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Human A&p 2 - Endocrine System

99 Questions  I  By Ebs6778
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Endocrine System Quizzes & Trivia

  
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1.  Muscle and bone loss, water and salt retention, hypertension (edema/moon face), redistribution of fat to posterior neck, and severe infections are all results of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  ________ help to regulate the metabolic rate of most cells in the body in an effort to resist stress, helps body to adapt to intermittent food intake, keeps blood sugar and volume levels constant.
3.  Insufficient insulin 
A.
B.
4.  Pathology of aldosterone: 
A. Addison's Disease
A.
B. Aldosteronism
B.
C. excess sodium in blood, hypertension, and edema
C.
D. low sodium in the blood, high potassium levels, hypotension, dehydration
D.
5.  _____ -> ACTH -> _______ -> _________
6.  The Body's major metabolic hormone that affects almost every cell in the body 
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  3 distinct layers of the Adrenal Cortex: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
8.  Most common cause of hyperthyroidism
9.  Production of hormones in the posterior pituitary gland:
A. 1 Hypothalamic neurons synthesize
A.
B. Oxytocin and 2 ADH and oxytocin are transported to the
B.
C. 3 ADH and Oxytocin are then stored in
C.
D. 4 Oxytocin and ADH are released into the blood when
D.
10.  Glucocorticoid levels significantly rise during:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
11.  Cretinism Symptoms:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
12.  Calcitonin
  • ______ blood calcium and phosphate
  • ______ osteoblast activity and the uptake of calcium into the bone
  • ______ osteoclasts and the breakdown of bones 
13.  ______ -> FSH+LH  -> ______ -> ________
14. 
  • Large in infants and children 
  • shrinks with age and becomes adipose and connective tissue
  • involved in producing T cells and the immune system
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  Myxedema Symptoms: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
16.  The pituitary gland secretes __ major hormones:
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  ___________ includes sex hormones and is mostly androgens (testosterone). Insignificant, however to the amounts made by gonads. May play a role in the onset of puberty and in women, may be involved in sex drive. 
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  During Glucose Tolerance Test, if after one our, blood values are less than _____ mg/dl and after 2 hours less than _____ mg/dl one is considered normal. But if The level is greater than ______ one is considered diabetic. If after two hours the level is between _____ and _____ one is considered pre-diabetic. 
19.  _________ can be a lack of either Aldosterone or Cortisol
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  ______ Gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  Process of Thyroid Hormone Production...
A. Walls of follicles made of
A.
B. ...produce
B.
C. _____ is covalently bound to these molecules
C.
D. The two make a sticky _______ that is stored in the follicles
D.
E. Small globules of this colloid are endocytosed then ________ digest iodinated thyroglobulin
E.
F. this releases ______
F.
22.  Features of the Endocrine system
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
23.  Release of TSH from the ____________ gland is triggered by release of ______ ( ________________ ) from the _________
24.  Secretion of ________ results in ________ of Growth Hormone
A. GHIH
A.
B. GHRH
B.
25.  Mechanism of Steroid Hormones (and thyroid hormones):
  • Diffuse easily across plasma membrane 
  • Binds to an ___________ _________
  • Homone-receptor complex moves into __________ and binds with _______ (this stimulates _________)
  • _______ moves to cytoplasm where it is translated to a _________
26.  ______ and ______ both inhibit TSH secretion as a negative feedback mechanism 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  _____ is produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland
A.
B.
C.
28.  Anterior Pituitary Hormones:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
29.  Alcohol is a ______ and it inhibits ______ secretion causing and increase in ______ output.
30.  Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine into blood, is sympathetic nervous tissue, activated by sudden stress, produced fight-or-flight response
A.
B.
31.  Response of Target Cells depends on:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
32.  The anterior pituitary is glandular and has no neural connection to the hypothalamus
A.
B.
33.  In females ____ estrogen leads to increased _____ 
A. low
A.
B. high
B.
34. 
  • Releases leptin into the body 
  • Targets CNS and signals satiety
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  Mechanism of Amino-Based Hormones:
A. Binds to protein recpetors in
A.
B. Receptor binds to
B.
C. Gs activates
C.
D. Adenylate Cyclase produces
D.
E. cAMP activates
E.
F. Kinase A phosphorylates...
F.
G. Gi ______ Adenylate Cyclase
G.
H. G protein is inactive as GTP converts to
H.
36.  TSH stands for ____________
37.  Prolactin's release is stimulated by _______ from the hypothalamus. Release is inhibited by _______ which is also known as dopamine. In females it stimulates __________. In males it enhances _________ production. 
38.  The four Trophic hormones in the Anterior pituitary
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
39.  ________ primary effects are:
  • Gluconeogenesis 
  • Breakdown proteins and reuse amino acids for repair
  • Works with adrenalin to increase blood pressure for rapid delivery of fuel and nutrients to cells
  • Prevents over-activity of the immune system
  • During periods of stress blood levels of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids dramatically rise 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
40.  Calcitonin is used to treat
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  Hypothyroidism
A. In adults
A.
B. In children
B.
C. ?
C.
42.  Excess cortisol results in _________. 
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Diabetes Mellitus 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
44.  The Pituitary Gland is also called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus via the
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  Produced by Anterior Pituitary. Major target is Bones and Skeletal Muscle. Nontrophic.
