Human A&p 2 - Endocrine System

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Endocrine System Quizzes & Trivia

  
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  • 1. 
    A hormone is a chemical messenger released by cells in order to ______________________________. Hormones are either _________ __________ based or _______________.

  • 2. 
    The endocrine glands are _______ _______ _______ _______ and  _______.

  • 3. 
    The Neuroendocrine Gland is the ___________

  • 4. 
    Features of the Endocrine system
    • A. 

      Highly Vascularized

    • B. 

      Stores Hormones from surrounding tissue fluid

    • C. 

      Releases Hormones into surrounding tissue fluid

    • D. 

      Ductless

    • E. 

      Ducts

    • F. 

      Little Vascularization


  • 5. 
    Organs containing endocrine tissue
    • A. 

      Pancreas

    • B. 

      Kidneys

    • C. 

      Stomach

    • D. 

      Placenta

    • E. 

      Ovaries and Testes

    • F. 

      Brain


  • 6. 
    A hormone regulates cell metabolism by: changing membrane __________ through ion channels Stimulating _________ _________ Activating and Deactivating __________ Induce _______ of molecules from cells Stimulate ___________

  • 7. 
    Mechanism of Amino-Based Hormones:
    • A. Binds to protein recpetors in
    • A.
    • B. Receptor binds to
    • B.
    • C. Gs activates
    • C.
    • D. Adenylate Cyclase produces
    • D.
    • E. cAMP activates
    • E.
    • F. Kinase A phosphorylates...
    • F.
    • G. Gi ______ Adenylate Cyclase
    • G.
    • H. G protein is inactive as GTP converts to
    • H.

  • 8. 
    Mechanism of Steroid Hormones (and thyroid hormones): Diffuse easily across plasma membrane  Binds to an ___________ _________ Homone-receptor complex moves into __________ and binds with _______ (this stimulates _________) _______ moves to cytoplasm where it is translated to a _________

  • 9. 
    Response of Target Cells depends on:
    • A. 

      Affinity between hormone and receptor

    • B. 

      Metabolism of particular individual

    • C. 

      Number of receptors on a target cell

    • D. 

      Size/shape of receptors on a target cell

    • E. 

      Blood level of the hormone

    • F. 

      Blood pressure/blood volume


  • 10. 
    When the number of receptors on a target cell increases this is called ______ ________

  • 11. 
    When the number of receptors on a target cell decreases this is called ________ _________

  • 12. 
    The Pituitary Gland is also called the
    • A. 

      Hypopitus

    • B. 

      Hypophysis

    • C. 

      Hypothesus

    • D. 

      Hypoxitis


  • 13. 
    The pituitary gland secretes __ major hormones:
    • A. 

      5

    • B. 

      7

    • C. 

      9

    • D. 

      11


  • 14. 
    The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus via the
    • A. 

      Infundamentium

    • B. 

      Infundulobe

    • C. 

      Infundibulum

    • D. 

      Infundialum


  • 15. 
    The Posterior Pituitary Gland
    • A. 

      Secretes Hormones

    • B. 

      Stores Hormones

    • C. 

      Is endocrine tissue

    • D. 

      Is neural tissue

    • E. 

      Makes its own hormones

    • F. 

      Releases hormones made in the hypothalamus


  • 16. 
    Production of hormones in the posterior pituitary gland:
    • A. 1 Hypothalamic neurons synthesize
    • A.
    • B. Oxytocin and 2 ADH and oxytocin are transported to the
    • B.
    • C. 3 ADH and Oxytocin are then stored in
    • C.
    • D. 4 Oxytocin and ADH are released into the blood when
    • D.

  • 17. 
    Oxytocin
    • A. 

      Produced in the posterior pituitary (hypothalamus)

    • B. 

      Produced in the anterior pituitary

    • C. 

      Produced in the thyroid

    • D. 

      Produced in the parathyroid

    • E. 

      Releases during dehydration

    • F. 

      Releases during stress

    • G. 

      Releases during child birth

    • H. 

      Releases in nursing mothers

    • I. 

      Stimulates growth

    • J. 

      Stimulates uterine contractions

    • K. 

      Stimulates adrenaline production

    • L. 

      Stimulates milk ejection

    • M. 

      Stimulates salivation


  • 18. 
    Anti diuretic Hormone (ADH)
    • A. 

