Cellular Biology Test 1

44 Questions  I  By Ekanye
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  • 1. 
    Mitotic chromosomes were first visualized in the 1880s with the use of very simple tools: a basic light microscope and some dyes. Which of the following characteristics of mitotic chromosomes reflects how they were named? 
    • A. 

      Motion

    • B. 

      Color

    • C. 

      Shape

    • D. 

      Location

    • E. 

      Length


  • 2. 
    Which of the following chemical groups is not used to construct a DNA molecule? (two answers) 
    • A. 

      Five-carbon sugar

    • B. 

      Phosphate

    • C. 

      Nitrogen-containing base

    • D. 

      Six-carbon sugar

    • E. 

      Cyclic AMP


  • 3. 
    All functional DNA sequences inside a cell code for protein products. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 4. 
    Gene sequences correspond exactly to the respective protein sequences produced from them.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 5. 
    The human genome has enough DNA to stretch more than 2m. However, this DNA is not contained in a single molecule; it is divided into linear segments and packaged into structures called chromosomes. What is the total number of chromosomes found in each of the somatic cells in your body? 
    • A. 

      22

    • B. 

      23

    • C. 

      44

    • D. 

      46

    • E. 

      48


  • 6. 
    The process of sorting human chromosomes pair by size and morphology is called karyotyping. A modern method employed for kayotyping is called chromosome painting. How were individuals chromosomes shown in a figure in the textbook "painted" as different colors? 
    • A. 

      With a laser

    • B. 

      Using flurorescent antibodies

    • C. 

      Using fluorescent DNA molecules

    • D. 

      Using green fluorescent protein

    • E. 

      By using Photoshop software


  • 7. 
    Chromosomes exist at different levels of condensation, depending on the stage of the cell cycle. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 8. 
    Eucaryotic chromosomes contain many different sites where DNA replication can be initiated.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 9. 
    Interphase chromosomes are about _________ times less compact than mitotic chromsomes, but still are about _____ times more compact than a DNA molecule in its extended form. 
    • A. 

      10; 1000

    • B. 

      20:500

    • C. 

      5; 2000

    • D. 

      50: 200

    • E. 

      200: 50


  • 10. 
    A nucleosome contains two molecules each of histones__________ as well as of histones H3 and H4. 
    • A. 

      H1 and H2A

    • B. 

      H2A and H2B

    • C. 

      H1 and H2B

    • D. 

      H1

    • E. 

      H2A


  • 11. 
    Nucleosomes are formed when DNA wraps_____ times aroudn the histone ocatamer in a  _________ coil 
    • A. 

      2.0: right-handed

    • B. 

      2.5 left-handed

    • C. 

      1.7 left-handed

    • D. 

      1.3; right-handed

    • E. 

      5.2; left-handed


  • 12. 
    The core histones are small, basic proteins that have a globular domain at the C-terminus and a long extended conformation at the N-terminus. Which of the following is not true of the N terminal "tail" of these histones? 
    • A. 

      It is subject to a covalent modifications

    • B. 

      It extends out of the nucleosome core

    • C. 

      It binds to DNA in a sequence-specific manner

    • D. 

      It helps DNA pack tightly

    • E. 

      It contains lysine residues


  • 13. 
    The N-terminal tail of histone H3 can be extensively modified, and depending on the number, location, and combination of these modifications, these changes may promote the formation of heterochromatin. What is the result of heterochromatin formation? 
    • A. 

      Increase in gene expression

    • B. 

      Gene silencing

    • C. 

      Recruitment of remodeling complexes

    • D. 

      Displacement of histone H1

    • E. 

      Strengthens the nuclear envelope


  • 14. 
    There are five differnt nucleotides that become incorporated into a DNA strand. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 15. 
    DNA replication is considered semiconservative because_______________
    • A. 

      After many rounds of DNA replication, the original DNA double helix is still intact

    • B. 

      Each daughter DNA molecule consists of two new strands copied from the parent DNA molecule

    • C. 

      Each daughter DNA molecule consists of one strand from the parent DNA molecule and one new strand

    • D. 

      New DNA strands must be copied from a DNA template

    • E. 

      None of the above (are) correct


  • 16. 
    How does the total number of replication origins, in bacterial cells compare with thenumber of origins in human cells? 
    • A. 

      1 versus 100

    • B. 

      5 versus 500

    • C. 

      10 versus 1000

    • D. 

      1 versus 10,000


  • 17. 
    Which of the following statements about the newly synthesized strand of human chromosome is true? 
    • A. 

