Flat affect, social withdrawal, and unusual dress
Suspiciousness, hypervigilance, and emotional coldness
Lack of self-esteem, strong dependency needs, and impulsive behavior
Insensitivity to others, sexual acting out, and violence
A hematoma on the occipital region of the head
A 1-inch forehead laceration
Several small, dime-sized circular burns on the child's back
A small isolated bruise on the right lower extremity
"You don't have to eat. It's your choice."
"I hope you'll eat your food by mouth. Tube feedings and I.V. lines can be uncomfortable."
"Why do you think you're fat? You're underweight. Here — look in the mirror."
"You really look terrible at this weight. I hope you'll eat."
"If you aren't an alcoholic, why do you keep drinking and ending up in the hospital?"
"It's your decision. If you don't want to go, you don't have to."
"You seem upset about the meetings."
"You have to go to the meetings. It's part of your treatment plan."
By the client alone.
Jointly by the client and nurse.
Jointly by the physician and nurse.
Early alcoholic phase
Have three staff members present, one for each side of the body and one for the head.
Always tie restraints to side rails
Have an organized, efficient team approach after the decision is made to restrain the client.
Secure restraints to the gurney with knots to prevent escape.
Initiating caloric and nutritional therapy as ordered
Instituting behavioral modification therapy as ordered
Addressing the client's low self-esteem
Regularly monitoring vital signs and weight
A no-suicide contract
Weekly outpatient therapy
A second psychiatric opinion
Intensive inpatient treatment
No known etiology
Abnormalities in brain neurotransmitters, structural changes in basal ganglia and caudate nucleus, and genetics
Abnormalities in the structure and function of the ventricles
Environmental factors and birth-related trauma