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Chapter 14: DNA: The Genetic Material

40 Questions
DNA Quizzes & Trivia
Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    DNA consists of two antiparallel strands of nucleotide chains held together by
    • A. 

      Peptide bonds.

    • B. 

      Polar covalent bonds.

    • C. 

      Ionic bonds.

    • D. 

      Hydrogen bonds.

    • E. 

      Complementary base pairing bonds.

  • 2. 
    The method of DNA replication, where each original strand is used as a template to build a new strand, is called the
    • A. 

      Conservative method.

    • B. 

      Semiconservative method.

    • C. 

      Disruptive method.

    • D. 

      Continuous method.

    • E. 

      Replication and amplification method.

  • 3. 
    The enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of new DNA molecules is called
    • A. 

      DNA ligase.

    • B. 

      DNA polymerase.

    • C. 

      DNA gyrase.

    • D. 

      DNA helicase.

    • E. 

      DNA endonuclease.

  • 4. 
    Griffith worked with
    • A. 

      Bacteriophage.

    • B. 

      Drosophila.

    • C. 

      Frog eggs.

    • D. 

      Streptococcus.

  • 5. 
    When nonvirulent bacteria were mixed with dead virulent bacteria, Griffith unexpectedly found that the injected mice died. He explained this behavior by suggesting the nonvirulent strain of bacteria as being
    • A. 

      Activated.

    • B. 

      Transformed.

    • C. 

      Translated.

    • D. 

      Transcribed.

    • E. 

      Expressed.

  • 6. 
    Avery and his coworkers showed the "transforming principle" as
    • A. 

      Protein.

    • B. 

      Polysaccharide.

    • C. 

      DNA.

    • D. 

      RNA.

    • E. 

      Lipid.

  • 7. 
    Which of the following statements about the Hershey-Chase experiment is false?
    • A. 

      DNA was labeled with radioactive phosphorus.

    • B. 

      Protein was labeled with radioactive sulfur.

    • C. 

      The virus-infected bacteria showed radioactive phosphorus.

    • D. 

      The virus-infected bacteria contained radioactive sulfur.

  • 8. 
    Hershey-Chase concluded from their experiment with T2 bacteriophage that
    • A. 

      Proteins are the genetic material.

    • B. 

      Polysaccharide coat contains the genetic material.

    • C. 

      DNA is the genetic material.

    • D. 

      Viruses are needed for DNA to function.

    • E. 

      DNA contains sulfur.

  • 9. 
    A bacteriophage typically attaches to the bacterium and then
    • A. 

      Converts the bacteria into immortal cells.

    • B. 

      Injects its nucleic acid into it, and then the ghost virus stays outside.

    • C. 

      Falls off every time.

    • D. 

      Viral protein is injected and the viral DNA stays outside.

    • E. 

      It becomes inactive.

  • 10. 
    DNA primase
    • A. 

      Creates a short RNA primer complementary to the RNA template.

    • B. 

      Creates a short DNA primer complementary to the RNA template.

    • C. 

      Creates a short DNA primer complementary to the DNA template.

    • D. 

      Creates a short template of an RNA primer that is complementary to the DNA primer.

    • E. 

      Creates a short RNA primer complementary to the DNA template.

  • 11. 
    An enzyme unwind DNA helical structure is
    • A. 

      DNA polymerase.

    • B. 

      DNA ligase.

    • C. 

      Helicase.

    • D. 

      DNA endonuclease.

    • E. 

      DNA exonuclease.

  • 12. 
    Which of the following is not a component of nucleic acids?
    • A. 

      Organic nitrogen bases

    • B. 

      Sugar

    • C. 

      Phosphate

    • D. 

      Protein

  • 13. 
    The reading of the bases along the length of a nucleic acid molecule for either transcription or translation is done from the
    • A. 

      1' end.

    • B. 

      2' end.

    • C. 

      3' end.

    • D. 

      4' end.

    • E. 

      5' end.

  • 14. 
    The chemical bond connecting one nucleotide with the next one along the nucleic acid chain is called a
    • A. 

      C = C bond.

    • B. 

      Hydrogen bond.

    • C. 

      Hydrophobic bond.

    • D. 

      Phosphodiester bond.

    • E. 

      Peptide bond.

