Chapter 20 Genes With Populations

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  • 1. 
    Natural selection as a mechanism of evolution that acts on variants within populations and ultimately  leads to the evolution of different species was proposed by
    • A. 

      Mendel

    • B. 

      Lyell.

    • C. 

      Malthus.

    • D. 

      Darwin.

    • E. 

      Founder.


  • 2. 
    Features that increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction by an organism in a particular  environment are called
    • A. 

      Genes.

    • B. 

      Fitness.

    • C. 

      Mutations.

    • D. 

      Adaptations.

    • E. 

      Selection.


  • 3. 
    The gene pool includes
    • A. 

      All of the fitness within a population.

    • B. 

      All of the individuals within a population

    • C. 

      All of the mutations within a population.

    • D. 

      All of the adaptations within a population.

    • E. 

      All of the alleles of genes within a population.


  • 4. 
    The founder principle explains how rare alleles may become more common in new
    • A. 

      Populations.

    • B. 

      Clines.

    • C. 

      Bottleneck areas.

    • D. 

      Migratory areas.

    • E. 

      Genomes.


  • 5. 
    A restriction in genetic variability caused by a drastic reduction in population size is called a
    • A. 

      Founder effect.

    • B. 

      Hardy-Weinberg effect.

    • C. 

      Bottleneck effect.

    • D. 

      Polymorphic effect.

    • E. 

      Adaptive effect.


  • 6. 
    The genetic contribution of an individual to succeeding generations, compared with that of other  individuals in the population, is known as
    • A. 

      Variation.

    • B. 

      Microevolution

    • C. 

      Macroevolution.

    • D. 

      Fitness.

    • E. 

      Adaptive makeup.


  • 7. 
    Darwin proposed that natural selection occurs in an environment by
    • A. 

      Favoring heritable features that make the organism better suited to survive and reproduce.

    • B. 

      Producing a constant number of offspring while in that environment.

    • C. 

      Surviving for a fixed amount of time.

    • D. 

      Resisting the environment and keeping the environment from changing

    • E. 

      Favoring those individuals with the most favorable acquired characteristics.


  • 8. 
    The Hardy-Weinberg equations only hold true, that is, a population is only in equilibrium
    • A. 

      When immigration in and out of the area are held constant.

    • B. 

      When changes only take place over long periods of time.

    • C. 

      When it includes episodes of extinction.

    • D. 

      When the population is designed to survive in new habitats.

    • E. 

      When all of the Hardy-Weinberg assumptions are met.


  • 9. 
    In the Hardy-Weinberg equations, the frequencies of 2 alleles in a population (where there are only 2  alleles to consider) can be designated as
    • A. 

      (p + q) 2 .

    • B. 

      P and q

    • C. 

      P 2 and q 2

    • D. 

      2pq

    • E. 

      1 - p and 1 - q.


  • 10. 
    "The inheritance of acquired characteristics" proposal was put forward by
    • A. 

      Darwin

    • B. 

      Lamarck.

    • C. 

      Wallace.

    • D. 

      Founder.

    • E. 

      Hardy-Weinberg.


  • 11. 
    The frequency of a particular allele within a population can be changed, over time, by
    • A. 

      Genetic outflow.

    • B. 

      Large population size.

    • C. 

      Selection.

    • D. 

      Inheritance of acquired characteristics.

    • E. 

      Random mating.


  • 12. 
    The genetic preservation of the features that increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction of  some individuals within a population is called the process of
    • A. 

      Natural selection.

    • B. 

      Creation of new species.

    • C. 

      Genetic drift.

    • D. 

      Outcrossing.

    • E. 

      Increasing evolutionary resistance.


  • 13. 
    A locus with more variation than can be explained by mutation is referred to as
    • A. 

      Dominant.

    • B. 

      Polynomial.

    • C. 

      Polymorphic.

    • D. 

      Heterozygous

    • E. 

      Somatic.


  • 14. 
    Hardy-Weinberg pointed out that the original proportions of the genotypes in a population would  remain constant from generation to generation if certain assumptions are met. Which one of the  following is not a Hardy-Weinberg condition?
    • A. 

      (p+q) 2 (p+q)^2

    • B. 

      2pq.

    • C. 

      Q^2

    • D. 

      P^2

    • E. 

      2Aa.


  • 15. 
    For a gene with two alternative alleles, a (frequency p) and a (frequency q), the term in the algebraic  form of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the heterozygote genotype frequency is
    • A. 

