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Urinary, F&e And Reproductive Systems

50 Questions
Urinary, F&e And Reproductive Systems

Final chapters of A&P II. . . Multiple choice practice questions

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The micturition center is located in the
    • A. 

      Medulla oblongata

    • B. 

      Pons

    • C. 

      Hypothalamus

    • D. 

      Sacral portion of the spinal cord

  • 2. 
    Sperm cells spend several weeks maturing in the
    • A. 

      Seminiferous tubules

    • B. 

      Ductus (vas) deferens

    • C. 

      Epididymis

    • D. 

      Seminal vesicles

  • 3. 
    Urine passes through the ureters by
    • A. 

      Gravity

    • B. 

      Peristalsis

    • C. 

      Contractions of the renal pelvis

    • D. 

      Suction from the urethra

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 4. 
    Most reabsorption of the substances from the glomerular filtrate occurs in the
    • A. 

      Proximal tubule

    • B. 

      Loop of nephron (loop of Henle)

    • C. 

      Collecting tubule

    • D. 

      Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

    • E. 

      Distal tubule

  • 5. 
    The erectile tissue of the penis is composed mainly of
    • A. 

      Muscle

    • B. 

      Bone and muscle

    • C. 

      Fibrous connective tissue

    • D. 

      Large venous sinusoids

    • E. 

      Arterioles

  • 6. 
    Water leaves the nephron by
    • A. 

      Filtration into the capillary network

    • B. 

      Active transport of water

    • C. 

      Osmosis

    • D. 

      Dialysis

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 7. 
    To relax after the final examination in this course, a student goes to a local bistro and drinks 2 quarts of beer in which there is a minimal amount of sodium.  Which of the following will occur?
    • A. 

      A decrease in the solute concentration of the body fluids

    • B. 

      A large increase in plasma volume

    • C. 

      A decrease in aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex

    • D. 

      An increase in the osmolarity of the urine

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 8. 
    Place the following in their proper sequence. 1.  Release of renin 2. Sodium reabsorption from tubules 3. Formation of angiotensin 4. Release of aldosterone 5. Conversion of angiotensinogen
    • A. 

      1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

    • B. 

      2, 4, 5, 1 and 3

    • C. 

      3, 4, 1, 2 and 5

    • D. 

      1, 5, 3, 4 and 2

    • E. 

      4, 1, 3, 2 and 5

  • 9. 
    The function of the dartos and cremaster muscles is
    • A. 

      To attach the penis to the body wall

    • B. 

      To produce erections

    • C. 

      To regulate the temperature of the testes

    • D. 

      To help the testes descend prior to birth

    • E. 

      To move sperm along the ductus deferens

  • 10. 
    When the renal threshold for a substance exceeds its tubular maximum
    • A. 

      More of the substance will be filtered

    • B. 

      More of the substance will be reabsorbed

    • C. 

      More of the substance will be secreted

    • D. 

      The amount of substance that exceeds the tubular maximum will be found in the urine

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 11. 
    Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the level of
    • A. 

      FSH

    • B. 

      LH

    • C. 

      Relaxin

    • D. 

      Estrogen and progesterone

    • E. 

      Human chorionic gonadotropin

  • 12. 
    The surge in LH that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers
    • A. 

      Follicle maturation

    • B. 

      Menstruation

    • C. 

      Ovulation

    • D. 

      Menopause

    • E. 

      Atresia

  • 13. 
    Which of the following is greater?
    • A. 

      Facultative reabsorption when the body is hydrated

    • B. 

      Facultative reabsorption when the body is dehydrated

  • 14. 
    Two hormones produced by the ovaries are
    • A. 

      Estrogen and progesterone

    • B. 

      Estrogen and luteinizing hormone (LH)

    • C. 

      Progesterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

    • D. 

      Luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin

    • E. 

      Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

  • 15. 
    The liquid that collects in the cavity of glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is
    • A. 

      Concentrated urine

    • B. 

      Used bile ready for excretion

    • C. 

      Glycogen and water

    • D. 

      The result of pyelonephritis

    • E. 

      Blood plasma minus blood proteins

  • 16. 
    The sustentacular cells of the seminiferous tubules
    • A. 

      Maintain the blood-testis barrier

    • B. 

      Support spermiogenesis

    • C. 

      Secrete inhibin

    • D. 

      Provide nourishment to the developing sperm

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 17. 
    Most pregnancy tests are based on the presence or absence of
    • A. 

      Androgens

    • B. 

      Progesterone

    • C. 

      Estrogen

    • D. 

      Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

    • E. 

      FSH and LH

  • 18. 
    The urethra and ureter open into the bladder in an area called the
    • A. 

      Detrusor

    • B. 

      Sphincter

    • C. 

      Trigone

    • D. 

      Micurator

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 19. 
    Which one of the following is NOT a waste produce eliminated by the kidneys?
    • A. 

