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Star Testing Practice Biology

127 Questions
Star Testing Practice Biology
Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A computer model of cellular mitosis can simulate the aspects of cellular division quite well. However, microscopic observation of actual cellular mitosis can improve understanding because actual observations  
    • A. 

      May reveal greater unknown complexities

    • B. 

      Are easier than a computer model to view

    • C. 

      Are the same each time

    • D. 

      May provide division events in sequence.

  • 2. 
    The cell membrane of the red blood cell will allow water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and  glucose to pass through. Because other substances are blocked from entering, this membrane is called  
    • A. 

      Perforated

    • B. 

      Semi-permeable

    • C. 

      Non-conductive

    • D. 

      Permeable.

  • 3. 
    There are many different enzymes located in the cytoplasm of a single cell. How is a specific enzyme able to catalyze a specific reaction? 
    • A. 

      Different enzymes are synthesized in specific areas of the cytoplasm.

    • B. 

      Most enzymes can catalyze many different reactions

    • C. 

      An enzyme binds to a specific substrate (reactant) for the reaction catalyzed

    • D. 

      Enzymes are transported to specific substrates (reactants) by ribosomes.

  • 4. 
    Maltose can be broken down into glucose molecules by the enzyme maltase. Which of the following would slow the reaction rate
    • A. 

      Adding maltase

    • B. 

      Adding maltose

    • C. 

      Removing glucose

    • D. 

      Diluting with water

  • 5. 
    A food chain is shown below.   Grass -- crickets --  field mice -- hawks   For the food chain shown, which of the following changes would have the most severe consequences?  
    • A. 

      A drastic decrease in rainfall, causing drought

    • B. 

      The poaching of predatory hawks by game hunters

    • C. 

      The introduction of a second predator that eats field mice

    • D. 

      A parasitic infestation that reduces the cricket population

  • 6. 
    The first stage of photosynthesis in a chloroplast is
    • A. 

      Light-dependent.

    • B. 

      temperature-dependent

    • C. 

      Glucose-driven.

    • D. 

      ATP-driven

  • 7. 
    The plasma membrane of a cell consists of 
    • A. 

      Protein molecules arranged in two layers with polar areas forming the outside of the membrane

    • B. 

      Two layers of lipids organized with the nonpolar tails forming the interior of the membrane

    • C. 

      Lipid molecules positioned between two carbohydrate layers

    • D. 

      Protein molecules with polar and nonpolar tails

  • 8. 
    Which of the following is a function of the nervous system? 
    • A. 

      Releasing ATP into contracting muscle tissues

    • B. 

      Signaling muscle tissues to contract

    • C. 

      Producing lactic acid in fatigued muscle tissues

    • D. 

      Increasing cellular respiration in muscle tissues

  • 9. 
    Which of the following is a function of the nervous system? 
    • A. 

      Releasing ATP into contracting muscle tissues

    • B. 

      Signaling muscle tissues to contract

    • C. 

      Producing lactic acid in fatigued muscle tissues

    • D. 

      Increasing cellular respiration in muscle tissues

  • 10. 
    What is the greatest danger to a patient who has had damage to the skin? 
    • A. 

      Loss of oils produced by the skin

    • B. 

      Excessive muscle contractions in the damaged area

    • C. 

      Infections in uncovered tissues

    • D. 

      Damaged tissue entering the blood stream

  • 11. 
    A small population of chimpanzees lives in a habitat that undergoes no changes for a long period. How will genetic drift probably affect this population? 
    • A. 

      It will accelerate the appearance of new traits

    • B. 

      It will promote the survival of chimpanzees with beneficial traits

    • C. 

      It will increase the number of alleles for specific traits

    • D. 

      It will reduce genetic diversity

  • 12. 
    In fruit flies, the gene for red eyes (R) is dominant and the gene for pink eyes (r) is recessive. What are the possible combinations of genes in the offspring of two red-eyed heterozygous flies (Rr)?  
    • A. 

      RR only

    • B. 

      Rr only

    • C. 

      Rr and rr only

    • D. 

      RR, Rr, and rr only

  • 13. 
    In aerobic respiration, the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) takes place in 
    • A. 

      Chloroplasts

    • B. 

      Nuclei

    • C. 

      Lysosomes

    • D. 

      Mitochondria

  • 14. 
    Which cellular organelle is responsible for packaging the proteins that the cell secretes
    • A. 

      Cytoskeleton

    • B. 

      Cell membrane

    • C. 

      Lysosomes

    • D. 

      Golgi Apparatus

  • 15. 
    Which of the following best describes meiosis?
    • A. 

      It is carried out in all tissues that require cell replacement

    • B. 

      It occurs only in cells in the reproductive structures of the organism

    • C. 

      It happens in all tissues except the brain and spinal cord

    • D. 

