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Human Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 7

52 Questions
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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The axial skeleton system contains how many bones?
  • 2. 
    What are the 3 major regions of the Axial Skeleton?ABC order
  • 3. 
    Name two sets of skull bones?
  • 4. 
    What site provides attachment for the head and neck?Cranial or Facial Bones?
  • 5. 
    Site of attachment for teeth and muscles?Cranial or facial?
  • 6. 
    * Anterior portion of cranium * Most of anterior cranial fossa* Superior wall of orbits* Contains air-filled frontal sinusName bone?
  • 7. 
    What suture lies between parietal bones and frontal bone?
  • 8. 
    What suture lies between right and left parietal bones?
  • 9. 
    What suture lies between parietal and temporal bones on each side of skull?
  • 10. 
    * Most of skulls posterior wall and posterior cranial  fossa.* Articulates withe 1st vertebra* Sites of attachment for the ligamentum nuchae and many neck and back muscles  Name Bone?
  • 11. 
    * Inferolateral aspects of skull and parts of cranial floor* Four major regions:     *Squamous     * Tympanic     * Mastiod     * PetrousName Bone?
  • 12. 
      —  Complex, bat-shaped bone —  Keystone bone ◦       Articulates with all other cranial bones —  Three pairs of processes ◦       Greater wings ◦       Lesser wings ◦       Pterygoid processesName bone?
  • 13. 
    —  Deepest skull bone —  Superior part of nasal septum, roof of nasal cavities —  Contributes to medial wall of orbits  Name Bone?
  • 14. 
    —  Tiny irregularly shaped bones that appear within sutures
  • 15. 
    —  Mandible —  Maxillary bones (maxillae) (2) —  Zygomatic bones (2) —  Nasal bones (2) —  Lacrimal bones (2) —  Palatine bones (2) —  Vomer —  Inferior nasal conchae (2) What bone is this found?
  • 16. 
    —  Lower jaw —  Largest, strongest bone of face —  Temporomandibular joint: only freely movable joint in skullWhat bone is this found?
  • 17. 
    —  Medially fused to form upper jaw and central portion of facial skeleton —  Keystone bones ◦       Articulate with all other facial bones except mandibleName Bone?
  • 18. 
      —  Cheekbones —  Inferolateral margins of orbits Name Bone?
  • 19. 
       Form bridge of nose?
  • 20. 
      ◦       In medial walls of orbits ◦       Lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac Name Bone?
  • 21. 
    ◦       Posterior one-third of hard palate ◦       Posterolateral walls of the nasal cavity ◦       Small part of the orbits  Name Bone?
  • 22. 
    ◦       Plow shaped ◦       Lower part of nasal septumName Bone?
  • 23. 
    —  Form part of lateral walls of nasal cavity?
  • 24. 
    —  Not a bone of the skull —  Does not articulate directly with another bone —  Site of attachment for muscles of swallowing and speech  Name Bone?
  • 25. 
    —  Transmits weight of trunk to lower limbs —  Surrounds and protects spinal cord —  Flexible curved structure containing 26 irregular bones (vertebrae)Name Bone?
  • 26. 
    Bone inferior to the lumbar vertebrae?
  • 27. 
    Terminus of vertebral column?
  • 28. 
    What is the   Anterior weight-bearing region?
  • 29. 
    —  Composed of pedicles and laminae that, along with centrum, enclose vertebral foramen?
  • 30. 
    —  Together make up vertebral canal for spinal cord
  • 31. 
    Lateral openings between adjacent vertebrae for spinal nerves ?
  • 32. 
    ◦       No body or spinous process ◦       Consists of anterior and posterior arches, and two lateral masses ◦       Superior surfaces of lateral masses articulate with the occipital condyles Which Vertebrae?
  • 33. 
     ◦       Dens projects superiorly into the anterior arch of the atlas◦       Dens is a pivot for the rotation of the atlas Name Vertebrae?