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  An autoimmune disease where abnormal antibodies mimic TSH so blood TH levels are high. 
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  _______ increases the body's use of glucose and increases metabolic rate of cells 
49.  ______ Gland is unique in its ability to store hormone extracellularly 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  Regulates electrolyte concentrations, particularly sodium and potassium 
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  The most important ________ is cortisol (hydrocortisone), cortisone, and corticosterone. 
A.
B.
C.
52.  In the pancreas
A. High blood sugar
A.
B. Low blood sugar
B.
C. Glucagon
C.
D. Insulin
D.
E. Lowers glucose levels in blood
E.
F. Increases glucose levels in blood
F.
53. 
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Accounts for 97% of people with Diabetes Mellitus
  • Inability of tissues to respond to insulin
  • Leptin may play a role 
  • In some cases abnormal receptors may be produced or Abs may bind to receptors and deactivate them 
A.
B.
C.
54.  The endocrine glands are _______ _______ _______ _______ and  _______.
55.  _______ stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones 
56.  Insulin ________ transport of glucose from blood to muscle and fat cells 
57.  ______ -> TSH -> ______ -> ________
58.  The anterior pituitary
A.
B.
59.  Myxedema 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
60.  ______ makes glucose from molecules other than starch and sugar: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  Cortisol pathology 
A. Excess Cortisol
A.
B. Lack of Cortisol
B.
62.  Anti diuretic Hormone (ADH)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
63.  ________ gland is located in the anterior trachea just below the larynx. 
64.  Aldosterone: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
65.  A hormone is a chemical messenger released by cells in order to ______________________________. Hormones are either _________ __________ based or _______________.
66.  PTH
  • ______ osteoclasts to breakdown bone and release calcium 
  • ______ loss of calcium in urine
  • ______ absorption of calcium from intestine 
67.  Pancreatic Islets form _____ kinds of hormone producing cells: ______________
68.  Pancreatic hormones...
A. Primarily targets the liver - has some affect on adipose and skeletal muscle
A.
B. Targets the liver, adipose and muscle
B.
C. Glucagon
C.
D. Insulin
D.
69.  When the number of receptors on a target cell increases this is called ______ ________
70.  When the number of receptors on a target cell decreases this is called ________ _________
71. 
  • Produces erythropoetin (epo)
  • signals bone marrow to increase red blood cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  Aldosterone pumps ______ out of kidney tubules and into the blood while it pumps ______ out of blood and into the kidney tubules. 
73.  In the Pancreas:
A. Insulin
A.
B. Glucagon
B.
C. release of glucose into the blood
C.
D. lowers glucose levels
D.
74.  _____ + _____ = Gonadotrophins 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
75.  In the pancreas, _______ causes release of glucose into the blood, mainly targets the liver, causes breakdown of stored glucose (glycogen).
76.  Oxytocin
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
77.  The Neuroendocrine Gland is the ___________
78.  Causes include: 
  • a missing or abnormally developed thyroid gland
  • pituitary gland's failure to stimulate the thyroid
  • defective or abnormal formation of thyroid hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  The Adrenal Glands have two parts the adrenal ______(true endocrine tissue) and _____(neural tissue). 
80.  A hormone regulates cell metabolism by:
  • changing membrane __________ through ion channels
  • Stimulating _________ _________
  • Activating and Deactivating __________
  • Induce _______ of molecules from cells
  • Stimulate ___________
81.  Growth Hormone Pathology
A. Pituitary Dwarfism
A.
B. Acromegaly
B.
C. accelerated aging
C.
D. Gigantism
D.
E. thickening of soft tissue
E.
F. Aquired GHD
F.
G.
G.
82. 
  • Produces ANP 
  • Works at kdney tubules to increase production of 'salty' urine
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  If blood becomes too concentrated, _______ goes to the kidney tubules and causes water to be reabsorbed and less urine is produced.
84.  A Trophic hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  Most important hormone at controlling blood calcium levels 
86.  PTH is the opposite of ______
87.  In the Anterior Pituitary gland, the Hypophyseal Portal System carries _______ and ______ hormones from the ventral hypothalamus to the _________
88.  Most important and abundant mineralocorticoid 
89.  Aldosterone secretion is stimulated by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
90.  ADH Deficiency leads to Diabetes Insipidus
A.
B.
91.  The Posterior Pituitary Gland
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
92.  Organs containing endocrine tissue
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
93.  The __________ is both endocrine and exocrine tissue 
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  Parafoliicular Cells in the Thyroid produce _____
A.
B.
C.
D.
95. 
  • Type 1 Diabetes 
  • Accounts for 3% of people with diabetes Mellitus 
  • Decreased insulin secretion
  • develops from an autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islets
  • most commonly develops in young people
  • Therapy - Insulin Injections
A.
B.
C.
96.  Hyperthyroidism
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
97.  Each layer of the Adrenal Cortex produces a certain hormone:
A. Glomerulosa
A.
B. Fasiculata
B.
C. Reticularis
C.
98.  Secretes Melatonin
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  _______ is a symptom of ______
A. muscle twitches, excitable neurons, loss of sensation
A.
B. stones, bones, abdominal moans, and psychiatric overtones
B.
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