      It is the first stage of mitosis.

  • 16. 
    Which of these organisms are most helpful in preventing Earth from being covered with the bodies of dead organisms
    • A. 

      Herbivores

    • B. 

      Producers

    • C. 

      Parasites and viruses

    • D. 

      Fungi and bacteria

  • 17. 
    Eukaryotic cells are differentiated from prokaryotic cells because eukaryotic cells  
    • A. 

      Are much smaller.

    • B. 

      Have permeable membranes

    • C. 

      Have a higher rate of reproduction

    • D. 

      Have nuclei.

  • 18. 
    Two students were testing the amount of fertilizer that would best promote the growth of strawberries in a garden. Which of the following could be an unavoidable source of experimental error? 
    • A. 

      Length of the study

    • B. 

      Variation in the strawberry plants

    • C. 

      The cost of watering the plants

    • D. 

      Fertilization during the study

  • 19. 
    Mendel hypothesized that reproductive cells have only one factor for each inherited trait. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that
    • A. 

      Haploid cells are produced by mitosis

    • B. 

      Diploid cells are produced by mitosis

    • C. 

      Haploid cells are produced by meiosis.

    • D. 

      Diploid cells are produced by meiosis

  • 20. 
    A signal that the bladder is full is sent to the central nervous system by  
    • A. 

      Feedback loops.

    • B. 

      Sensory neurons

    • C. 

      Nephron tubules

    • D. 

      Receptor proteins

  • 21. 
    Which of these best illustrates natural selection?  
    • A. 

      An organism with favorable genetic variations will tend to survive and breed successfully.

    • B. 

      A population monopolizes all of the resources in its habitat, forcing other species to migrate.

    • C. 

      A community whose members work together utilizes all existing resources and migratory routes.

    • D. 

      The largest organisms in a species receive the only breeding opportunities

  • 22. 
    A cell from heart muscle would probably have an unusually high proportion of
    • A. 

      Lysosomes

    • B. 

      Mitochondria

    • C. 

      MRNA

    • D. 

      Golgi Bodies

  • 23. 
    Which of the following sequences represents chromosome number during fertilization? 
    • A. 

      N+n→2n

    • B. 

      2n →n+n

    • C. 

      N → n

    • D. 

      2n →2n

  • 24. 
    Based only on the sex chromosomes in typical human egg and sperm cells at fertilization, the probability of producing a female is 
    • A. 

      25%

    • B. 

      50%

    • C. 

      75%

    • D. 

      90%

  • 25. 
    In certain breeds of dogs, deafness is due to a recessive allele (d) of a particular gene, and normal hearing is due to its dominant allele (D). What percentage of the offspring of a normal heterozygous (Dd) dog and a deaf dog (dd) would be expected to have normal hearing? 
    • A. 

      0%

    • B. 

      25%

    • C. 

      50%

    • D. 

      100%

  • 26. 
    Mutations within a DNA sequence are 
    • A. 

      Natural processes that produce genetic diversity

    • B. 

      Natural processes that always affect the phenotype

    • C. 

      Unnatural processes that always affect the phenotype

    • D. 

      Unnatural processes that are harmful to genetic diversity.

  • 27. 
    Striking the tendon just below the kneecap causes the lower leg to jerk. Moving an object quickly toward the face can cause the eyes to blink shut. These are examples of  
    • A. 

      Learned responses

    • B. 

      Short-term memory.

    • C. 

      Reflex reactions

    • D. 

      Sensory overload

  • 28. 
    Which of these secretes a hormone that regulates the rate of metabolism of the body?  
    • A. 

      Spleen

    • B. 

      Cerebrum

    • C. 

      Thyroid

    • D. 

      Kidney

  • 29. 
    Which of the following require a host cell because they are not able to make proteins on their own? 
    • A. 

      Blue-green alage

    • B. 

      Bacteria

    • C. 

      Protozans

    • D. 

      Viruses

  • 30. 
    5' ATCAGCGCTGGC 3'  The above sequence of DNA is part of a gene. How many amino acids are coded for by this segment?  
    • A. 

      4

    • B. 

      8

    • C. 

      12

    • D. 

      20

  • 31. 
    Rabbits introduced into Australia over 100 years ago have become a serious pest to farmers. Rabbit populations increased so much that  they displaced many native species of plant eaters. What is the most logical explanation for their increased numbers?  
    • A. 

      Rabbits have a high death rate

    • B. 

      There are few effective predators

    • C. 

      Additional rabbit species have been introduced

    • D. 

      There is an increase in rabbit competitors.

  • 32. 
    Some snake venoms are harmful because they contain enzymes that destroy blood cells or tissues. The damage caused by such a snakebite could best be slowed by 
    • A. 

      Applying ice to the bite area

    • B. 

