Human A&p 2 - Endocrine System

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Endocrine System Quizzes & Trivia

  
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1.  Response of Target Cells depends on:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
2.  Hyperthyroidism
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
3.  The Body's major metabolic hormone that affects almost every cell in the body 
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  Insulin ________ transport of glucose from blood to muscle and fat cells 
5.  Mechanism of Amino-Based Hormones:
A. Binds to protein recpetors in
A.
B. Receptor binds to
B.
C. Gs activates
C.
D. Adenylate Cyclase produces
D.
E. CAMP activates
E.
F. Kinase A phosphorylates...
F.
G. Gi ______ Adenylate Cyclase
G.
H. G protein is inactive as GTP converts to
H.
6.  Causes include: 
  • a missing or abnormally developed thyroid gland
  • pituitary gland's failure to stimulate the thyroid
  • defective or abnormal formation of thyroid hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Calcitonin is used to treat
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  A Trophic hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus via the
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  Pancreatic hormones...
A. Primarily targets the liver - has some affect on adipose and skeletal muscle
A.
B. Targets the liver, adipose and muscle
B.
C. Glucagon
C.
D. Insulin
D.
11.  Process of Thyroid Hormone Production...
A. Walls of follicles made of
A.
B. ...produce
B.
C. _____ is covalently bound to these molecules
C.
D. The two make a sticky _______ that is stored in the follicles
D.
E. Small globules of this colloid are endocytosed then ________ digest iodinated thyroglobulin
E.
F. This releases ______
F.
12. 
  • Type 1 Diabetes 
  • Accounts for 3% of people with diabetes Mellitus 
  • Decreased insulin secretion
  • develops from an autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islets
  • most commonly develops in young people
  • Therapy - Insulin Injections
A.
B.
C.
13.  Hypothyroidism
A. In adults
A.
B. In children
B.
C. ?
C.
14. 
  • Releases leptin into the body 
  • Targets CNS and signals satiety
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  During Glucose Tolerance Test, if after one our, blood values are less than _____ mg/dl and after 2 hours less than _____ mg/dl one is considered normal. But if The level is greater than ______ one is considered diabetic. If after two hours the level is between _____ and _____ one is considered pre-diabetic. 
16.  Glucocorticoid levels significantly rise during:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
17.  Cortisol pathology 
A. Excess Cortisol
A.
B. Lack of Cortisol
B.
18.  The anterior pituitary
A.
B.
19.  3 distinct layers of the Adrenal Cortex: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
20.  _____ + _____ = Gonadotrophins 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
21.  A hormone is a chemical messenger released by cells in order to ______________________________. Hormones are either _________ __________ based or _______________.
22. 
  • Large in infants and children 
  • shrinks with age and becomes adipose and connective tissue
  • involved in producing T cells and the immune system
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  ______ and ______ both inhibit TSH secretion as a negative feedback mechanism 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  Secretes Melatonin
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  Mechanism of Steroid Hormones (and thyroid hormones):
  • Diffuse easily across plasma membrane 
  • Binds to an ___________ _________
  • Homone-receptor complex moves into __________ and binds with _______ (this stimulates _________)
  • _______ moves to cytoplasm where it is translated to a _________
26. 
  • Produces erythropoetin (epo)
  • signals bone marrow to increase red blood cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  Anterior Pituitary Hormones:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
28.  Aldosterone secretion is stimulated by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
29.  _________ can be a lack of either Aldosterone or Cortisol
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  When the number of receptors on a target cell increases this is called ______ ________
31. 
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Accounts for 97% of people with Diabetes Mellitus
  • Inability of tissues to respond to insulin
  • Leptin may play a role 
  • In some cases abnormal receptors may be produced or Abs may bind to receptors and deactivate them 
A.
B.
C.
32.  In the pancreas, _______ causes release of glucose into the blood, mainly targets the liver, causes breakdown of stored glucose (glycogen).
33.  In the pancreas
A. High blood sugar
A.
B. Low blood sugar
B.
C. Glucagon
C.
D. Insulin
D.
E. Lowers glucose levels in blood
E.
F. Increases glucose levels in blood
F.
34.  _____ is produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland
A.
B.
C.
35.  ADH Deficiency leads to Diabetes Insipidus
A.
B.
36.  Cretinism Symptoms:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
37.  PTH
  • ______ osteoclasts to breakdown bone and release calcium 
  • ______ loss of calcium in urine
  • ______ absorption of calcium from intestine 
38.  Most common cause of hyperthyroidism
39.  Aldosterone: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
40.  The Adrenal Glands have two parts the adrenal ______(true endocrine tissue) and _____(neural tissue). 
41. 
  • Produces ANP 
  • Works at kdney tubules to increase production of 'salty' urine
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  The Neuroendocrine Gland is the ___________
43.  The endocrine glands are _______ _______ _______ _______ and  _______.
44.  Production of hormones in the posterior pituitary gland:
A. 1 Hypothalamic neurons synthesize
A.
B. Oxytocin and 2 ADH and oxytocin are transported to the
B.
C. 3 ADH and Oxytocin are then stored in
C.
D. 4 Oxytocin and ADH are released into the blood when
D.