      Produced in the paraventricular nucleus

    • B. 

      Produced in the posterior pituitary gland

    • C. 

      Produced in the pancreas

    • D. 

      Produced in the ovaries

    • E. 

      Prevents urine formation

    • F. 

      Prevents dehydration

    • G. 

      Prevents testosterone formation


  • 19. 
    If blood becomes too concentrated, _______ goes to the kidney tubules and causes water to be reabsorbed and less urine is produced.

  • 20. 
    Alcohol is a ______ and it inhibits ______ secretion causing and increase in ______ output.

  • 21. 
    ADH Deficiency leads to Diabetes Insipidus
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 22. 
    The anterior pituitary
    • A. 

      Stores hormones

    • B. 

      Releases hormones


  • 23. 
    The anterior pituitary is glandular and has no neural connection to the hypothalamus
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 24. 
    In the Anterior Pituitary gland, the Hypophyseal Portal System carries _______ and ______ hormones from the ventral hypothalamus to the _________

  • 25. 
    Anterior Pituitary Hormones:
    • A. 

      Six major hormones

    • B. 

      Nine major hormones

    • C. 

      Five major hormones

    • D. 

      All hormones are Trophic

    • E. 

      All hormones are protein

    • F. 

      All hormones are steroidal

    • G. 

      Four hormones are trophic

    • H. 

      Four hormones are protein

    • I. 

      Four hormones are steroidal


  • 26. 
    A Trophic hormone
    • A. 

      Is the final hormone

    • B. 

      Is the starter hormone

    • C. 

      Tells the body how to make the final hormone

    • D. 

      Tells the body how to make the starter hormone


  • 27. 
    The four Trophic hormones in the Anterior pituitary
    • A. 

      GH

    • B. 

      TSH

    • C. 

      ACTH

    • D. 

      Prolactin

    • E. 

      FSH

    • F. 

      LH


  • 28. 
    Produced by Anterior Pituitary. Major target is Bones and Skeletal Muscle. Nontrophic.
    • A. 

      TSH

    • B. 

      ACTH

    • C. 

      LH

    • D. 

      GH


  • 29. 
    Secretion of ________ results in ________ of Growth Hormone
    • A. GHIH
    • A.
    • B. GHRH
    • B.

  • 30. 
    Growth Hormone Pathology
    • A. Pituitary Dwarfism
    • A.
    • B. Acromegaly
    • B.
    • C. accelerated aging
    • C.
    • D. Gigantism
    • D.
    • E. thickening of soft tissue
    • E.
    • F. Aquired GHD
    • F.
    • G.
    • G.

  • 31. 
    TSH stands for ____________

  • 32. 
    Release of TSH from the ____________ gland is triggered by release of ______ ( ________________ ) from the _________

  • 33. 
    ______ and ______ both inhibit TSH secretion as a negative feedback mechanism 
    • A. 

      FSH

    • B. 

      TH

    • C. 

      Prolactin

    • D. 

      GH

    • E. 

      Somatostatin


  • 34. 
    _______ stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones 

  • 35. 
    _____ -> ACTH -> _______ -> _________

  • 36. 
    ______ -> TSH -> ______ -> ________

  • 37. 
    _____ + _____ = Gonadotrophins 
    • A. 

      PRH

    • B. 

      LH

    • C. 

      ACTH

    • D. 

      FSH

    • E. 

      CRH

    • F. 

      GNH


  • 38. 
    ______ -> FSH+LH  -> ______ -> ________

  • 39. 
    Prolactin's release is stimulated by _______ from the hypothalamus. Release is inhibited by _______ which is also known as dopamine. In females it stimulates __________. In males it enhances _________ production. 

  • 40. 
    In females ____ estrogen leads to increased _____ 
    • A. low
    • A.
    • B. high
    • B.

  • 41. 
    ________ gland is located in the anterior trachea just below the larynx. 

  • 42. 
    ______ Gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body.
    • A. 

      Adrenal

    • B. 

      Pituitary

    • C. 

      Pineal

    • D. 

      Parathyroid

    • E. 