      Creatinine

    • B. 

      Uric acid

    • C. 

      Renin

    • D. 

      Urea

  • 20. 
    Angiotensin II brings about a
    • A. 

      Vasodilation

    • B. 

      Decrease in blood pressure

    • C. 

      Acceleration of heart rate

    • D. 

      Increase in blood pressure

  • 21. 
    Which one of the following is NOT true?
    • A. 

      The juxtaglomerular appratus secretes renin.

    • B. 

      The product of the juxtaglomerular apparatus has an effect on angiotensinogen.

    • C. 

      The substance secreted by the juxtaglomerular apparatus is produced in response to high blood pressure.

    • D. 

      The juxtaglomerular apparatus is made up of the macula densa and cells in the wall of the afferent arteriole.

  • 22. 
    Capillary endothelial cells of glomerular capillaries are atypical in that they possess _________ and unusually have __________ permeability.
    • A. 

      Fenestrate, low

    • B. 

      Slit pores, high

    • C. 

      Fenestrate, high

    • D. 

      Slit pores, low

  • 23. 
    Removal of the prostate gland would result in semen
    • A. 

      That lacked sperm

    • B. 

      That lacked clotting factors and enzymes

    • C. 

      With less fructose

    • D. 

      With no lubricating fluids

    • E. 

      That lacked prostaglandins

  • 24. 
    Fertilization of the ovum usually occurs
    • A. 

      In the uterus

    • B. 

      In the ovary

    • C. 

      Within one hour of ovulation

    • D. 

      In the upper third of the uterine (fallopian) tubes

    • E. 

      As much as three to four days after ovulation

  • 25. 
    Semen contains
    • A. 

      Spermatozoans

    • B. 

      Seminal fluids

    • C. 

      Prostaglandins

    • D. 

      Enzymes

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 26. 
    The corpus luteum produces
    • A. 

      Testosterone

    • B. 

      Menstrual fluid

    • C. 

      Progesterone

    • D. 

      Mucus

  • 27. 
    Given a constant glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as the amount of ADH or vasopressin in the blood increases
    • A. 

      Urine is made more acidic

    • B. 

      More urine is formed

    • C. 

      Diuresis (loss of water) is accelerated

    • D. 

      Tubular reabsorption of water increases

    • E. 

      Tubular reabsorption of water and sodium increases

  • 28. 
    Erection of the penis is the result of
    • A. 

      A spinal reflex mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system

    • B. 

      A spinal reflex mediated by the sympathetic nervous system

    • C. 

      Constriction of the arterioles of the penis

    • D. 

      Dilation of the veins of the penis

    • E. 

      Parasympathetic stimulation of the bulbourethral glands

  • 29. 
    Ejaculation is the result of
    • A. 

      A reflex mediated via the parasympathetic nervous system

    • B. 

      Rhythmic peristaltic contractions from epididymis through urethra

    • C. 

      Stimulation of the bulbourethral (cowper's) glands

    • D. 

      Contractions of the prostate gland alone

    • E. 

      Contractions along the urethra alone

  • 30. 
    In the menstrual cycles that vary in length, it is the _______________ phase that shows the most variations.
    • A. 

      Ovulatory

    • B. 

      Luteal or secretory

    • C. 

      Follicular or proliferative

    • D. 

      Menstrual

  • 31. 
    Aldosterone production directly
    • A. 

      Decreases reabsorption of chloride

    • B. 

      Increases renal reabsorption of potassium

    • C. 

      Increases the permeability of the distal tubule to water

    • D. 

      Decreases tubular reabsorption of sodium

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 32. 
    Sustentacular (Sertoli) cells in the testes are responsible for
    • A. 

      Controlling the rate of sperm production

    • B. 

      Releasing GnRF

    • C. 

      Maintaining testosterone levels in the body

    • D. 

      Maintaining temperature levels in the scrotum

    • E. 

      Sperm capacitation

  • 33. 
    The greater vestibular glands (Bartholin's glands) are homologous to the _________ of the male.
    • A. 

      Paraurethral glands

    • B. 

      Seminal vesicles

    • C. 

      Bulbourethral (cowper's) glands

    • D. 

      Prostate gland

  • 34. 
    Inhibin
    • A. 

      Allows the testes to release more follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), increasing sperm production

    • B. 

      Regulates the amount of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in circulation

    • C. 

      Stimulates the interstitial cells of Leydig to produce testosterone

    • D. 

      Leads to sperm capacitation

    • E. 

      Stimulates prostaglandin production

  • 35. 
    The glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
    • A. 

      Returns material to the blood

    • B. 

      Makes urea

    • C. 

      Filters material from the blood

    • D. 

      Contains urine in its final state

    • E. 