      It was synthesized from a single origion solely by continous DNA synthesis.

    • B. 

      It was synthesized from a single origin by a mixture of continuous and discontinuous DNA synthesis.

    • C. 

      It was synthesized from multiple origins solely by discontinuous DNA synthesis

    • D. 

      It was synthesized from multiple origins by a mixture of continuous and discontinuous DNA synthesis.

    • E. 

      It was synthesized by the use of ATP hydrolysis only.


  • 18. 
    A molecule of bacterial DNA introduced into a yest cell is imported into thenucleus but fails to replicate the yeast DNA. Where do you think the block to replication arises? Choose the protein or protein complex below that is most probably responsible for the failure to replicate bacterial DNA. 
    • A. 

      Primase

    • B. 

      Helicase

    • C. 

      DNA polymerase

    • D. 

      Initiator proteins

    • E. 

      A, B, and C


  • 19. 
    Primase is needed to initiate DNA replication on both the leading strand and the lagging strand. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 20. 
    Primase requires a proofreading function that ensures there are no errors in the RNA primers used for DNA replication. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 21. 
    Because all DNA polymerases synthesize DNA in the 5'-to-3' direction, and the parental strands are antiparallel, DNA replication is accomplished with the use of two mechanisms: continuous and discontinuous replication. Indicate whether the following items relate to continuous replication. 
    • A. 

      Primase

    • B. 

      Single-strand binding protein

    • C. 

      Sliding clamp

    • D. 

      RNA primers

    • E. 

      Leading strand


  • 22. 
    Because all DNA polymerases synthesize DNA in the 5'-to-3' direction, and the parental strands are antiparallel, DNA replication is accomplisehd with the use of two mechanisms: continuous and discontinuous replication. Indicate whether the following items relate to continuous replication.  
    • A. 

      Primase

    • B. 

      Single-strand binding protein

    • C. 

      Sliding clamp

    • D. 

      RNA primers

    • E. 

      Leading strand


  • 23. 
    Because all DNA polymerases synthesize DNA in the 5'-to-3' direction, and the parental strands are antiparallel, DNA replication is accomplished with the use of two mechanisms: continuous and discontinuous replication. Indicate whether the following items relate to discontinuous replication. 
    • A. 

      Primase

    • B. 

      Single-strand binding protein

    • C. 

      Sliding clamp

    • D. 

      RNA primers

    • E. 

      Leading strand


  • 24. 
    Because all DNA polyermases synthesize DNA in the 5'-to-3' direction, and the parental strands are antiparallel, DNA replication is accomplished with the use of two mechanisms: continuous and discontinuous replication. Indicate whether the following items relate to both continuous replication and discontinuous replication. (pick more than 1) 
    • A. 

      Primase

    • B. 

      Single-stranded protein

    • C. 

      Sliding clamp

    • D. 

      RNA primers

    • E. 

      Leading strand


  • 25. 
    The repair of mismatched base pairs or damaged nucleotides in a DNA strand requires a multistep process. Which choice below describes the known sequences of events in this process? 
    • A. 

      DNA damage is recognized, the newly synthesized strand is identified by an existing nick in the backbone, a segment of the new strand is removed by repair proteins, the gap is filled by DNA polymerase, and the strand is sealed by DNA ligase.

    • B. 

      DNA repair polymerase simultaneously removes bases ahead of it and polymerizes the correct sequence behind it as it moves along the template. DNA ligase seals the nicks in the repaired strand.

    • C. 

      DNA damage is recognized, the newly synthesized strand is identified by an existing nick in the backbone, a segment of the new strand is removed by an exonuclease, and the gap is repaired by DNA ligase.

    • D. 

      A nick in the DNA is recognized, DNA repair proteins switch out the wrong base and insert the correct base, and DNA ligase seals the nick.

    • E. 

      RNA polymerase simultaneously removes bases ahead of it and polymerizes the correct sequence behind it as it moves along the template. DNA ligase seals the nicks in the repaired strand.


  • 26. 
    Sometimes chemical damage to DNA can occur just before DNA replication begins, not giving the repair system enough time to correct the error before the DNA is duplicated. This gives rise to mutation. If the cytosine in the sequence TCAT is deaminated and not repaired, which of the following is the point mutation you would observe after this segment has undergone two rounds of DNA replication? 
    • A. 

      TTAT

    • B. 

      TUAT

    • C. 

      TGAT

    • D. 

      TAAT

    • E. 