      Thyroid


  • 43. 
    Process of Thyroid Hormone Production...
    • A. Walls of follicles made of
    • A.
    • B. ...produce
    • B.
    • C. _____ is covalently bound to these molecules
    • C.
    • D. The two make a sticky _______ that is stored in the follicles
    • D.
    • E. Small globules of this colloid are endocytosed then ________ digest iodinated thyroglobulin
    • E.
    • F. this releases ______
    • F.

  • 44. 
    ______ Gland is unique in its ability to store hormone extracellularly 
    • A. 

      Adrenal

    • B. 

      Pituitary

    • C. 

      Pineal

    • D. 

      Parathyroid

    • E. 

      Thyroid


  • 45. 
    Parafoliicular Cells in the Thyroid produce _____
    • A. 

      TSH

    • B. 

      TRH

    • C. 

      Prolactin

    • D. 

      Calcitonin


  • 46. 
    The Body's major metabolic hormone that affects almost every cell in the body 
    • A. 

      GH

    • B. 

      Calcitonin

    • C. 

      TH

    • D. 

      PTH


  • 47. 
    _______ increases the body's use of glucose and increases metabolic rate of cells 

  • 48. 
    Hypothyroidism
    • A. In adults
    • A.
    • B. In children
    • B.
    • C. ?
    • C.

  • 49. 
    Myxedema 
    • A. 

      A missing thyroid

    • B. 

      Defective Thyroid

    • C. 

      Pituitary glands failure to stimulate the thyroid

    • D. 

      Inflammation of the thyroid

    • E. 

      TSH or TRH too low

    • F. 

      Inadequate Iodine


  • 50. 
    Causes include:  a missing or abnormally developed thyroid gland pituitary gland's failure to stimulate the thyroid defective or abnormal formation of thyroid hormone
    • A. 

      Cretinism

    • B. 

      Myxedema

    • C. 

      Graves Disease

    • D. 

      Pagets Disease


  • 51. 
    Cretinism Symptoms:
    • A. 

      Mental retardation

    • B. 

      Puffy face

    • C. 

      Lethargy

    • D. 

      Sweating

    • E. 

      Thick, protruding tongue

    • F. 

      Goiter


  • 52. 
    Myxedema Symptoms: 
    • A. 

      Excessive sweating

    • B. 

      Lethargy

    • C. 

      Mental retardation

    • D. 

      Puffy face

    • E. 

      Goiter

    • F. 

      Cold


  • 53. 
    An autoimmune disease where abnormal antibodies mimic TSH so blood TH levels are high. 
    • A. 

      Paget's Disease

    • B. 

      Myxedema

    • C. 

      Cretinism

    • D. 

      Graves Disease


  • 54. 
    Most common cause of hyperthyroidism

  • 55. 
    Hyperthyroidism
    • A. 

      Excessive sweating

    • B. 

      Weight loss

    • C. 

      Cold

    • D. 

      Puffy face

    • E. 

      Lethargy

    • F. 

      Nervousness

    • G. 

      Goiter


  • 56. 
    Calcitonin is used to treat
    • A. 

      Myxedema

    • B. 

      Paget's Disease

    • C. 

      Graves Disease

    • D. 

      Cretinism


  • 57. 
    _____ is produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland
    • A. 

      T3

    • B. 

      T4

    • C. 

      Calcitonin


  • 58. 
    Calcitonin ______ blood calcium and phosphate ______ osteoblast activity and the uptake of calcium into the bone ______ osteoclasts and the breakdown of bones 

  • 59. 
    PTH is the opposite of ______

  • 60. 
    Most important hormone at controlling blood calcium levels 

  • 61. 
    PTH ______ osteoclasts to breakdown bone and release calcium  ______ loss of calcium in urine ______ absorption of calcium from intestine 

  • 62. 
    _______ is a symptom of ______
    • A. muscle twitches, excitable neurons, loss of sensation
    • A.
    • B. stones, bones, abdominal moans, and psychiatric overtones
    • B.

  • 63. 
    The Adrenal Glands have two parts the adrenal ______(true endocrine tissue) and _____(neural tissue). 

  • 64. 
    3 distinct layers of the Adrenal Cortex: 
    • A. 

      Zona Glucocorticoids

    • B. 

      Zona Fassia

    • C. 

      Zona Reticularis

    • D. 

      Zona Glomerulosa

    • E. 

      Zona Rectimbular

    • F. 

