Human Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 7

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1.  The axial skeleton system contains how many bones?
2.  What are the 3 major regions of the Axial Skeleton?ABC order
3.  Name two sets of skull bones?
4.  What site provides attachment for the head and neck?Cranial or Facial Bones?
5.  Site of attachment for teeth and muscles?Cranial or facial?
6.  * Anterior portion of cranium * Most of anterior cranial fossa* Superior wall of orbits* Contains air-filled frontal sinusName bone?
7.  What suture lies between parietal bones and frontal bone?
8.  What suture lies between right and left parietal bones?
9.  What suture lies between parietal and temporal bones on each side of skull?
10.  * Most of skulls posterior wall and posterior cranial  fossa.* Articulates withe 1st vertebra* Sites of attachment for the ligamentum nuchae and many neck and back muscles  Name Bone?
11.  * Inferolateral aspects of skull and parts of cranial floor* Four major regions:     *Squamous     * Tympanic     * Mastiod     * PetrousName Bone?
12.    —  Complex, bat-shaped bone —  Keystone bone ◦       Articulates with all other cranial bones —  Three pairs of processes ◦       Greater wings ◦       Lesser wings ◦       Pterygoid processesName bone?
13.  —  Deepest skull bone —  Superior part of nasal septum, roof of nasal cavities —  Contributes to medial wall of orbits  Name Bone?
14.  —  Tiny irregularly shaped bones that appear within sutures
15.  —  Mandible —  Maxillary bones (maxillae) (2) —  Zygomatic bones (2) —  Nasal bones (2) —  Lacrimal bones (2) —  Palatine bones (2) —  Vomer —  Inferior nasal conchae (2) What bone is this found?
16.  —  Lower jaw —  Largest, strongest bone of face —  Temporomandibular joint: only freely movable joint in skullWhat bone is this found?
17.  —  Medially fused to form upper jaw and central portion of facial skeleton —  Keystone bones ◦       Articulate with all other facial bones except mandibleName Bone?
18.    —  Cheekbones —  Inferolateral margins of orbits Name Bone?
19.     Form bridge of nose?
20.    ◦       In medial walls of orbits ◦       Lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac Name Bone?
21.  ◦       Posterior one-third of hard palate ◦       Posterolateral walls of the nasal cavity ◦       Small part of the orbits  Name Bone?
22.  ◦       Plow shaped ◦       Lower part of nasal septumName Bone?
23.  —  Form part of lateral walls of nasal cavity?
24.  —  Not a bone of the skull —  Does not articulate directly with another bone —  Site of attachment for muscles of swallowing and speech  Name Bone?
25.  —  Transmits weight of trunk to lower limbs —  Surrounds and protects spinal cord —  Flexible curved structure containing 26 irregular bones (vertebrae)Name Bone?
26.  Bone inferior to the lumbar vertebrae?
27.  Terminus of vertebral column?
28.  What is the   Anterior weight-bearing region?
29.  —  Composed of pedicles and laminae that, along with centrum, enclose vertebral foramen?
30.  —  Together make up vertebral canal for spinal cord
31.  Lateral openings between adjacent vertebrae for spinal nerves ?
32.  ◦       No body or spinous process ◦       Consists of anterior and posterior arches, and two lateral masses ◦       Superior surfaces of lateral masses articulate with the occipital condyles Which Vertebrae?
33.   ◦       Dens projects superiorly into the anterior arch of the atlas◦       Dens is a pivot for the rotation of the atlas Name Vertebrae?
34.  ◦       All articulate with ribs at facets and demifacets ◦       Long spinous process ◦       Location of articular facets allows rotation of this area of spineName Vertebra?
35.  ◦       Short, thick pedicles and laminae ◦       Flat hatchet-shaped spinous processes  ◦       Orientation of articular facets locks lumbar vertebrae together so as to prevent rotation  Name Vertebra?
36.  ◦       5 fused vertebrae (S1–S5) ◦       Forms posterior wall of pelvis ◦       Articulates with L5 superiorly, and with auricular surfaces of the hip bones laterally Name Bone?  
37.  ◦       Tailbone ◦       3–5 fused vertebrae ◦       Articulates superiorly with sacrumName Bone?
38.  ◦       Composed of ◦        Thoracic vertebrae ◦        Sternum ◦        Ribs and their costal cartilages ◦       Functions ◦       Protects vital organs of thoracic cavity ◦       Supports shoulder girdle and upper limbs ◦       Provides attachment sites for many muscles, including intercostal muscles used during breathing
39.  —  Three fused bones ◦       Manubrium –   Articulates with clavicles and ribs 1 and 2 ◦       Body –   Articulates with costal cartilages of ribs 2 through 7 ◦       Xiphoid process –   Site of muscle attachment –   Not ossified until ~ age 40Name Bone?
40.  —  Bones of the limbs and their girdles ◦       Pectoral girdle attaches the upper limbs to the body trunk ◦       Pelvic girdle secures the lower limbs  
41.  —  Clavicles and the scapulae ◦       Attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton ◦       Provide attachment sites for muscles that move the upper limbs  
42.  —  Flattened acromial (lateral) end articulates with the scapula —  Cone-shaped sternal (medial) end articulates with the sternum —  Act as braces to hold the scapulae and arms out laterally  
43.  —  Situated on the dorsal surface of rib cage, between ribs 2 and 7 —  Flat and triangular, with three borders and three angles —  Seven large fossae, named according to location  
44.  —  Largest, longest bone of upper limb —  Articulates superiorly with glenoid cavity of scapula —  Articulates inferiorly with radius and ulna
45.  —  Medial bone in forearm —  Forms the major portion of the elbow joint with the humerus
46.  —  Lateral bone in forearm —  Head articulates with capitulum of humerus and with radial notch of ulna —  Interosseous membrane connects the radius and ulna along their entire length
47.  —  Two hip bones (each also called coxal bone or os coxae) ◦       Attach the lower limbs to the axial skeleton with strong ligaments ◦       Transmit weight of upper body to lower limbs ◦       Support pelvic organs —  Each hip bone consists of three fused bones: ilium, ischium, and pubis —  Together with the sacrum and the coccyx, these bones form the bony pelvis
48.  ◦       Adapted for childbearing ◦       True pelvis (inferior to pelvic brim) defines birth canal ◦       Cavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow, and has greater capacity  
49.  ◦       Tilted less forward ◦       Adapted for support of male’s heavier build and stronger muscles ◦       Cavity of true pelvis is narrow and deep
50.  —  Carries the weight of the body —  Subjected to exceptional forces —  Three segments of the lower limb ◦       Thigh: femur ◦       Leg: tibia and fibula ◦       Foot: 7 tarsal bones in the ankle, 5 metatarsal bones in the metatarsus, and 14 phalanges in the toes
51.  ◦       Medial leg bone ◦       Receives the weight of the body from the femur and transmits it to the foot
52.  ◦       Not weight bearing; no articulation with femur ◦       Site of muscle attachment ◦       Connected to tibia by interosseous membrane ◦       Articulates with tibia via proximal and distal tibiofibular joints
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