      ATTA


  • 27. 
    Ionizing radiation and oxidative damage can cause DNA double-strand breaks. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 28. 
    Several members of the same family were diagnosed with he same kind of cancer when they were unusually young. Which one of the following is the most likely explanation for this phenomenon? It is possible that the individuals with the cancer have ___________. 
    • A. 

      Inherited a cancer-causing gene that suffered a mutation in an ancestor's somatic cells

    • B. 

      Inherited a mutation in a gene required for DNA synthesis

    • C. 

      Inherited a mutation in a gene required for mismatch repair

    • D. 

      Inherited a mutation in a gene required for the synthesis of purine nucleotides

    • E. 

      Inherited a mutation in a gene required for the synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides


  • 29. 
    In addition to the repair of DNA double-strand breaks, homologous recombination is a mechanism for generating genetic diversity by swapping segments of parental chromosomes. During which process does swapping occur? 
    • A. 

      DNA replication

    • B. 

      DNA repair

    • C. 

      Meiosis

    • D. 

      Transposition

    • E. 

      Cytokinesis


  • 30. 
    Transcription is similar to DNA replication in that _____________
    • A. 

      An RNA transcript is synthesized discontinuously and the pieces are then joined together.

    • B. 

      It uses the same enzyme as that used to synthesize RNA primers during DNA replication

    • C. 

      The newly synthesized RNA remains paired to the template DNA

    • D. 

      Nucleotide polymerization occurs only in the 5'-to-3' direction

    • E. 

      Its products are always double stranded


  • 31. 
    For a cell’s genetic material to be used, the information is first copied from the DNA intothe nucleotide sequence of RNA in a process called 1__________________. Variouskinds of RNA are produced, each with different functions. 2__________________molecules code for proteins,3 __________________ molecules act as adaptors forprotein synthesis,4 __________________ molecules are integral components of theribosome, and5 __________________ molecules are important in the splicing of RNAtranscriptsFill in the blank for # 1 
    • A. 

      RRNA

    • B. 

      MRNA

    • C. 

      SnRNA

    • D. 

      TRNA

    • E. 

      Transcription


  • 32. 
    For a cell’s genetic material to be used, the information is first copied from the DNA into the nucleotide sequence of RNA in a process called 1__________________. Various kinds of RNA are produced, each with different functions. 2__________________ molecules code for proteins,3 __________________ molecules act as adaptors for protein synthesis,4 __________________ molecules are integral components of theribosome, and5 __________________ molecules are important in the splicing of RNA transcripts.Fill in #2 
    • A. 

      RRNA

    • B. 

      MRNA

    • C. 

      SnRNA

    • D. 

      TRNA

    • E. 

      Transcription


  • 33. 
    For a cell’s genetic material to be used, the information is first copied from the DNA into the nucleotide sequence of RNA in a process called 1__________________. Various kinds of RNA are produced, each with different functions. 2__________________ molecules code for proteins,3 __________________ molecules act as adaptors for protein synthesis,4 __________________ molecules are integral components of the ribosome, and 5 __________________ molecules are important in the splicing of RNAtranscripts.Fill in #3 
    • A. 

      RRNA

    • B. 

      MRNA

    • C. 

      SnRNA

    • D. 

      TRNA

    • E. 

      Transcription


  • 34. 
    For a cell’s genetic material to be used, the information is first copied from the DNA into the nucleotide sequence of RNA in a process called 1__________________. Various kinds of RNA are produced, each with different functions. 2__________________ molecules code for proteins,3 __________________ molecules act as adaptors for protein synthesis,4 __________________ molecules are integral components of the ribosome, and5 __________________ molecules are important in the splicing of RNAtranscripts.Fill in #4
    • A. 

      RRNA

    • B. 

      MRNA

    • C. 

      SnRNA

    • D. 

      TRNA

    • E. 

      Transcription


  • 35. 
    For a cell’s genetic material to be used, the information is first copied from the DNA into the nucleotide sequence of RNA in a process called 1__________________. Various kinds of RNA are produced, each with different functions. 2__________________ molecules code for proteins,3 __________________ molecules act as adaptors for protein synthesis,4 __________________ molecules are integral components of the ribosome, and5 __________________ molecules are important in the splicing of RNAtranscripts.Fill in #5
    • A. 

      RRNA

    • B. 

      MRNA

    • C. 

      SnRNA

    • D. 

      TRNA

    • E. 