  • 15. 
    Chargaff's rules for the pairing of nitrogen bases is
    • A. 

      A = C and G = T.

    • B. 

      A pairs with T and G pairs with C.

    • C. 

      A pairs with G and C pairs with T.

    • D. 

      A pairs with C and G pairs with T.

    • E. 

      T = C and G = A.

  • 16. 
    Information obtained by Franklin from X-ray crystallography on DNA suggested that it is a
    • A. 

      Helix.

    • B. 

      Ribbon.

    • C. 

      Hollow cylinder.

    • D. 

      Pleated sheet.

    • E. 

      Icosahedron.

  • 17. 
    The chemical bonds that stabilize the complimentary nitrogen bases into a double helix are
    • A. 

      Nitrogen bonds.

    • B. 

      Hydrogen bonds.

    • C. 

      Hydrophobic bonds.

    • D. 

      Peptide bonds.

    • E. 

      Phosphodiester bonds.

  • 18. 
    The two strands in the DNA molecule contain nitrogen bases which are
    • A. 

      Identical.

    • B. 

      Parallel.

    • C. 

      Complementary.

    • D. 

      The same in all species.

    • E. 

      Exact copies of the protein they make.

  • 19. 
    Replication of DNA is
    • A. 

      Conservative.

    • B. 

      Redundant.

    • C. 

      Dispersive.

    • D. 

      Semiconservative.

    • E. 

      Semidispersive.

  • 20. 
    DNA polymerase requires a(n)
    • A. 

      Amino acid primer.

    • B. 

      Lipid primer.

    • C. 

      Hydrophilic primer.

    • D. 

      DNA primer.

    • E. 

      RNA primer.

  • 21. 
    The lagging strand is replicated with stretches of Okazaki fragments and that is why its synthesis is considered to be
    • A. 

      Discontinuous.

    • B. 

      Continuous.

    • C. 

      Primed.

    • D. 

      Never stopping.

    • E. 

      Semiconservative.

  • 22. 
    Replication always proceeds by adding new bases to the
    • A. 

      1' end.

    • B. 

      2' end.

    • C. 

      3' end.

    • D. 

      4' end.

    • E. 

      5' end.

  • 23. 
    Which of the following statements about replication of DNA is false?
    • A. 

      The two strands are separated.

    • B. 

      Each strand is used as a template for making a new duplex.

    • C. 

      The synthesis on each strand is in the opposite direction.

    • D. 

      The newly synthesized DNA is packaged into one nucleus, and the old DNA is packaged into another nucleus.

  • 24. 
    The double helix model was proposed by
    • A. 

      Watson and Crick.

    • B. 

      Griffith.

    • C. 

      Avery.

    • D. 

      Franklin.

    • E. 

      Beadle and Tatum.

  • 25. 
    Griffith, a British microbiologist, used a bacteria and mice to demonstrate transformation. His results clearly offered evidence for that process. Transformation is
    • A. 

      The ability for bacterial homologous chromosomes to transform themselves into an exact copy, sometimes referred to as DNA replication.

    • B. 

      The ability of the nucleus of a cell to regenerate and repair itself when damaged by bacterial infections.

    • C. 

      The ability of the infected mice to transform the bacteria from pathogenic to non-pathogenic during the experiments.

    • D. 

      The ability to transfer genetic materials from one cell to another.

    • E. 

      The ability for the nucleus of a bacterial cell to bypass the process of DNA replication by transforming into a spore during unsuitable environmental conditions.

  • 26. 
    In 1952, Hershey and Chase confirmed Avery's (1944) results that
    • A. 

      Proteins were the repositories for hereditary information.

    • B. 

      DNA was the repository for hereditary information.

    • C. 

      RNA was the repository for hereditary information.

    • D. 

      Proteins and DNA were the repositories for hereditary information.

    • E. 

      Transformation in bacterial cells induced changes in the host's somatic cells.

  • 27. 
    Fourteen percent of the DNA nucleotides from a certain organism contain T. What amounts of the other bases would you expect to be present in this particular DNA?
    • A. 

      14 % A, 0% C, 36 % G

    • B. 

      14 % A, 36 % C, 14 % G

    • C. 

      14 % A, 36 % C, 36 % G

    • D. 

      14 % T, 38 % C, 36 % G

    • E. 