      P^2

    • B. 

      Q^2

    • C. 

      2pq

    • D. 

      (p+q)^2

    • E. 

      2Aa


  • 16. 
    Which one of the following is not an agent of natural evolutionary change?
    • A. 

      Mutation

    • B. 

      Migration

    • C. 

      Genetic drift

    • D. 

      Non-random mating

    • E. 

      Artificial selection


  • 17. 
    The phenomenon in which rare alleles become more common in new populations is called
    • A. 

      Founder effect.

    • B. 

      Gene flow

    • C. 

      Genetic drift.

    • D. 

      Mutation.


  • 18. 
    In small populations, frequencies of certain alleles may change by chance alone. Such random  change in the frequency of alleles is called
    • A. 

      Mutation.

    • B. 

      Migration.

    • C. 

      Genetic drift.

    • D. 

      Nonrandom mating.

    • E. 

      Selection.


  • 19. 
    The type of non-random mating that causes the frequencies of particular genotypes to differ greatly  from those predicted by the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is called
    • A. 

      Mutation.

    • B. 

      Migration.

    • C. 

      Genetic drift.

    • D. 

      Assortative mating

    • E. 

      Selection.


  • 20. 
    Sometimes a restriction in genetic variability is imposed on populations by natural catastrophes such  as flooding, earthquake, etc. The surviving individuals reflect only a small, random genetic sample  of the population affected. This process is termed
    • A. 

      Mutation.

    • B. 

      Migration.

    • C. 

      Genetic drift.

    • D. 

      Assortative mating.

    • E. 

      Bottleneck effect.


  • 21. 
    Gene flow, defined as the movement of genes from one population to another, can take place by  migration, as well as
    • A. 

      Mating with certain trait-containing individuals.

    • B. 

      Mating with dominant phenotypes.

    • C. 

      Hybridization between individuals of adjacent populations.

    • D. 

      Removing the barriers between the populations.

    • E. 

      Physical movement of genes within an individual by transposons.


  • 22. 
    In some populations the drive is to mate with individuals that are phenotypically different at a variety  of loci. This leads to large numbers of heterozygotes and is called
    • A. 

      Neutral theory

    • B. 

      Disassortative mating.

    • C. 

      Shifting balance theory

    • D. 

      Bottleneck effect.

    • E. 

      Founder effect.


  • 23. 
    Which one of the following is not an agent of evolutionary change?
    • A. 

      Mutation

    • B. 

      Gene flow

    • C. 

      Random mating

    • D. 

      Genetic drift

    • E. 

      Selection


  • 24. 
    About 80% of the alleles present in thoroughbred horses can be dated back to 31 known ancestors  from the late eighteenth century. As a result, one would expect
    • A. 

      Low rates of mutation.

    • B. 

      Many polymorphic alleles

    • C. 

      Little variation in physiology and behavior

    • D. 

      Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

    • E. 

      Random mating.


  • 25. 
    When selection acts to eliminate one extreme from an array of phenotypes it is called
    • A. 

      Natural selection.

    • B. 

      Stabilizing selection.

    • C. 

      Disruptive selection

    • D. 

      Directional selection.

    • E. 

      Artificial selection.


  • 26. 
    The total of all the alleles of all the genes in a population can be thought of as
    • A. 

      An allele mixture.

    • B. 

      A gene pool.

    • C. 

      A genetic melting pot.

    • D. 

      A genome.

    • E. 

      Variant genes.


  • 27. 
    Certain small towns in the western United States have remained isolated and inbred since their  settlement many years ago. Some alleles are more common in these communities as compared to the  rest of the population. This effect is known as
    • A. 

      Artificial selection

    • B. 

      Directional selection

    • C. 

      Disrupting selection.

    • D. 

      Hardy-Weinberg principle.

    • E. 

      Founder principle.


  • 28. 
    Cheetahs have been through a genetic bottleneck; evidence for this is that
    • A. 

      Little natural selection occurs in this species.

    • B. 

      The body is long, thin, and graceful.

    • C. 

      There is very little genetic variability

    • D. 

      These cats are members of an endangered species.

    • E. 

      They originally came from small areas of Africa.


  • 29. 
    Compared with Hardy-Weinberg predictions, populations that have practiced assortative mating  have  
    • A. 

      Fewer homozygotes.

    • B. 

      Less natural selection

    • C. 