      Drinking large amounts of water.

    • C. 

      Inducing vomiting

    • D. 

      Increasing blood flow to the area

  • 33. 
    If a corn plant has a genotype of Ttyy, what are the possible genetic combinations that could be present in a single grain of pollen from this plant?
    • A. 

      Ty, ty

    • B. 

      TY, ty

    • C. 

      TY, Ty, ty

    • D. 

      Ty, ty tY, TY

  • 34. 
    Which of these would most likely cause a mutation? 
    • A. 

      The placement of ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum

    • B. 

      The insertion of a nucleotide into DNA

    • C. 

      The movement of transfer RNA out of the nucleus

    • D. 

      The release of messenger RNA from DNA

  • 35. 
    A healthy individual is a carrier of a lethal allele but is unaffected by it. What is the probable genotype of this individual?  
    • A. 

      Two dominant normal alleles

    • B. 

      One recessive lethal allele and one dominant lethal allele

    • C. 

      One recessive lethal allele and one dominant normal allele

    • D. 

      One dominant lethal allele and one recessive normal allele

  • 36. 
    Fossil evidence suggests that a number of members of one fish species from an ancient lake in Death Valley, California, became several isolated species. Each of these new species lived in a different pond. Which of the following best explains the cause of this speciation? 
    • A. 

      Episodic isolation

    • B. 

      Temporal isolation

    • C. 

      Geographic isolation

    • D. 

      Behavioral isolation

  • 37. 
    The Sabin vaccine is a liquid containing weakened polio viruses. Vaccinated individuals become protected against polio because the weakened viruses  
    • A. 

      Prevent further viral invasion

    • B. 

      Induce an inflammatory response

    • C. 

      Promote production of antibodies.

    • D. 

      Are too weak to cause illness.

  • 38. 
    The bacterium Agrobacterium infects plants, and a portion of its DNA is inserted into the plant’s chromosomes. This causes the plant to produce gall cells, which manufacture amino acids that the bacterium uses as food. This process is a natural example of  
    • A. 

      Polyploidy

    • B. 

      Genetic manipulation

    • C. 

      Grafting

    • D. 

      hybridization

  • 39. 
    In most stable freshwater environments, populations of Daphnia are almost entirely female and reproduce asexually. However, males are observed in low oxygen environments or when food is scarce. Based on these observations, a researcher suggests that male Daphnia develop in response to unfavorable environmental conditions. This is an example of a  
    • A. 

      Result

    • B. 

      Theory

    • C. 

      Procedure

    • D. 

      Hypothesis

  • 40. 
    Semi-conservative replication of DNA refers to the idea that  
    • A. 

      DNA molecules need to unwind before duplication begins

    • B. 

      Each new DNA molecule contains two new single RNA strands.

    • C. 

      The two strands of DNA molecules run in opposite directions.

    • D. 

      Each half of the original DNA molecule is joined with a new complementary DNA strand.

  • 41. 
    Earth has undergone some catastrophic changes from time to time. Which of these most likely explains why life on Earth continued following these catastrophes?  
    • A. 

      Dominant species had a slow mutation rate.

    • B. 

      Many species filled the same niche

    • C. 

      A strong species had many different characteristics.

    • D. 

      A wide diversity of species existed.

  • 42. 
    What causes tomatoes to ripen much more slowly in a refrigerator than they do if left on a table at room temperature? 
    • A. 

      Tomatoes need sunlight to ripen

    • B. 

      Humidity accelerates the ripening process

    • C. 

      Low temperatures reduce the action of ripening enzymes.

    • D. 

      Enzymes produced by bacteria inhibit ripening.

  • 43. 
    If a human baby boy inherits a recessive allele from his mother, in which circumstance would he most likely show the trait coded for by the recessive allele? 
    • A. 

      The baby inherits the dominant allele from his father

    • B. 

      The allele is on an autosomal chromosome and the baby is a twin.

    • C. 

      The allele is on the X chromosome.

    • D. 

      The allele is on the Y chromosome

  • 44. 
    Individuals with HIV sometimes contract a pneumonia infection that is rare in the rest of the population because people with HIV 
    • A. 

      Are unable to fight off these pneumonia causing organisms.

    • B. 

      Are more often exposed to these pneumonia causing organisms.

    • C. 

      Release pheromones that attract the pneumonia-causing organisms

    • D. 

      Release substances that increase the strength of the pneumonia-causing organisms

  • 45. 
    Sweat and skin secretions contain a mixture of molecules that kills or limits the growth of many types of microbes. This control of microbes is an example of  
    • A. 

      A nonspecific defense against infection.

    • B. 

      An enzyme-catalyzed biochemical reaction

    • C. 

      A feedback loop to maintain homeostasis.

    • D. 

