Sociology Final

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Sociology Quizzes & Trivia
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  • 1. 
    Which of the following concepts refers to people who interact in a defined territory and share culture?
    • A. 

      Culture

    • B. 

      Society

    • C. 

      Nation

    • D. 

      State


  • 2. 
    Gerhard Lenski claimed that which of the following has the greatest power to shape a society?
    • A. 

      Technology

    • B. 

      Social conflict

    • C. 

      Human ideas

    • D. 

      Human desire for change


  • 3. 
    The Roman Empire at its peak power was what type of society?
    • A. 

      Hunting and gathering

    • B. 

      Horticultural and pastoral

    • C. 

      Agrarian

    • D. 

      Industrial


  • 4. 
    Karl Marx believed that the industrial-capitalist system was:
    • A. 

      Very productive

    • B. 

      Concentrating wealth in the hands of a few.

    • C. 

      Giving rise to two great classes: capitalists and proletarians

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct


  • 5. 
    The driving force of social change, according to Marx, is:
    • A. 

      Advancing technology

    • B. 

      Social conflict between classes

    • C. 

      Dominant ideas

    • D. 

      The way in which society is held together


  • 6. 
    How did Weber describe traditional societies?
    • A. 

      People look open-mindedly to the future

    • B. 

      People pass the same values and beliefs from generation to generation

    • C. 

      People live in the present, paying littlee attention to the past or the future

    • D. 

      People strive to be more and more productive


  • 7. 
    Looking over the long course of history, Durkheim claimed that societiees change as...............gives away to...............
    • A. 

      Gesellschaft; Gemeinschaft

    • B. 

      Individualism; collective conscience

    • C. 

      Mechanical solodarity; organic solidarity

    • D. 

      Organic solidarity; mechanical solidarity


  • 8. 
    What concepts refers to a person's fairly consistent pattern of acting, thinking, and feeling?
    • A. 

      Socialization

    • B. 

      Behavior

    • C. 

      Human nature

    • D. 

      Personality


  • 9. 
    If you were to put together the lesson learned from the cases of Anna, Isabelle, and Genie, you would correctly conclude that:
    • A. 

      Social experience plays a crucial part in forming human personality.

    • B. 

      Both social experience and the persence of the birth mother are crucial to early development

    • C. 

      The effect of long-term social isolation can be overcome in a relatively short time.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct


  • 10. 
    Jean piaget's focus was on:
    • A. 

      How children develop their motor skills.

    • B. 

      How children are stimulated by their environment

    • C. 

      The role of heredity in shaping human behavior

    • D. 

      Cognition, or how people think and understand


  • 11. 
    Carol Gilligan extended Kohlberg's research, showing that:
    • A. 

      Girls and boys typically assess situations as right and wrong using different standards

    • B. 

      Girls are more interested in right and wrong than boys are

    • C. 

      Boys are more interested in right and wrong than girls are

    • D. 

      The ability to assess situations as right and wrong typically develops only as young people enter the teenage years.


  • 12. 
    According to Mead, children learn to take the role of the other as they model themseleves on important people in their lives =, such as parents. Mead referred to these people as:
    • A. 

      Role models

    • B. 

      Looking-glass models

    • C. 

      Significant others

    • D. 

      The generalized other


  • 13. 
    In her research, Elisabeth Kubler-Ross found that death:
    • A. 

      Is defined in much the same way in every society

    • B. 

      Is an orderly transition involving specific stages

    • C. 

      Is a topic that people in the United States have always been comfortable discussing

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct


  • 14. 
    At a given time you occupy a number of statuses. These statuses make up your:
    • A. 

      Master status

    • B. 

      Role set

    • C. 

      Achieved statuses

    • D. 

      Status set


  • 15. 
    What concept refers to a social position that is recieved at birth or involuntarily assumed later in life?
    • A. 

      Passive role

    • B. 

      Master status

    • C. 

      Ascribed status

    • D. 

      Achieved status


  • 16. 
    Which concept refers to a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life?
    • A. 

