
  • signals bone marrow to increase red blood cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  _____ + _____ = Gonadotrophins 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
51. 
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Accounts for 97% of people with Diabetes Mellitus
  • Inability of tissues to respond to insulin
  • Leptin may play a role 
  • In some cases abnormal receptors may be produced or Abs may bind to receptors and deactivate them 
A.
B.
C.
52.  Most common cause of hyperthyroidism
53.  Process of Thyroid Hormone Production...
A. Walls of follicles made of
A.
B. ...produce
B.
C. _____ is covalently bound to these molecules
C.
D. The two make a sticky _______ that is stored in the follicles
D.
E. Small globules of this colloid are endocytosed then ________ digest iodinated thyroglobulin
E.
F. this releases ______
F.
54.  ________ gland is located in the anterior trachea just below the larynx. 
55.  The Neuroendocrine Gland is the ___________
56.  Anti diuretic Hormone (ADH)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
57.  Most important and abundant mineralocorticoid 
58.  Regulates electrolyte concentrations, particularly sodium and potassium 
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  Produced by Anterior Pituitary. Major target is Bones and Skeletal Muscle. Nontrophic.
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  Response of Target Cells depends on:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
61.  The __________ is both endocrine and exocrine tissue 
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  Anterior Pituitary Hormones:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
63.  Myxedema 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
64.  A hormone regulates cell metabolism by:
  • changing membrane __________ through ion channels
  • Stimulating _________ _________
  • Activating and Deactivating __________
  • Induce _______ of molecules from cells
  • Stimulate ___________
65.  The anterior pituitary is glandular and has no neural connection to the hypothalamus
A.
B.
66.  When the number of receptors on a target cell decreases this is called ________ _________
67.  Alcohol is a ______ and it inhibits ______ secretion causing and increase in ______ output.
68.  PTH is the opposite of ______
69.  Aldosterone secretion is stimulated by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
70.  In the Anterior Pituitary gland, the Hypophyseal Portal System carries _______ and ______ hormones from the ventral hypothalamus to the _________
71.  _____ -> ACTH -> _______ -> _________
72.  _________ can be a lack of either Aldosterone or Cortisol
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  Parafoliicular Cells in the Thyroid produce _____
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  _______ increases the body's use of glucose and increases metabolic rate of cells 
75.  Muscle and bone loss, water and salt retention, hypertension (edema/moon face), redistribution of fat to posterior neck, and severe infections are all results of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  The most important ________ is cortisol (hydrocortisone), cortisone, and corticosterone. 
A.
B.
C.
77.  Prolactin's release is stimulated by _______ from the hypothalamus. Release is inhibited by _______ which is also known as dopamine. In females it stimulates __________. In males it enhances _________ production. 
78.  During Glucose Tolerance Test, if after one our, blood values are less than _____ mg/dl and after 2 hours less than _____ mg/dl one is considered normal. But if The level is greater than ______ one is considered diabetic. If after two hours the level is between _____ and _____ one is considered pre-diabetic. 
79. 
  • Produces ANP 
  • Works at kdney tubules to increase production of 'salty' urine
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  A hormone is a chemical messenger released by cells in order to ______________________________. Hormones are either _________ __________ based or _______________.
81.  PTH
  • ______ osteoclasts to breakdown bone and release calcium 
  • ______ loss of calcium in urine
  • ______ absorption of calcium from intestine 
82.  Most important hormone at controlling blood calcium levels 
83.  Hypothyroidism
A. In adults
A.
B. In children
B.
C. ?
C.
84.  An autoimmune disease where abnormal antibodies mimic TSH so blood TH levels are high. 
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  ______ Gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  The Adrenal Glands have two parts the adrenal ______(true endocrine tissue) and _____(neural tissue). 
87.  ______ -> FSH+LH  -> ______ -> ________
88.  Oxytocin
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
89.  ________ help to regulate the metabolic rate of most cells in the body in an effort to resist stress, helps body to adapt to intermittent food intake, keeps blood sugar and volume levels constant.
90.  If blood becomes too concentrated, _______ goes to the kidney tubules and causes water to be reabsorbed and less urine is produced.
91.  ADH Deficiency leads to Diabetes Insipidus
A.
B.
92.  Cortisol pathology 
A. Excess Cortisol
A.
B. Lack of Cortisol
B.
93.  Growth Hormone Pathology
A. Pituitary Dwarfism
A.
B. Acromegaly
B.
C. accelerated aging
C.
D. Gigantism
D.
E. thickening of soft tissue
E.
F. Aquired GHD
F.
G.
G.
94.  Release of TSH from the ____________ gland is triggered by release of ______ ( ________________ ) from the _________
95.  Myxedema Symptoms: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
96.  _____ is produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland
A.
B.
C.
97.  _______ stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones 
98.  ______ -> TSH -> ______ -> ________
99.  Hyperthyroidism
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
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