      A specific immune response to infection by microbes.

  • 46. 
    Which of these organisms would most likely be found at the top of an energy pyramid?  
    • A. 

      Clams

    • B. 

      Sardines

    • C. 

      Shark

    • D. 

      Kelp

  • 47. 
    Which of the following is the correct order of organization of structures in living things, from simplest to most complex?
    • A. 

      Organ systems, organs, organism, tissues, cells

    • B. 

      Tissues, cells, organs, organism, organ system

    • C. 

      Cells, tissues, organ systems, organs, organism

    • D. 

      Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism

  • 48. 
    Refer to the diagram above.  Which of these best completes this concept map?
    • A. 

      An animal cell

    • B. 

      A prokaryotic cell

    • C. 

      A virus

    • D. 

      A plant cell

  • 49. 
    Which statement about enzymes is not correct?
    • A. 

      Enzymes are composed of polypeptide chains.

    • B. 

      Enzymes form a temporary association with a reactant

    • C. 

      Enzymes are destroyed when they are used and must be synthesized for each reaction

    • D. 

      Enzymes are specific because of their shape and catalyze only certain reactions.

  • 50. 
    The number of autosomes and type of sex chromosome normally present in a human egg cell is  
    • A. 

      44 + XY

    • B. 

      44 + XX

    • C. 

      22+X

    • D. 

      22+ Y

  • 51. 
    Which of these best illustrates natural selection?  
    • A. 

      An organism with favorable genetic variations will tend to survive and breed successfully.

    • B. 

      A population monopolizes all of the resources in its habitat, forcing other species to migrate

    • C. 

      A community whose members work together utilizes all existing resources and migratory routes

    • D. 

      The largest organisms in a species receive the only breeding opportunities

  • 52. 
    A Polysaccharide is a polymer composed of
    • A. 

      Amino acids

    • B. 

      Enzymes

    • C. 

      Glucose molecules

    • D. 

      Starch

    • E. 

      chromosomes

  • 53. 
    Vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart are called  
    • A. 

      Veins

    • B. 

      Capillaries

    • C. 

      Arteries

    • D. 

      Vacuoles

  • 54. 
    During a race, the body temperature of a runner increases.  The runner responds by sweating, which lowers body temperature. This process is an example of  
    • A. 

      Maintenance of homeostasis

    • B. 

      An antigen-anti-body reaction

    • C. 

      An acquired characteristic

    • D. 

      Environmental factors affecting phenotype.

  • 55. 
    What is the probability that a heterozygous man with blood type A and a homozygous women with blood type B have children with blood type O?  
    • A. 

      0%

    • B. 

      25%

    • C. 

      50%

    • D. 

      75%

  • 56. 
    What percentage of total energy (roughly) is transferred from one trophic level to the next?  
    • A. 

      0.01%

    • B. 

      0.1%

    • C. 

      1.0%

    • D. 

      10%

    • E. 

      100%

  • 57. 
    The diagram above shows homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis. Which of the following correctly describes the process being illustrated?
    • A. 

      Mutation in which the DNA content of the gene is altered

    • B. 

      Segregation of sister chromatids

    • C. 

      Condensation and segregation of alleles

    • D. 

      Crossing-over in which alleles are exchanged

  • 58. 
    After a volcanic eruption has covered an area with lava, which of the following is the most likely order of succession in the repopulation of the area
    • A. 

      Lichens → grasses → shrubs → trees

    • B. 

      Lichens → grasses → shrubs → trees

    • C. 

      Grasses → trees → mosses → lichens

    • D. 

      Shrubs → grasses → trees → lichens

  • 59. 
    A single species of squirrel evolved over time into two species, each on opposite sides of the Grand Canyon. This change was most likely due to  
    • A. 

      Higher mutation rates on one side.

    • B. 

      Low genetic diversity in the initial population

    • C. 

      The isolation of the two groups.

    • D. 

      Differences in reproductive rates

  • 60. 
    Carbon dioxide is produced as cells break down nutrients for energy. Which of the following pairs of systems would participate in removing the carbon dioxide from the body? 
    • A. 

      Endocrine and circulatory

    • B. 

      Circulatory and respiratory

    • C. 

      Respiratory and endocrine

    • D. 

      Reproductive and excretory

  • 61. 
    The fight-or-flight response includes greater heart output and a rise in blood pressure. This response is due to 
    • A. 

      Insulin secreted by the pancreas.

    • B. 

      Thyroxine secreted by the thyroid gland

    • C. 

      Oxytocin secreted by the pituitary gland

    • D. 

      Adrenaline secreted by the adrenal glands

  • 62. 
    Which of the following best describes the use of population models in biology?  
    • A. 

      They are generally easy to construct

    • B. 

      They can represent reality precisely

    • C. 