  • 34. 
    ◦       All articulate with ribs at facets and demifacets ◦       Long spinous process ◦       Location of articular facets allows rotation of this area of spineName Vertebra?
  • 35. 
    ◦       Short, thick pedicles and laminae ◦       Flat hatchet-shaped spinous processes  ◦       Orientation of articular facets locks lumbar vertebrae together so as to prevent rotation  Name Vertebra?
  • 36. 
    ◦       5 fused vertebrae (S1–S5) ◦       Forms posterior wall of pelvis ◦       Articulates with L5 superiorly, and with auricular surfaces of the hip bones laterally Name Bone?  
  • 37. 
    ◦       Tailbone ◦       3–5 fused vertebrae ◦       Articulates superiorly with sacrumName Bone?
  • 38. 
    ◦       Composed of ◦        Thoracic vertebrae ◦        Sternum ◦        Ribs and their costal cartilages ◦       Functions ◦       Protects vital organs of thoracic cavity ◦       Supports shoulder girdle and upper limbs ◦       Provides attachment sites for many muscles, including intercostal muscles used during breathing
  • 39. 
    —  Three fused bones ◦       Manubrium –   Articulates with clavicles and ribs 1 and 2 ◦       Body –   Articulates with costal cartilages of ribs 2 through 7 ◦       Xiphoid process –   Site of muscle attachment –   Not ossified until ~ age 40Name Bone?
  • 40. 
    —  Bones of the limbs and their girdles ◦       Pectoral girdle attaches the upper limbs to the body trunk ◦       Pelvic girdle secures the lower limbs  
  • 41. 
    —  Clavicles and the scapulae ◦       Attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton ◦       Provide attachment sites for muscles that move the upper limbs  
  • 42. 
    —  Flattened acromial (lateral) end articulates with the scapula —  Cone-shaped sternal (medial) end articulates with the sternum —  Act as braces to hold the scapulae and arms out laterally  
  • 43. 
    —  Situated on the dorsal surface of rib cage, between ribs 2 and 7 —  Flat and triangular, with three borders and three angles —  Seven large fossae, named according to location  
  • 44. 
    —  Largest, longest bone of upper limb —  Articulates superiorly with glenoid cavity of scapula —  Articulates inferiorly with radius and ulna
  • 45. 
    —  Medial bone in forearm —  Forms the major portion of the elbow joint with the humerus
  • 46. 
    —  Lateral bone in forearm —  Head articulates with capitulum of humerus and with radial notch of ulna —  Interosseous membrane connects the radius and ulna along their entire length
  • 47. 
    —  Two hip bones (each also called coxal bone or os coxae) ◦       Attach the lower limbs to the axial skeleton with strong ligaments ◦       Transmit weight of upper body to lower limbs ◦       Support pelvic organs —  Each hip bone consists of three fused bones: ilium, ischium, and pubis —  Together with the sacrum and the coccyx, these bones form the bony pelvis
  • 48. 
    ◦       Adapted for childbearing ◦       True pelvis (inferior to pelvic brim) defines birth canal ◦       Cavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow, and has greater capacity  
  • 49. 
    ◦       Tilted less forward ◦       Adapted for support of male’s heavier build and stronger muscles ◦       Cavity of true pelvis is narrow and deep
  • 50. 
    —  Carries the weight of the body —  Subjected to exceptional forces —  Three segments of the lower limb ◦       Thigh: femur ◦       Leg: tibia and fibula ◦       Foot: 7 tarsal bones in the ankle, 5 metatarsal bones in the metatarsus, and 14 phalanges in the toes
  • 51. 
    ◦       Medial leg bone ◦       Receives the weight of the body from the femur and transmits it to the foot
  • 52. 
    ◦       Not weight bearing; no articulation with femur ◦       Site of muscle attachment ◦       Connected to tibia by interosseous membrane ◦       Articulates with tibia via proximal and distal tibiofibular joints