      Surrounds the kidney as the true capsule

  • 36. 
    Sperm cannot fertilize an egg unless they have been in the female reproductive tract for several hours.  This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertiilize the ovum is called capacitation.  In vitro studies indicates that the sperm can feritilize the ovum if they are first washed before being introduced to the ovum.  These observations suggest that
    • A. 

      The process of capacitation involves the removal of some inhibiting substance or substances from the sperm

    • B. 

      The process of capacitation is temperature dependent

    • C. 

      In capacitation, secretions of the female reproductive tract are taken up by the sperm

    • D. 

      PH is an important factor in the process of capacitation

    • E. 

      Only sperm that come into contact with the vaginal secretions are capable of fertilizing an ovum

  • 37. 
    Measurement of the functions of a nephron reveals a glomerular pressure of 69 mmHg, and a pressure in the Bowman's capsule of 15 mmHg.  Assuming that the plasma osmotic pressure is 30 mmHg, and that essentially no plasma proteins are filtered by the glomerulus, what is the net glomerular filtration pressure in this case?
    • A. 

      -6 mmHg

    • B. 

      24 mmHg

    • C. 

      54 mmHg

    • D. 

      84 mmHg

    • E. 

      114 mmHg

  • 38. 
    The ureter extends downward
    • A. 

      Behind the parietal peritoneum and joins the urinary bladder from above

    • B. 

      In front of the parietal peritoneum and joins the urinary bladder

    • C. 

      Behind the parietal peritoneum and joins the urinary bladder from below

    • D. 

      Extends approximately 28 inches from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 39. 
    Problems involving the formation of the chorion would affect
    • A. 

      The embryo's ability to produce blood cells

    • B. 

      The formation of limbs

    • C. 

      The embryo's ability to derive nutrition from the mother

    • D. 

      Lung formation

    • E. 

      The urinary system

  • 40. 
    Which one of the following is NOT correct?
    • A. 

      The factors involved in regulation of the sodium content of the body are not influenced by blood pressure.

    • B. 

      Regulation of the sodium content of the body is closely linked with control of extracellular fluid volume.

    • C. 

      Sodium has a directly influence on extracellular volume.

    • D. 

      Loss of sodium causes a decrease in plasma volume.

  • 41. 
    During the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle
    • A. 

      Ovulation occurs

    • B. 

      A new functional layers is formed in the uterus

    • C. 

      Secretory glands and blood vessels develop in the endometrium

    • D. 

      The old functional layer is sloughed off

    • E. 

      The corpus luteum is formed

  • 42. 
    Major functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include
    • A. 

      Activating the spermatozoa

    • B. 

      Providing nutrients spermatozoa need for motility

    • C. 

      Propelling spermatozoa and fluids along the reproductive tract

    • D. 

      Producing mucous

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 43. 
    Human sperm and ova are similar, in that
    • A. 

      About the same number of each are produced

    • B. 

      They are cells about the same size

    • C. 

      They have the same number of chromosomes

    • D. 

      They have about the same ability for locomotion

  • 44. 
    Progesterone levels rise during the ___________ phase of menstruation.
    • A. 

      Ovulatory

    • B. 

      Follicular or preovulatory

    • C. 

      Menstrual or destructive

    • D. 

      Luteal or secretory

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 45. 
    ADH production directly
    • A. 

      Leads to an increased volume of urine output

    • B. 

      Is increased following the drinking of large amounts of water

    • C. 

      Causes an increased permeability of kidney tubules to water

    • D. 

      Is decreased by increasing the tonicity of the blood

  • 46. 
    Which one of the following substances enters the tubules by tubular secretion?
    • A. 

      Calcium ions

    • B. 

      Hydrogen ions

    • C. 

      Sodium ions

    • D. 

      Vitamins

    • E. 

      Amino acids

  • 47. 
    About ________ days after conception, the fertilized egg implants itself in the lining of the uterus.
    • A. 

      3 to 4

    • B. 

      2 to 3

    • C. 

      5 to 7

    • D. 

      One and a half

  • 48. 
    Given the following conditions, glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure 75 mmHg, capsular hydrostatic pressure 15 mmHg, blood osmotic pressure 25 mmHg, the effective filtration pressure would be ________ mmHg.
    • A. 

      40

    • B. 

      65

    • C. 

      25

    • D. 

      0

    • E. 

      35

  • 49. 
    The failure of the testes to decend into the scrotum can lead to
    • A. 

      Sterility

    • B. 

      Retrograde ejaculation

    • C. 

      Phimosis

    • D. 

      Spermatogenesis

    • E. 

      "negative feedback"

  • 50. 
    If a sperm cell lacked sufficient quantities of hyaluronidase, it would not be able to
    • A. 

      Move its flagellum

    • B. 

      Penetrate the corona radiata

    • C. 

      Become capacitated

    • D. 

      Survive the environment of the female reproductive tract

    • E. 

      Metabolize fructose