      They are used when no observations have been made.

    • D. 

      They can help predict outcomes.

  • 63. 
    The diagram below shows a cellular process that occurs in organisms.   This process is known as  
    • A. 

      Meiosis.

    • B. 

      Mitosis

    • C. 

      Endocytosis.

    • D. 

      phagocytosis

  • 64. 
    The table below lists the typical diploid number of chromosomes of several different organisms. Diploid Chromosome  Number Goldfish  94 Potato  48 Human   46 Pea  14 Fruit fly 8 Which of the following is the best explanation for why the chromosome number is an even number in each of these organisms?  
    • A. 

      It is only a coincidence; many other organisms have an odd number of chromosomes.

    • B. 

      The diploid chromosome number is always even so that when mitosis occurs each new cell gets the same number of chromosomes.

    • C. 

      The diploid chromosome number represents pairs of chromosomes, one from each parent, so it is always an even number.

    • D. 

      Chromosomes double every time the cell divides, so after the first division, the number is always even.

  • 65. 
    5' G T A _   _  _ A A 3'        3' C A T G C A T T 5' This segment of DNA has undergone a mutation in which three nucleotides have been deleted. A repair enzyme would replace them with  
    • A. 

      CGT.

    • B. 

      GCA.

    • C. 

      CTG

    • D. 

      GTA

  • 66. 
    In a pond, the primary producer is a green alga, Spirogyra; the primary consumer is the crustacean, Daphnia; the secondary consumer is a small fish, the bluegill; and the tertiary consumer is a larger fish, the smallmouth bass. What changes can be expected in the pond if the Daphnia are killed with pesticides?  
    • A. 

      The Spirogyra population will probably die

    • B. 

      The bluegill population will probably increase.

    • C. 

      The Daphnia population will eat something else.

    • D. 

      The smallmouth bass population will die.

  • 67. 
    A base sequence is shown below. ACAGTGC How would the base sequence be coded on mRNA?  
    • A. 

      TGTCACG

    • B. 

      GUGACAU

    • C. 

      UGUCACG

    • D. 

      CACUGUA

  • 68. 
    Scientists found that, over a period of 200 years, a mountain pond was transformed into a meadow. During that time, several communities of organisms were replaced by different communities. Which of these best explains why new communities were able to replace older communities?  
    • A. 

      The original species became extinct

    • B. 

      Species in the older community died from old age.

    • C. 

      The abiotic characteristics of the habitat changed.

    • D. 

      Diseases that killed the older organisms disappeared

  • 69. 
    Which of these would have the least effect on natural selection in a subspecies of giraffes that is geographically isolated from other subspecies of giraffes?  
    • A. 

      Available niches

    • B. 

      Existing predators

    • C. 

      Chromosome number

    • D. 

      Available food resources

  • 70. 
    If a paleontologist finds fossils of many different species existing in the same area at approximately the same time, the paleontologist can conclude that the ecosystem in this area had a high degree of 
    • A. 

      Climatic variation.

    • B. 

      Episodic speciation.

    • C. 

      Biological diversity

    • D. 

      Geographic isolation

  • 71. 
    Which of these organisms would most likely be found at the bottom of a biomass pyramid?
    • A. 

      Giant squids

    • B. 

      Sand sharks

    • C. 

      Sea cucumbers

    • D. 

      Green algae

  • 72. 
    When two amino acids bond
    • A. 

      Water is taken in by the product

    • B. 

      Hydrolysis occurs

    • C. 

      A disaccharide is formed through condensation

    • D. 

      A dipeptide is formed through condensation

  • 73. 
    Long chains of amino acids are found in
    • A. 

      Carbohydrates

    • B. 

      Proteins

    • C. 

      Lipids

    • D. 

      Sugars

  • 74. 
    All the following are found in both plant and animal cells, except  
    • A. 

      Cell wall

    • B. 

      Cell membrane

    • C. 

      Mitochondria

    • D. 

      The ER

  • 75. 
    Of the following, which cells are the smallest?  
    • A. 

      Bacterial cell

    • B. 

      Human cheeck cell

    • C. 

      Onion cell

    • D. 

      Elodea cell

    • E. 

      Chicken egg cell

  • 76. 
    Which molecule in plant cells first captures the radiant energy from sunlight?  
    • A. 

      Glucose

    • B. 

      Carbon dioxide

    • C. 

      chlorophyll

    • D. 

      Adenosine triphosphate

  • 77. 
    The cell wall of plant cells is made up of:  
    • A. 

      Linked amino acids

    • B. 

      Cellulose

    • C. 

      Phospholipids

    • D. 

      Proteins

  • 78. 
    The cell membrane:
    • A. 

      Allows all materials to travel through it

    • B. 

      Allows only some materials to travel through it

    • C. 