      Social status

    • B. 

      Master status

    • C. 

      Ascribed status

    • D. 

      Achieved status


  • 17. 
    Sociologist use what concept to refer to behavior people expect of someone who holds a particular status?
    • A. 

      Role

    • B. 

      Master status

    • C. 

      Status set

    • D. 

      Role set


  • 18. 
    Which of the following is involved when a surgeon chooses not to operate on her own son because the personal involvement of motherhood could impair her professional objectivity as a physician?
    • A. 

      Role conflict

    • B. 

      Role strain

    • C. 

      Role ambiguity

    • D. 

      Role exit


  • 19. 
    What is the term for the process by which people disengage from important social roles?
    • A. 

      Role rejection

    • B. 

      Role reversal

    • C. 

      Role loss

    • D. 

      Role exit


  • 20. 
    The Thomas theorem states that:
    • A. 

      A role is as a role does

    • B. 

      People rise to their level of incompetence

    • C. 

      Situations defined as real are real in their consequences

    • D. 

      People know the world only through their language


  • 21. 
    What is the correct sociological term for all people with a common status, such as "college students"
    • A. 

      A crowd

    • B. 

      A group

    • C. 

      A category

    • D. 

      A network


  • 22. 
    A temporary, loosely formed collection of people who may or may not interact is a:
    • A. 

      Crowd

    • B. 

      Group

    • C. 

      Category

    • D. 

      Population


  • 23. 
    Which of the following is every society's most important primary group?
    • A. 

      The peer group

    • B. 

      The work group

    • C. 

      The family

    • D. 

      The play group


  • 24. 
    What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks?
    • A. 

      Democratic leadership

    • B. 

      Authoritarian leadership

    • C. 

      Expressive leadership

    • D. 

      Instumental leadership


  • 25. 
    What type of leaders downplay their own power, letting the group function more or less on its own?
    • A. 

      Authoritarian leaders

    • B. 

      Democratic leaders

    • C. 

      Laissez-faire leaders

    • D. 

      Instrumental leaders


  • 26. 
    Solomon Asch's research, in which subjects were asked to match lines, showed:
    • A. 

      People seek out friends with whom they tend to agree

    • B. 

      People defined as "leaders" have great power over their subjects

    • C. 

      People tend to see most things differently

    • D. 

      Group membership has the power to generate conformity


  • 27. 
    If your a prisoner, a maximum -security prison would be which of the following types of organization from your point of view?
    • A. 

      A normative-organization

    • B. 

      A coercive organization

    • C. 

      A utilitarian organization

    • D. 

      A voluntary organization


  • 28. 
    Read the four statement below. which one of these statements about stratification is NOT true?
    • A. 

      Social stratification is a trait of society

    • B. 

      Social stratification is universal and also variable.

    • C. 

      A family's social standing typically changes a great deal from generation to generation

    • D. 

      Social stratification is a matter of inequality and also beliefs about why people should be unequal


  • 29. 
    A caste system is defined as:
    • A. 

      Social stratification based on ascription or birth

    • B. 

      Social stratification based on personal achievement

    • C. 

      A meritocracy

    • D. 

      Any social system in which categories of people are unequal


  • 30. 
    If you were born into a traditional caste system, you would expect that, based on birth, you would be:
    • A. 

      Raised to do a certain type of job.

    • B. 

      Required to marry someone of your own social category

    • C. 

      Encouraged to socialize with other people within your own category

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct


  • 31. 
    The historical replacement of caste systems with class systems:
    • A. 

      Brings an end to most social inequality

    • B. 

      Replaces one kind of inequality with another

    • C. 

      Means that individuals experience less social mobility

    • D. 

      Means that categories of people become more clearly unequal


  • 32. 
    A college professor with advanced degrees, moderate salary, and little power to shape national events can be described as having:
    • A. 

      High status consistency

    • B. 

      Horizontal social mobility

    • C. 

      Downward social mobility

    • D. 