      Zona Fasiculata


  • 65. 
    Each layer of the Adrenal Cortex produces a certain hormone:
    • A. Glomerulosa
    • A.
    • B. Fasiculata
    • B.
    • C. Reticularis
    • C.

  • 66. 
    Regulates electrolyte concentrations, particularly sodium and potassium 
    • A. 

      Corticosteroids

    • B. 

      Glucocorticoids

    • C. 

      Mineralocorticoids

    • D. 

      Gonadocortcoids


  • 67. 
    Most important and abundant mineralocorticoid 

  • 68. 
    Aldosterone: 
    • A. 

      Maintains sodium balance

    • B. 

      Increases sodium loss via excretion

    • C. 

      Reduces sodium loss via excretion

    • D. 

      Primary target is kidney tubules

    • E. 

      Primary target is bladder

    • F. 

      Stimulates sodium reabsorption

    • G. 

      Inhibits sodium reabsorption


  • 69. 
    Aldosterone pumps ______ out of kidney tubules and into the blood while it pumps ______ out of blood and into the kidney tubules. 

  • 70. 
    Aldosterone secretion is stimulated by:
    • A. 

      Increased levels of potassium in the blood

    • B. 

      Decreased levels of potassium in the blood

    • C. 

      Increased levels of sodium in the blood

    • D. 

      Decreased levels of sodium in the blood

    • E. 

      Increased blood volume and pressure

    • F. 

      Decreased blood volume and pressure


  • 71. 
    Pathology of aldosterone: 
    • A. Addison's Disease
    • A.
    • B. Aldosteronism
    • B.
    • C. excess sodium in blood, hypertension, and edema
    • C.
    • D. low sodium in the blood, high potassium levels, hypotension, dehydration
    • D.

  • 72. 
    ______ makes glucose from molecules other than starch and sugar: 
    • A. 

      Glycogen

    • B. 

      Glucagon

    • C. 

      Gluconeogenesis

    • D. 

      Insulin


  • 73. 
    ________ help to regulate the metabolic rate of most cells in the body in an effort to resist stress, helps body to adapt to intermittent food intake, keeps blood sugar and volume levels constant.

  • 74. 
    Glucocorticoid levels significantly rise during:
    • A. 

      Exercise

    • B. 

      Emotional Trauma

    • C. 

      Hemorrhage

    • D. 

      Sleep

    • E. 

      Digestion of Large Meals

    • F. 

      Infection

    • G. 

      Physical Trauma


  • 75. 
    The most important ________ is cortisol (hydrocortisone), cortisone, and corticosterone. 
    • A. 

      Mineralocorticoid

    • B. 

      Glucocorticoid

    • C. 

      Gonadocorticoid


  • 76. 
    ________ primary effects are: Gluconeogenesis  Breakdown proteins and reuse amino acids for repair Works with adrenalin to increase blood pressure for rapid delivery of fuel and nutrients to cells Prevents over-activity of the immune system During periods of stress blood levels of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids dramatically rise 
    • A. 

      Aldosterone

    • B. 

      Adrenalin

    • C. 

      Cortisol

    • D. 

      Testosterone

    • E. 

      Glucagon

    • F. 

      Insulin


  • 77. 
    Excess cortisol results in _________. 
    • A. 

      Graves Disease

    • B. 

      Addison's Disease

    • C. 

      Myxedema

    • D. 

      Cushing's Disease


  • 78. 
    Muscle and bone loss, water and salt retention, hypertension (edema/moon face), redistribution of fat to posterior neck, and severe infections are all results of 
    • A. 

      Addison's Disease

    • B. 

      Graves Disease

    • C. 

      Myxedema

    • D. 

      Cushing's Disease


  • 79. 
    Cortisol pathology 
    • A. Excess Cortisol
    • A.
    • B. Lack of Cortisol
    • B.

  • 80. 
    _________ can be a lack of either Aldosterone or Cortisol
    • A. 

      Addison's Disease

    • B. 

      Graves Disease

    • C. 

      Myxemia

    • D. 

      Cushing's Disease


  • 81. 
    ___________ includes sex hormones and is mostly androgens (testosterone). Insignificant, however to the amounts made by gonads. May play a role in the onset of puberty and in women, may be involved in sex drive. 
    • A. 

      Mineralocorticoids

    • B. 

      Glucocorticoids

    • C. 

      Cortisol

    • D. 