      Does not allow mterials to travel through it

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 79. 
    The central nervous system consists of  
    • A. 

      The brain and spinal cord

    • B. 

      Spinal nerves only

    • C. 

      The brain stem and cerebellum

    • D. 

      The cerebrum and spinal cord

  • 80. 
    An abnormality involving the platelets would probably affect the process of:  
    • A. 

      Breathing

    • B. 

      Locomotion

    • C. 

      Fighting bacterial infections

    • D. 

      Blood clotting

  • 81. 
    The phase of mitosis that is characterized by the arrangement of all chromosomes along the equator of the cell is called
    • A. 

      Telephase

    • B. 

      Metaphase

    • C. 

      Anaphase

    • D. 

      Prophase

  • 82. 
    Both DNA and RNA  
    • A. 

      Contain amino acids

    • B. 

      Contain phosphate

    • C. 

      Are a double helix

    • D. 

      Are inorganic

  • 83. 
    Use the information and diagram below to answer the following item.   Animal cells contain an organelle that helps release energy. A diagram of this organelle is shown below. Which function would the energy-releasing organelle most likely have in the animal cell?  
    • A. 

      Cellular control

    • B. 

      Cellular respiration

    • C. 

      Removal of wastes

    • D. 

      Storage of nutrients

  • 84. 
    A cell is observed through a microscope. The cell is found to have a cell wall, a cell membrane, and numerous ribosomes. The cell does not have a nucleus. This cell is most likely from a  
    • A. 

      Bacterium

    • B. 

      Fungus

    • C. 

      Plant

    • D. 

      Protist

  • 85. 
    Which of these is a function of the circulatory system in a mammal?    
    • A. 

      The release of energy

    • B. 

      The regulation of temperature

    • C. 

      The movement of organelles

    • D. 

      The transmission of electrical impulses

  • 86. 
    A new species is introduced into an area. This can have harmful effects on species already inhabiting the area. The harmful effects are most likely a result of    
    • A. 

      Succession

    • B. 

      Mutualism

    • C. 

      Competition

    • D. 

      Commensalism

  • 87. 
    Which of the following pairs of materials is required for a cell to carry on respiration?  
    • A. 

      Water and oxygen

    • B. 

      Glucose and oxygen

    • C. 

      Water and carbon dioxide

    • D. 

      Glucose and carbon dioxide

  • 88. 
    Global warming causes an increase in coastal water temperatures. Increased coastal water temperature causes a decrease in reproduction of krill. Which of these would most likely experience an increase in population?
    • A. 

      Gull

    • B. 

      Herring

    • C. 

      Anchovy

    • D. 

      Cytoplankton

  • 89. 
    Prokaryotic cells possess all of the following except  
    • A. 

      Cell membrane

    • B. 

      Ribosomes

    • C. 

      Cell wall

    • D. 

      Nuclear membrane

  • 90. 
    Which of these best describes the correct sequence in the expression of a trait?  
    • A. 

      Trait → gene → enzyme

    • B. 

      Gene → protein → trait

    • C. 

      Protein → gene → trait

    • D. 

      Gene → trait → DNA

  • 91. 
    Use the information below to answer the following item.   Many bird species in the forests of eastern North America have very large geographic ranges. Bird species in tropical forests have very small geographic ranges. Many forest areas within the ranges of these birds are being destroyed. Scientists believe that the destruction of forests affects birds with small ranges more than birds with large ranges.   As a result of the destruction of forests, birds with a small geographic range are most likely to  
    • A. 

      Lose their specific niche

    • B. 

      Adapt to a new environment

    • C. 

      Lose their ability to navigate

    • D. 

      Become less suscepible to disease

  • 92. 
    All living things need nitrogen. The nitrogen gas in Earth’s atmosphere must be changed into ammonia before most living things can use it. Which of these organisms can change nitrogen gas into ammonia?  
    • A. 

      Bacteria

    • B. 

      Mold

    • C. 

      Moss

    • D. 

      Yeast

  • 93. 
    The kidneys regulate the levels of many chemicals and ions in the body. Which term best describes this process?  
    • A. 

      Digestion

    • B. 

      Circulation

    • C. 

      Homeostasis

    • D. 

      Meiosis

  • 94. 
    Red-green color blindness affects about 7.0% of the human male population. It affects approximately 0.4% of the human female population. These data suggest that red-green color blindness is a    
    • A. 

      Dominant trait carried on the Y chromosome

    • B. 

      Dominant trait carried on the X chromosome

    • C. 

      Recessive trait carried on the Y chromosome

    • D. 

      Recessive trait carried on the X chromosome

  • 95. 
    In deep ocean trenches, bacteria produce organic materials from inorganic compounds through the process of  
    • A. 

      Respiration

    • B. 