      More heterozygotes

    • D. 

      More homozygotes.

    • E. 

      More mutations.


  • 30. 
    The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium conditions for populations of organisms result in
    • A. 

      Polymorphic alleles.

    • B. 

      Assortive mating.

    • C. 

      Natural selection.

    • D. 

      Maintenance of recessive alleles in the gene pool.

    • E. 

      No evolutionary changes.


  • 31. 
    In negative frequency-dependent selection, such as in the study done on the water boatman insect,  the incidence of predation leads to an
    • A. 

      Elimination of a rare genotype.

    • B. 

      Even distribution of genotype frequencies.

    • C. 

      Increase in a rare genotype.

    • D. 

      Increase in variation within the population.

    • E. 

      Increase in a rare genotype and an increase in variation within the population.


  • 32. 
    In some instances environmental change causes a situation where one phenotype is favored for a  period of time, and then a different phenotype is favored. This oscillating selection causes
    • A. 

      The maintenance of genetic variation in the population.

    • B. 

      Elimination of rarer genotypes because of uneven selection.

    • C. 

      An increase in point mutations.

    • D. 

      High population increase to maintain phenotypic variation.

    • E. 

      Extinction of the population.


  • 33. 
    . The text discusses sickle-cell anemia, which is a classic example of
    • A. 

      Founder effect.

    • B. 

      Genetic bottleneck.

    • C. 

      Point mutation

    • D. 

      Heterozygote advantage.

    • E. 

      Heterozygosity.


  • 34. 
    In disruptive selection, over time
    • A. 

      A population goes extinct.

    • B. 

      The most extreme outliers of a population are eliminated (e.g., the largest beaks and smallest beaks are eliminated).

    • C. 

      The population is strongly selected for in one direction (e.g., larger beak size).

    • D. 

      The population is strongly selected for in two directions (e.g., larger beak size and smaller beak size).

    • E. 

      A population increases its variation (e.g., a wide selection of all beak sizes).


  • 35. 
    . In directional selection, over time
    • A. 

      A population goes extinct.

    • B. 

      The most extreme outliers of a population are eliminated (e.g., the largest beaks and smallest beaks are eliminated).

    • C. 

      The population is strongly selected for in one direction (e.g., larger beak size).

    • D. 

      The population is strongly selected for in two directions (e.g., larger beak size and smaller beak size).

    • E. 

      A population increases its variation (e.g., a wide selection of all beak sizes).


  • 36. 
    Which of the following would be expected to produce the smallest evolutionary change in a given  period of time in a population of birds?
    • A. 

      Mutation

    • B. 

      Natural selection

    • C. 

      Migration

    • D. 

      Assortive mating

    • E. 

      Gene flow


  • 37. 
    Which one of the following could not be involved in gene flow?
    • A. 

      Wind-blown pollen

    • B. 

      Gametes dispersed by ocean currents

    • C. 

      Zygotes dispersed by ocean currents

    • D. 

      Disassortive mating within a population

    • E. 

      Hybridization between neighboring populations


  • 38. 
    Assortive and disassortive mating are similar in that both
    • A. 

      Change only the expected Hardy-Weinberg allele frequencies in a population

    • B. 

      Change only the expected Hardy-Weinberg genotype frequencies in a population.

    • C. 

      Change both the expected Hardy-Weinberg allele and genotype frequencies in a population

    • D. 

      Are kinds of selection pressure.

    • E. 

      Are examples of random mating


  • 39. 
    The California populations of the Northern elephant seal are descendants from a very small  population of seals that was over-hunted in the 1890s. Heterozygosity in this population would be  expected to be ________ due to ________________.
    • A. 

      Slight; a bottleneck effect

    • B. 

      Slight; the founder effect

    • C. 

      Great; disruptive selection

    • D. 

      Great; a bottleneck effect

    • E. 

      Great; assortive mating


  • 40. 
    Which of the following statements about the laboratory and field studies on evolution of protective  coloration in the guppy (as described in the textbook) is false?
    • A. 

      Pike cichlids are only found below waterfalls.

    • B. 

      Guppies transferred to pools above waterfalls remained drab if killifish were present there.

    • C. 

      Guppy predation was greater in pools below waterfalls than above waterfalls.

    • D. 

      Killifish can be found both above and below waterfalls.

    • E. 

      Substantial evolutionary changes in guppy populations can occur in as few as several years.


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