      Low status consistency


  • 33. 
    At lowest level of social stratification in ancient Japan were the: 
    • A. 

      Shogun

    • B. 

      Burakumin or ''outcasts''

    • C. 

      Samurai or ''warriors''

    • D. 

      Shudra


  • 34. 
    According to Davis-Moore thesis;
    • A. 

      Equality is functional for society

    • B. 

      The more inequality a society has, the more productive it is

    • C. 

      More important jobs must provide enough rewards to attract the talent necessary to perform them

    • D. 

      Meritocracy is less productive than a caste system


  • 35. 
    Which of the following concepts refers to ''the recognized violation of cultural norms''
    • A. 

      Deviance

    • B. 

      Crime

    • C. 

      Legal infraction

    • D. 

      Juvenile delinquency


  • 36. 
    Walter Reckless and Simon Dinitz claimed that ''good boys'' have the ability to rein in deviant impluses. They called their analysis:
    • A. 

      Differential opportunity theory

    • B. 

      Containment theory

    • C. 

      Libido theory

    • D. 

      Differential association theory


  • 37. 
    Using Robert Merton's strain theory, how would you classify a low-paid, yet compulsively conforming bank teller who never seems to want to get ahead but nevers seems to do anything wrong?
    • A. 

      Innovator

    • B. 

      Ritualist

    • C. 

      Retreatist

    • D. 

      Rebel


  • 38. 
    Cloward and Ohlin extended the Merton's theory of deviance, stating that crime;
    • A. 

      Reflects both limited legitimate opportunity as well as accessible illegitimate opportunity

    • B. 

      Is more common among the rich who have more opportunity

    • C. 

      Is defined in such ways as to overly criminalize the poor

    • D. 

      Is typically a result of drug dependence or other substance addiction


  • 39. 
    Edwin Lemert described ''primary deviance'' as; 
    • A. 

      The most serious episodes of deviance

    • B. 

      Actions that parents define as deviant

    • C. 

      A passing episode of deviance that has little effect on the person's self-concept

    • D. 

      The experience of deviance early in life


  • 40. 
    What concept did Erving Goffman use to refer to a powerful and negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity?
    • A. 

      A deviant ritual

    • B. 

      A degraduation ceremony

    • C. 

      Stigmata

    • D. 

      Stigma


  • 41. 
    Globalization of the economy means that:
    • A. 

      World regions specialize in one sector of the economic activity

    • B. 

      More and more products pass through several nations

    • C. 

      A small number of businesses represent a large share of the planet's economic output

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct


  • 42. 
    In capitalist economic system, ''justice'' amounts to:
    • A. 

      Doing what is best for society's poorest members

    • B. 

      Everyone being more or less socially equal

    • C. 

      Freedom of the marketplace where a person can follow self-interest

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct


  • 43. 
    Which of the following DO NOT descirbe the operation of a socialist economy?
    • A. 

      Collective orientation

    • B. 

      Government control of production

    • C. 

      Laissez-faire economy

    • D. 

      Command economy


  • 44. 
    Which if the following concepts refers to a politicak and economic system that combines a mostly market-based economy with extensive social welfare programs?
    • A. 

      Capitalism

    • B. 

      Socialism

    • C. 

      Welfare capitalism

    • D. 

      Communism


  • 45. 
    Contrated to socialist economic systems, capitalist economic systems are typically:
    • A. 

      Equally productive

    • B. 

      More productive

    • C. 

      Less productive

    • D. 

      Not concerned with productivity


  • 46. 
    Concerning the issue of personal freedom, capitalist systems emphasize people's ................., while socialists systems emphasize people's.................
    • A. 

      Collective needs; personal needs

    • B. 

      Freedom form basic want; freedom to pursue their self-interest

    • C. 

      Freedom to pursue their self-interest; freedom from basic want

    • D. 

      Social needs; material needs


  • 47. 
    The concept ''primary labor market'' refers to:
    • A. 

      Jobs that provide extensive benefits to workers

    • B. 