      14 % T, 36 % C, 36 % U

  • 28. 
    If a short sequence of DNA is AATTGCCGT, its complement is
    • A. 

      AAAACGCCA.

    • B. 

      TTAACGGCT.

    • C. 

      TTAACGGCA.

    • D. 

      TTAAGCCGA.

  • 29. 
    When DNA is replicated during S of the cell cycle, the sequence is maintained but the double strand is not. Each strand of the original double strand accompanies its new complement strand. This process is known as the
    • A. 

      Disruptive DNA replication.

    • B. 

      Conservative DNA replication.

    • C. 

      Semiconservative DNA replication.

    • D. 

      Dispersive DNA replication.

    • E. 

      Stabilizing DNA replication.

  • 30. 
    A scientist developed a procedure that would cause a particular chemical to bind with the nitrogen base adenine. If this chemical were applied prior to S in the cell cycle, what might be a logical prediction of the outcome?
    • A. 

      The DNA replication would proceed except that all adenine would have the chemical bound to it and is incorporated into the new sister chromatids.

    • B. 

      The DNA replication would proceed except that everywhere an adenine was supposed to be, a thymine was substituted into the new developing strand.

    • C. 

      The DNA replication would proceed except cytosine and guanine would continue to form base pairs.

    • D. 

      The DNA replication would stop because if adenine were bound then thymine would not have a complement with which to base pair.

  • 31. 
    The site of the opening of the DNA strands where active replication occurs is referred to as the
    • A. 

      Replication folk.

    • B. 

      Replisome.

    • C. 

      Primosome.

    • D. 

      DNA pol III complex of two enzymes.

    • E. 

      Sliding clamp subunit.

  • 32. 
    Which of the following DNA replicating enzymes is responsible for unwinding the double helix of DNA?
    • A. 

      DNA primase

    • B. 

      DNA polymerase I

    • C. 

      DNA helicase

    • D. 

      DNA gyrase

    • E. 

      DNA ligase

  • 33. 
    Which of the following choices is the correct sequence for DNA replication in E. coli?
    • A. 

      Initiation, termination, elongation

    • B. 

      Initiation, elongation, termination

    • C. 

      Elongation, termination, initiation

    • D. 

      Elongation, initiation, termination

  • 34. 
    DNA pol III synthesizes the leading strand as a continuous strand. The lagging strands are synthesized in segments, called
    • A. 

      Parental DNA.

    • B. 

      Chargaff's segments.

    • C. 

      Repeating primers.

    • D. 

      Replisomes.

    • E. 

      Okazaki fragments.

  • 35. 
    The structure of DNA is a double helix with two polynucleotide chains running in opposite directions and held together by hydrogen bonding between pairs of bases.
    • A. 

      Hershey and Chase

    • B. 

      Chargaff

    • C. 

      Franklin

    • D. 

      Watson and Crick

  • 36. 
    When injected into a bacterial cell by T2 virus particles, the material that specifies the new generation of viruses is DNA and not protein.
    • A. 

      Hershey and Chase

    • B. 

      Chargaff

    • C. 

      Franklin

    • D. 

      Watson and Crick

  • 37. 
    X-ray crystallography of purified DNA fibers shows a pattern that suggests a helical structure, and provides dimensions of that structure.
    • A. 

      Hershey and Chase

    • B. 

      Chargaff

    • C. 

      Franklin

    • D. 

      Watson and Crick

  • 38. 
    DNA always contain amounts of the four bases, A, G, C, and T, characteristic of the species, but A = T and G = C, and purines equals pyrimidines.
    • A. 

      Hershey and Chase

    • B. 

      Chargaff

    • C. 

      Franklin

    • D. 

      Watson and Crick

  • 39. 
    The DNA double helix is similar to a twisted ladder. What makes up the sides holding the rungs together?
    • A. 

      Phosphate groups only

    • B. 

      Alternation units of phosphlate groups and sugars

    • C. 

      Sugars only

    • D. 

      Purines and pyrimidines

  • 40. 
    Which of the following DNA sequences is complementary to 5' ATGGTCAGT 3'?
    • A. 

      5' ATGGTCAGT 3'

    • B. 

      5' TGACTGGTA 3'

    • C. 

      3' TACCAGTCA 3'

    • D. 

      3' ACTGACCAT 3'