      Decomposition

    • C. 

      Photosynthesis

    • D. 

      Chemosynthesis

  • 96. 
    Students conducted an experiment to test the effect of antibiotics on bacteria. They placed bacteria in a petri dish that contained agar treated with an antibiotic. Only one of the bacterial colonies survived.   Which of these statements best explains why only one colony survived?    
    • A. 

      The bacteria in the colonies competed for survival.

    • B. 

      There was only enough food in the dish for some of the bacteria to survive.

    • C. 

      There was not enough antibiotic in the dish to kill all the bacteria.

    • D. 

      The bacteria in the surviving colony had genetic variations that allowed them to survive.

  • 97. 
    In humans the trait of having freckles (F) is dominant to not having freckles (f).   Which genotype and phenotype are correctly paired?    
    • A. 

      FF—no freckles

    • B. 

      Ff—no freckles

    • C. 

      Ff—freckles

    • D. 

      Ff—freckles

  • 98. 
    Glucose is a building block of carbohydrates. Which of these best describes glucose?  
    • A. 

      Nucleotide

    • B. 

      Protein

    • C. 

      Monnosaccharide

    • D. 

      Lipid

  • 99. 
    The ears of foxes help to regulate body heat. The fennec fox lives in the North African desert and has large ears that release body heat. The Arctic fox lives in cold climates and has small ears that conserve body heat.   Which of these processes led to the development of different ear sizes in foxes?    
    • A. 

      Selective breeding

    • B. 

      Succession

    • C. 

      Natural selection

    • D. 

      Mutualism

  • 100. 
    Use the information and the diagram below to answer the following question.   Part of the process of protein synthesis is shown below. The different structures in this process are numbered 1 through 5. Structure 2 in the diagram represents a  
    • A. 

      Ribosome

    • B. 

      Mitochondria

    • C. 

      Protein

    • D. 

      Chloroplast

  • 101. 
    Which of these does not occur during meiosis?
    • A. 

      Production of identical gametes

    • B. 

      Production of new gene combinations

    • C. 

      Crossing-over of homologous chromosomes

    • D. 

      Reduction of chromosome number by one-half

  • 102. 
    Horses have 64 chromosomes in each body cell. If a horse cell undergoes meiosis, how many chromosomes should be in each gamete?  
    • A. 

      16

    • B. 

      32

    • C. 

      64

    • D. 

      128

  • 103. 
    Which of these is an example of a homozygous recessive genotype?  
    • A. 

      Rr

    • B. 

      RR

    • C. 

      Rr

    • D. 

      Round

  • 104. 
    Normal thymine (T) is found in the old strand. It is replaced by an abnormal molecule (T*) in the new strand. The abnormal molecule (T*) binds to guanine (G) instead of binding to adenine (A). This is an example of
    • A. 

      An adaptation

    • B. 

      Protein synthesis

    • C. 

      A mutation

    • D. 

      Binary fission

  • 105. 
    Use the information below to answer the following question.   A particular toxin prevents cellular production of usable energy. Cells that are affected by this toxin are unable to carry out many of their normal functions.   Which of these organelles would be most directly harmed by this toxin
    • A. 

      Ribosomes

    • B. 

      Nucleus

    • C. 

      Mitochondria

    • D. 

      Vacuole

  • 106. 
    Use the information below to answer the following question.   A particular toxin prevents cellular production of usable energy. Cells that are affected by this toxin are unable to carry out many of their normal functions.   If cells were exposed to this toxin, which of these processes would probably be least affected?    
    • A. 

      Mitosis

    • B. 

      Diffusion

    • C. 

      Respiration

    • D. 

      Photosynthesis

  • 107. 
    Which of these correctly matches the molecule with its function?    
    • A. 

      Lipid—stores genetic information

    • B. 

      Vitamin—supplies energy to cells

    • C. 

      Enzyme—a protein that speeds up chemical reactions

    • D. 

      Carbohydrate—manufactures cell membranes

  • 108. 
    The genetic information for making a protein must move from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Which of these moves this information to the cytoplasm?  
    • A. 

      Ribosome

    • B. 

      DNA

    • C. 

      RNA

    • D. 

      Amino acid

  • 109. 
    A protein called p53 can keep cells from dividing. To prevent cell division, this protein most likely stops  
    • A. 

      Osmosis

    • B. 

      Mitosis

    • C. 

      Respiration

    • D. 

      Mutation

  • 110. 
    Many bacteria live in fresh water. Which of these statements best describes what will happen when freshwater bacterial cells are placed in salt water?  
    • A. 

      Water leaves the cell, causing the cell to expand

    • B. 

      Water leaves the cell, causing the cell to shrink

    • C. 

      Water enters the cell, causing the cell to expand

    • D. 