45.  _____ -> ACTH -> _______ -> _________
46.  ______ Gland is unique in its ability to store hormone extracellularly 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  In females ____ estrogen leads to increased _____ 
A. Low
A.
B. High
B.
48.  ______ makes glucose from molecules other than starch and sugar: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  The __________ is both endocrine and exocrine tissue 
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  PTH is the opposite of ______
51.  Secretion of ________ results in ________ of Growth Hormone
A. GHIH
A.
B. GHRH
B.
52.  When the number of receptors on a target cell decreases this is called ________ _________
53.  Calcitonin
  • ______ blood calcium and phosphate
  • ______ osteoblast activity and the uptake of calcium into the bone
  • ______ osteoclasts and the breakdown of bones 
54.  Insufficient insulin 
A.
B.
55.  Excess cortisol results in _________. 
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Myxedema Symptoms: 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
57.  Diabetes Mellitus 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
58.  In the Pancreas:
A. Insulin
A.
B. Glucagon
B.
C. Release of glucose into the blood
C.
D. Lowers glucose levels
D.
59.  Muscle and bone loss, water and salt retention, hypertension (edema/moon face), redistribution of fat to posterior neck, and severe infections are all results of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  An autoimmune disease where abnormal antibodies mimic TSH so blood TH levels are high. 
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  The pituitary gland secretes __ major hormones:
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  The Pituitary Gland is also called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  The most important ________ is cortisol (hydrocortisone), cortisone, and corticosterone. 
A.
B.
C.
64.  The four Trophic hormones in the Anterior pituitary
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
65.  Regulates electrolyte concentrations, particularly sodium and potassium 
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  Most important and abundant mineralocorticoid 
67.  _______ increases the body's use of glucose and increases metabolic rate of cells 
68.  If blood becomes too concentrated, _______ goes to the kidney tubules and causes water to be reabsorbed and less urine is produced.
69.  ________ primary effects are:
  • Gluconeogenesis 
  • Breakdown proteins and reuse amino acids for repair
  • Works with adrenalin to increase blood pressure for rapid delivery of fuel and nutrients to cells
  • Prevents over-activity of the immune system
  • During periods of stress blood levels of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids dramatically rise 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
70.  ______ -> TSH -> ______ -> ________
71.  Myxedema 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
72.  ________ help to regulate the metabolic rate of most cells in the body in an effort to resist stress, helps body to adapt to intermittent food intake, keeps blood sugar and volume levels constant.
73.  A hormone regulates cell metabolism by:
  • changing membrane __________ through ion channels
  • Stimulating _________ _________
  • Activating and Deactivating __________
  • Induce _______ of molecules from cells
  • Stimulate ___________
74.  ______ Gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  The Posterior Pituitary Gland
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
76.  Release of TSH from the ____________ gland is triggered by release of ______ ( ________________ ) from the _________
77.  In the Anterior Pituitary gland, the Hypophyseal Portal System carries _______ and ______ hormones from the ventral hypothalamus to the _________
78.  Pancreatic Islets form _____ kinds of hormone producing cells: ______________
79.  Features of the Endocrine system
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
80.  Oxytocin
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
81.  ________ gland is located in the anterior trachea just below the larynx. 
82.  Anti diuretic Hormone (ADH)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
83.  Prolactin's release is stimulated by _______ from the hypothalamus. Release is inhibited by _______ which is also known as dopamine. In females it stimulates __________. In males it enhances _________ production. 
84.  _______ stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones 
85.  Organs containing endocrine tissue
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
86.  Each layer of the Adrenal Cortex produces a certain hormone:
A. Glomerulosa
A.
B. Fasiculata
B.
C. Reticularis
C.
87.  The anterior pituitary is glandular and has no neural connection to the hypothalamus
A.
B.
88.  Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine into blood, is sympathetic nervous tissue, activated by sudden stress, produced fight-or-flight response
A.
B.
89.  Alcohol is a ______ and it inhibits ______ secretion causing and increase in ______ output.
90.  Pathology of aldosterone: 
A. Addison's Disease
A.
B. Aldosteronism
B.
C. Excess sodium in blood, hypertension, and edema
C.
D. Low sodium in the blood, high potassium levels, hypotension, dehydration
D.
91.  Parafoliicular Cells in the Thyroid produce _____
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  Growth Hormone Pathology
A. Pituitary Dwarfism
A.
B. Acromegaly
B.
C. Accelerated aging
C.
D. Gigantism
D.
E. Thickening of soft tissue
E.
F. Aquired GHD
F.
G.
G.
93.  ______ -> FSH+LH  -> ______ -> ________
94.  Produced by Anterior Pituitary. Major target is Bones and Skeletal Muscle. Nontrophic.
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  TSH stands for ____________
96.  Aldosterone pumps ______ out of kidney tubules and into the blood while it pumps ______ out of blood and into the kidney tubules. 
97.  _______ is a symptom of ______
A. Muscle twitches, excitable neurons, loss of sensation
A.
B. Stones, bones, abdominal moans, and psychiatric overtones
B.
98.  ___________ includes sex hormones and is mostly androgens (testosterone). Insignificant, however to the amounts made by gonads. May play a role in the onset of puberty and in women, may be involved in sex drive. 
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  Most important hormone at controlling blood calcium levels 
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