      Transcription


  • 36. 
    Select the ways in which the process of eucaryotic transcription differs from the process of bacterial transcription. (check all that apply) 
    • A. 

      Bacterial cells contain a single RNA polymerase, eucaryotic have three

    • B. 

      Bacteria RNA can initiate transcription with help of additional proteins, whereas eucaryotic RNA polymerase need general transcription factors.

    • C. 

      In eucaryotic celsl transcription regulators can influence transcriptional initiation thousands of nucleotide away from the promoter, whereas bacterial regulatory sequence are very close to the promoter

    • D. 

      Eucaryotic transcription is affected by chromatin structure and nucleosomes where as bacterial lack nucleosomes.

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 37. 
    You have a segment of DNA that contains the following sequence:5′-GGACTAGACAATAGGGACCTAGAGATTCCGAAA-3′3′-CCTGATCTGTTATCCCTGGATCTCTAAGGCTTT-5′If you know that the RNA transcribed from this segment contains the following sequence:5′-GGACUAGACAAUAGGGACCUAGAGAUUCCGAAA–3′Which of the following choices best describes how transcription occurs?
    • A. 

      The top strand is the template strand; RNA polymerase moves along this strand from 5' to 3'.

    • B. 

      The top strand is the template strand; RNA polymerase moves along this strand from 3' to 5'.

    • C. 

      The bottom strand is the template strand; RNA polymerase moves along this strand from 5' to 3'.

    • D. 

      The bottom strand is the template strand; RNA polymerase moves along this strand from 3' to 5'

    • E. 

      Both the top and the bottom strands could be used as the template.


  • 38. 
    Total nucleic acids are extracted from a culture of yeast cells and are then mixed with resin beads towhich the polynucleotide 5′-TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT-3′ has been covalently attached. After ashort incubation, the beads are then extracted from the mixture. When you analyze the cellular nucleicacids that have stuck to the beads, which of the following is most abundant?
    • A. 

      DNA

    • B. 

      TRNA

    • C. 

      RRNA

    • D. 

      MRNA

    • E. 

      TRNA, rRNA and mRNAs are all abundant


  • 39. 
    Name covalent modificiations that can be made to an RNA molecule in eucaryotic cells before the RNA molecules becomes a mature mRNA. 
    • A. 

      A poly A tail is added

    • B. 

      A 5' cap is added

    • C. 

      Introns can be spliced out

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 40. 
    Which of the following statements about the genetic code is correct? 
    • A. 

      All codons specify more than one amino acid

    • B. 

      The genetic code is redundant

    • C. 

      All amino acids are specified by more than one codon

    • D. 

      All codons specify an amino acid

    • E. 

      Codons encode for 21 different amino acids.


  • 41. 
    The piece of RNA below includes the region that codes the binding site for the initiator tRNA needed intranslation.5′-GUUUCCCGUAUACAUGCGUGCCGGGGGC-3′Which amino acid will be on the tRNA that is the first to bind to the A-site of the ribosome?
    • A. 

      Methionine

    • B. 

      Arginine

    • C. 

      Cystine

    • D. 

      Valine

    • E. 

      Leucine


  • 42. 
    Which amino acid would you expect a tRNA with the anticodon 5′-CUU-3′ to carry?
    • A. 

      Lysine

    • B. 

      Glutamic acid

    • C. 

      Leucine

    • D. 

      Phenylalanine

    • E. 

      Valine


  • 43. 
    Below is the sequence from the 3′ end of an mRNA.5′-CCGUUACCAGGCCUCAUUAUUGGUAACGGAAAAAAAAAAAAAA-3′If you were told that this sequence contains the stop codon for the protein encoded by this mRNA, whatis the anticodon on the tRNA in the P-site of the ribosome when release factor binds to the A-site?
    • A. 

      5'-CCA-3'

    • B. 

      5'-CCG-3'

    • C. 

      5'-UGG-3'

    • D. 

      5'-UUA-3'

    • E. 

      Not enough information to determine the correct answer


  • 44. 
    Which of the following statements about the proteasome is false? 
    • A. 

      Ubiquitin is a small protein that is covalently attached to proteins to mark them for delivery to the proteasome

    • B. 

      Proteases reside in the central cylinder of a proteasome

    • C. 

      Misfolded protein are delivered to the proteasome, where theya re sequestered form the cytoplasm and can attempt to refold.

    • D. 

      The protein stoppoers that surround the central cylinder of the proteasome use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to move proteins into the proteasome inner chamber.

    • E. 

      Proteases cleave the polypeptide backbone


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