      Water enters the cell, causing the cell to shrink

  • 111. 
    A sperm cell of a moth has 112 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in the moth's wing cells?  
    • A. 

      66

    • B. 

      112

    • C. 

      224

    • D. 

      448

  • 112. 
    Striped fish are affected by biotic and abiotic factors in their environment. Which of these factors is biotic?  
    • A. 

      Water temperature

    • B. 

      Mineral nutrients

    • C. 

      Freshwater algae

    • D. 

      Inorganic sediments

  • 113. 
    Which of these substances moves across cell membranes by osmosis?  
    • A. 

      Salt

    • B. 

      Water

    • C. 

      Sugar

    • D. 

      Protein

  • 114. 
    Scientists have found many similarities in the proteins of turtles and sharks. These similarities suggest that turtles and sharks  
    • A. 

      Have stopped evolving

    • B. 

      Have a common ancestor

    • C. 

      Have all the same DNA sequences

    • D. 

      Have the same number of chromosomes

  • 115. 
    A team of marine scientists is studying biotic and abiotic factors that affect the stability of a deep-sea ecosystem.   The scientists discovered a species of fish that eats other fish and decaying matter. Which of these does not describe the newly discovered fish?  
    • A. 

      Producer

    • B. 

      Predator

    • C. 

      Scavenger

    • D. 

      Consumer

  • 116. 
    The deep-sea ecosystem is a stable ecosystem. Which of these is a characteristic of most stable ecosystems?  
    • A. 

      They contain a wide variety of organisms

    • B. 

      They contain very few organisms

    • C. 

      Organic nutrients are in short supply

    • D. 

      Sunlight is not used to make food

  • 117. 
    Most carbohydrates in the human body are    
    • A. 

      Used as building blocks for proteins

    • B. 

      Used as catalysts for reactions in cells

    • C. 

      Consumed as a source of energy

    • D. 

      Not easily absorbed into the bloodstream

  • 118. 
    Which of these is produced as a result of fertilization?
    • A. 

      A zygote with twice the number of chromosomes as a gamete

    • B. 

      An egg with half the number of chromosomes as a zygote

    • C. 

      A gamete with twice the number of chromosomes as a zygote

    • D. 

      A zygote with half the number of chromosomes as a gamete

  • 119. 
    Gray wolves were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park in 1995. Two years later, the population of coyotes had decreased by 50%. Coyotes were found in all habitats of the park before the gray wolves were reintroduced. Now, coyotes are most often found in the hills and mountains. Which of these describes the role of the vole in the Yellowstone ecosystem?  
    • A. 

      Decompose

    • B. 

      Producer

    • C. 

      Herbivore

    • D. 

      Carnivore

  • 120. 
    A student observes a unicellular organism under a microscope. After a while, the organism begins to split into two cells, as shown in the diagram. Which of these best describes the process shown in the diagram?  
    • A. 

      Binary fission

    • B. 

      Meiosis

    • C. 

      Osmosis

    • D. 

      Sexual reproduction

  • 121. 
    Which of these is a nucleotide?  
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      4

  • 122. 
    A scientist removed the cell membranes from bacteria cells in a culture. She analyzed the cell membranes for specific molecules. Which of these was probably the most common type of molecule present in the bacteria cell membranes?    
    • A. 

      Lipid

    • B. 

      Amino acid

    • C. 

      Nucleic acid

    • D. 

      Carbohydrate

  • 123. 
    What is one role of tRNA in the cell?
    • A. 

      Preparing the genes for messenger RNA

    • B. 

      Changing nitrogen bases into amino acids

    • C. 

      Preparing messenger RNA for the ribosomes

    • D. 

      Carrying amino acids to the ribosomes

  • 124. 
    The human body functions properly when organ systems work together. Which organ system works with the muscular system to control muscle contraction?
    • A. 

      Circulatory

    • B. 

      Excretory

    • C. 

      Nervous

    • D. 

      Reproductive

  • 125. 
    Which of these statements best explains how genes and proteins are related?  
    • A. 

      Genes are segments of DNA that code for proteins.

    • B. 

      Proteins are segments of DNA that code for genes

    • C. 

      Genes are the building blocks of proteins

    • D. 

      Proteins are the building blocks of genes

  • 126. 
    Which of these is an example of homeostasis in a multicellular organism?  
    • A. 

      Inheriting a trait

    • B. 

      Growing larger and stronger

    • C. 

      Building a nest

    • D. 

      Regulating body temperature

  • 127. 
    A student observes a unicellular organism under a microscope. After a while, the organism begins to split into two cells, as shown in the diagram.   Which of these structures does the organism shown above use to move itself?  
    • A. 

      Cilia

    • B. 

      Nuclei

    • C. 

      Flagella

    • D. 

      Ribosomes