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Public building projects
A written language
Long distance trade
Increasing equality among all citizens.
Wanted more leisure time
Gathered edible plants and knew where grains grew
The Ruler was chosen and favored by heaven, and held power as he was a wise and principled guardian of his people.
The Ruler was believed to be a god himself so his authority could not be questioned
The ruler depended heavily on his staff, so real authority lay in the hands of the bureaucrats.
The ruler was a military leader who held power as long as he was victorious on the battlefield.
Complex writing system
Long distance trade
Centralization of civilization around navigable rivers
All of the Above
The concept is too broad to have any meaning
The use of the concept assumes that settled people are superior to nomads
The Concept implies that eastern civilizations are more superior then those in the west.
The Concept assumes that nomadic peoples are civilized
Reliable Food Supplies Increased
The total human population increased
Job Specialization Occurred
Women and Men Grew to a more equal Status
The distinction between nomads and settled people became more important
The government of both civilizations were highly decentralized
Overall, Mesopotamian government was characterized by strong city-states, and egypt was ruled by divine kingship
Both Civilizations power was considered to be in the hands of a king that was believed to be a god
Learn from foreigners
Seek principles of science
Believe their rulers were not in anyway divine
Follow ethical rules to promote harmony and order
The Hittite Empire collapsed
Major trade centers in western asia were destroyed
Egypt was signifigantly weakened by a series of outside attacks.
The Zhou Dynasty fell, and the Warring States period began
Around fertile river valleys
In rain forests
In mountainous areas
Along dry costal areas
Political institutions in Rome were weaker to begin with.
The barbarian attacks destroyed more physical properties and vital public works
Roman emperors had more power then did Han or Gupta emperors so their downfall eviscerated the Roman Empire
Han China and Gupta India had strong religious/philosophical traditions to provide continuity.
Weak religious traditions
Lack of foreign trade
Weak social structure
Diverse geographical features
The silk Route linked china to the Mediterrian world via Central Asia, Iran, And Mesopotamia.
Breeding of Hybrid Camels
The Chinese traded silk, pottery, and paper for horses, etc.
Silk road did not directly effect turkish Nomads.
They wanted access to sea trade and its accompanying wealth
The best farmland was concentrated along the rivers in eastern china.
They were more isolated from invasion from nomad people here
Spartan women did not have as many freedoms as Athenian women.
The Athenians emphasized the importance of poetry, art, and philosophy; the spartans did not.
Both Sparta and Athens dominated the countryside around them and were two of the largest city states.
Changing one's karma
Following the moral duties of one's caste
Following the eightfold path
Being reincarnated as a brahman
Union with a universal spirit as a major goal
Use of missionaries to spread the religion
The caste system