      Gonadocorticoids


  • 82. 
    Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine into blood, is sympathetic nervous tissue, activated by sudden stress, produced fight-or-flight response
    • A. 

      Adrenal Cortex

    • B. 

      Adrenal Medulla


  • 83. 
    The __________ is both endocrine and exocrine tissue 
    • A. 

      Kidneys

    • B. 

      Pancreas

    • C. 

      Ovaries and Testes

    • D. 

      Liver


  • 84. 
    Pancreatic Islets form _____ kinds of hormone producing cells: ______________

  • 85. 
    In the Pancreas:
    • A. Insulin
    • A.
    • B. Glucagon
    • B.
    • C. release of glucose into the blood
    • C.
    • D. lowers glucose levels
    • D.

  • 86. 
    In the pancreas, _______ causes release of glucose into the blood, mainly targets the liver, causes breakdown of stored glucose (glycogen).

  • 87. 
    Insulin ________ transport of glucose from blood to muscle and fat cells 

  • 88. 
    In the pancreas
    • A. High blood sugar
    • A.
    • B. Low blood sugar
    • B.
    • C. Glucagon
    • C.
    • D. Insulin
    • D.
    • E. Lowers glucose levels in blood
    • E.
    • F. Increases glucose levels in blood
    • F.

  • 89. 
    Insufficient insulin 
    • A. 

      Diabetes Insipidus

    • B. 

      Diabetes Mellitus


  • 90. 
    Diabetes Mellitus 
    • A. 

      Lower blood-glucose levels

    • B. 

      Higher blood-glucose levels

    • C. 

      Glucose stays in the blood

    • D. 

      Glucose is stored

    • E. 

      Glucose excreted in urine

    • F. 

      Body stores extra fat

    • G. 

      Body breaks down fat

    • H. 

      Low pH

    • I. 

      High pH

    • J. 

      Disrupts oxygen transport

    • K. 

      Disrupts protein synthesis


  • 91. 
    During Glucose Tolerance Test, if after one our, blood values are less than _____ mg/dl and after 2 hours less than _____ mg/dl one is considered normal. But if The level is greater than ______ one is considered diabetic. If after two hours the level is between _____ and _____ one is considered pre-diabetic. 

  • 92. 
    Pancreatic hormones...
    • A. Primarily targets the liver - has some affect on adipose and skeletal muscle
    • A.
    • B. Targets the liver, adipose and muscle
    • B.
    • C. Glucagon
    • C.
    • D. Insulin
    • D.

  • 93. 
    Type 1 Diabetes  Accounts for 3% of people with diabetes Mellitus  Decreased insulin secretion develops from an autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islets most commonly develops in young people Therapy - Insulin Injections
    • A. 

      Insulin-Dependent diabetes Mellitus

    • B. 

      Noninsulin-Dependent diabetes Mellitus

    • C. 

      Diabetes Insipidus


  • 94. 
    Type 2 Diabetes Accounts for 97% of people with Diabetes Mellitus Inability of tissues to respond to insulin Leptin may play a role  In some cases abnormal receptors may be produced or Abs may bind to receptors and deactivate them 
    • A. 

      Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    • B. 

      Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    • C. 

      Diabetes Insipidus


  • 95. 
    Secretes Melatonin
    • A. 

      Adrenal

    • B. 

      Pituitary

    • C. 

      Pineal

    • D. 

      Parathyroid

    • E. 

      Thyroid


  • 96. 
    Large in infants and children  shrinks with age and becomes adipose and connective tissue involved in producing T cells and the immune system
    • A. 

      Adipose

    • B. 

      Thymus

    • C. 

      Heart

    • D. 

      Kidney


  • 97. 
    Produces ANP  Works at kdney tubules to increase production of 'salty' urine
    • A. 

      Adipose

    • B. 

      Thymus

    • C. 

      Heart

    • D. 

      Kidney


  • 98. 
    Produces erythropoetin (epo) signals bone marrow to increase red blood cells
    • A. 

      Adipose

    • B. 

      Thymus

    • C. 

      Heart

    • D. 

      Kidneys


  • 99. 
    Releases leptin into the body  Targets CNS and signals satiety
    • A. 

      Adipose

    • B. 

      Thymus

    • C. 

      Heart

    • D. 

      Kidney


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