      Jobs typically taken by teenagers

    • C. 

      Jobs that require no particular training or experience

    • D. 

      Jobs that offer little pay and loe security


  • 48. 
    Read the four descriptions below. Which of them DOES NOT apply to a profession?
    • A. 

      Having theoretical knowledge of a field

    • B. 

      Working for a large, well-established company

    • C. 

      Having authority over clients

    • D. 

      Professing a community rather than individual orientation


  • 49. 
    The concept ''oligopoly'' refers to:
    • A. 

      Any corporation with more than $ 1 billion in sales

    • B. 

      The largest company in a particular field

    • C. 

      Domination of a market by a few companies

    • D. 

      A large company operating in all three economic sectors


  • 50. 
    In the United States, the Amish would be an example of a:
    • A. 

      State church

    • B. 

      Cult

    • C. 

      Sect

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct


  • 51. 
    Which of the following typically forms as a breakaway group from some established religious organization?
    • A. 

      Sect

    • B. 

      Church

    • C. 

      Cult

    • D. 

      State church


  • 52. 
    Which of the following refers to a religious organization that is largely outside a society's cultural traditions?
    • A. 

      Church

    • B. 

      Sect

    • C. 

      Cult

    • D. 

      Denomination


  • 53. 
    Which of the following would you expect to be the least stable type of religious organization?
    • A. 

      Cult

    • B. 

      Church

    • C. 

      Denomination

    • D. 

      State church


  • 54. 
    Animism is the belief that:
    • A. 

      God has a plan for the entire world

    • B. 

      Everything in the world is a conscious, living force that able to affect us

    • C. 

      Nothing is sacred

    • D. 

      People can find little meaning in their everyday lives


  • 55. 
    Polytheism refers to:
    • A. 

      Acceptance of many religons as true

    • B. 

      Belief that all things in the world are sacred

    • C. 

      Belief in many gods

    • D. 

      Openess to religious experience


  • 56. 
    Which of the following is the oldest of religion disucssed in the text?
    • A. 

      Hinduism

    • B. 

      Judaism

    • C. 

      Christianity

    • D. 

      Islam


  • 57. 
    The concept ''Karma'' refers to:
    • A. 

      The Christian belief in salvation

    • B. 

      The Hindu religion in the process of the human soul

    • C. 

      The Muslim's desire to do God's will

    • D. 

      The first five books of the Jewish Bible


  • 58. 
    Confucianism is closely linked to the traditional culture of:
    • A. 

      India

    • B. 

      China

    • C. 

      Japan

    • D. 

      Iran


  • 59. 
    Read the four statements below. Which of the following is NOT  a trait of religious fundamentalism?
    • A. 

      Endorsing conservative political goals

    • B. 

      Seeking the personal experience of God's presence

    • C. 

      Interpreting religious texts literally

    • D. 

      Accepting religious pluralism


  • 60. 
    Which of the following nations stands out as the most religious of all high-income countries?
    • A. 

      Japan

    • B. 

      Sweden

    • C. 

      The United States

    • D. 

      France


  • 61. 
    Which discipline defines itself as ''the systematic study of human society''?
    • A. 

      Sociology

    • B. 

      Psychology

    • C. 

      Economics

    • D. 

      History


  • 62. 
    The term ''sociology'' was coined in 1838 by?
    • A. 

      Karl Marx

    • B. 

      Herbert Spencer

    • C. 

      Adam Smith

    • D. 

      Auguste Comte


  • 63. 
    A statement of how and why specific facts are related is called a:
    • A. 

      Approach

    • B. 

      Precept

    • C. 

      Concept

    • D. 

      Theory


  • 64. 
    Social structures sometimes have negative consequences for the operation of society as a whole. What is the term for these negative consequences?
    • A. 

      Social structure

    • B. 

      Eufunctions

    • C. 

      Social finctions

    • D. 

      Social dysfunction


  • 65. 
    The recognized and intended consequences of a social pattern are referred to as:
    • A. 

