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Transport a variety of nutrients
Help to stabilize the pH of extracellular fluids.
Participate in the initiation of blood clotting.
Produce plasma hormones.
Help to regulate body temperature.
Less than 1%
47% to 63% 47% to 63%
25% to 37%
42% to 45%
37% to 52%
Severe liver failure
A diet predominantly based on red meat
An extremely low-protein diet
Colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is high.
There is hyperproteinemia.
The concentration of sodium and proteins in blood is high
Hematocrit is high.
There is a dietary protein deficiency.
Red bone marrow
Yellow bone marrow
Defend the body against pathogens.
Initiate blood clotting.
Transport some carbon dioxide.
The plasma membrane of erythrocytes.
Alpha chains in hemoglobin.
Beta chains in hemoglobin.
Delta chains in hemoglobin.
Heme groups in hemoglobin.
It would considerably increase blood oxygen carrying capacity.
It would facilitate delivery of oxygen into tissues supplit would facilitate delivery of oxygen into tissues supplied by small capillaries.
It would facilitate oxygen diffusion into cells distant from blood capillaries.
It would significantly increase blood osmolarity
It would drastically increase osmotic colloid pressure
Increased blood osmolarity
Increased RBC production
Increased blood viscosity
Stomach and small intestine
Spleen and liver
Red bone marrow
Lymph nodes and thymus
Stomach and liver
Cancer of the erythropoietic line of the red bone marrow.
Excessive aerobic exercise
Air pollution other than by carbon monoxide
Any factor that creates a state of hypoxemia
Blood viscosity is increased
The individual is lethargic
Blood osmolarity is reduced
Blood resistance to flow is reduced
More fluid transfers from the bloodstream to the intercellular spaces.
A self-amplifying mechanism
An enzymatic amplification
A positive feedback loop.
A negative feedback loop.
A cascade effect
Caused by a recessive allele that modifies the structure of hemoglobin
A hereditary hemoglobin defect.
Advantageous to protect carriers against malaria
A cause of malaria
A cause of amenia