      Latent functions

    • B. 

      Manifest functions

    • C. 

      Eufunctions

    • D. 

      Dysfunctions


  • 66. 
    Science can be defined as:
    • A. 

      A logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation

    • B. 

      Belief based on faith in ultimate truth

    • C. 

      Belief based on a society's traditions

    • D. 

      A logical system that bases truth on political goals


  • 67. 
    Imagine that you were going to measure the age of a number of respondents taking part in a survey. As you record the data, you are using the concept ''age'' as:
    • A. 

      A theory

    • B. 

      A hypothesis

    • C. 

      A variable

    • D. 

      An axiom


  • 68. 
    In the process of measurement, reliability refers to:
    • A. 

      Whether you are really measuring what you want to measure

    • B. 

      How dependable the research is

    • C. 

      Whether or not everyone agrees with the study's results

    • D. 

      Whether repaeating the measurement yeilds consistent results


  • 69. 
    A theory states that increasing a person's formal education results in increased earnings over a lifetime. In this theory, ''higher education'' is the:
    • A. 

      Independent variable

    • B. 

      Dependent variable

    • C. 

      Correlation

    • D. 

      Effect


  • 70. 
    Two variables are said to display correlation if:
    • A. 

      They are caused by the same factor

    • B. 

      One occur before the other

    • C. 

      Both measure the same thing

    • D. 

      They vary together


  • 71. 
    Three of the following statements below are apart of the definition of a cause-and-effect relationship. One is not. Which one is not? ASK JOE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1
    • A. 

      Both variables must be shown to be independent

    • B. 

      The independent variable must come before the dependent variable in time

    • C. 

      The twp variables must display correlation.

    • D. 

      There must be no evidence that the correlation is spurious


  • 72. 
    The intangible world of ideas created by members of a society is referred to as:
    • A. 

      High culture

    • B. 

      Material culture

    • C. 

      Norms

    • D. 

      Nonmaterial culture


  • 73. 
    Sociologists define a symbol as;
    • A. 

      Anything that carries meaning to people who share a culture

    • B. 

      Any material cultural trait

    • C. 

      Any gesture that conveys insult to others

    • D. 

      Social patterns that cause culture shock


  • 74. 
    Cultural transmission refers to the process of:
    • A. 

      Cultural patterns moving from one society to another

    • B. 

      Using the oral tradition

    • C. 

      Passing cultural patterns from one generation to another

    • D. 

      Usong writing to enshrine cultural patterns


  • 75. 
    Which of the following most closely conveys the point of the Sapir-Whorf thesis?
    • A. 

      Language involves attaching labels to the real world

    • B. 

      People see the world through the cultural lens of their language

    • C. 

      Most words have the same meaning if spoken in different languages

    • D. 

      Every word exists in all known language


  • 76. 
    Standards by which people share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called:
    • A. 

      Folkways

    • B. 

      Norms

    • C. 

      Mores

    • D. 

      Values


  • 77. 
    Low-income countries have cultures that vale ehich of the following?
    • A. 

      Economic survival

    • B. 

      Equal standing for women and men

    • C. 

      Self-expression

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct


  • 78. 
    .....................are rules about everyday, casual living;.....................are rules with great moral significance.
    • A. 

      Mores; folkways

    • B. 

      Folkways; mores

    • C. 

      Proscriptive norms; prescriptive norms

    • D. 

      Prescriptive norms; proscriptive norms


  • 79. 
    Cultural patterns that are widespread among society's population are referred to as:
    • A. 

      High culture

    • B. 

      Popular culture

    • C. 

      Elite culture

    • D. 

      Established culture


  • 80. 
    Which of the following statements is a good example of cultural lag?
    • A. 

      Gaining the abiltiy to modify genetic patterns before understanding the possible social consequences of this kind of work

    • B. 

      A slowing in the rate of invention in the computer industry

    • C. 

      Older people trying to make younger people respect tradition

    • D. 

      Virtual culture repalcing traditonal culture


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