Professor Tate's Test 2: Ch 18-21

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Practice test for Professor Tate's final anatomy & physiology exam. Questions taken from 2nd test of the semester. Chapters 18-21.

  
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  • 1. 
    The lymphatic capillaries are:
    • A. 

      Equally permeable to blood capillaries.

    • B. 

      Completely impermeable.

    • C. 

      Less permeable than blood capillaries.

    • D. 

      More permeable than blood capillaries.


  • 2. 
    The only immunoglobulin to exist as a pentamer is:
    • A. 

      IgA.

    • B. 

      IgG.

    • C. 

      IgM.

    • D. 

      IgD.


  • 3. 
    Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?
    • A. 

      Systemic lupus erythematosus.

    • B. 

      Multiple sclerosis.

    • C. 

      Glomerulonephritis.

    • D. 

      Type II diabetes.


  • 4. 
    Noreprinephrine acts on heart muscle cells by:
    • A. 

      Decreasing heart contractility.

    • B. 

      Blocking the action of calcium.

    • C. 

      Causing threshold to be reached more quickly.

    • D. 

      Causing a decrease in stroke volume.


  • 5. 
    Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and roughen its surface, Enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed:
    • A. 

      Diapedesis.

    • B. 

      Opsonization.

    • C. 

      Agglutination.

    • D. 

      Chemotaxis.


  • 6. 
    Suppressor T cells:
    • A. 

      Decrease their activity as antigenic stimulus decreases.

    • B. 

      May function in preventing autoimmune reactions.

    • C. 

      Are the most thoroughly understood T cells.

    • D. 

      Release cytokines that increase the activity of cytotoxic T cells and activated B cells.


  • 7. 
    Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?
    • A. 

      Keratin.

    • B. 

      Ciia.

    • C. 

      Gastric juice.

    • D. 

      Phagocytes.


  • 8. 
    Aldosterone will:
    • A. 

      Decrease sodium resorption.

    • B. 

      Promote an increase in blood pressure.

    • C. 

      Result in a larger output of urine.

    • D. 

      Promote a decrease in blood volume.


  • 9. 
    Select the correct statement about the movement of materials at the capillary level.
    • A. 

      If the osmotic pressure in the blood vessels is relatively higher than that in the tissues, tissue edema will result.

    • B. 

      Chemical waste products follow the same general path as oxygen.

    • C. 

      Oxygen diffuses up its concentration gradient.

    • D. 

      Carbon dioxide moves from its production site into the interstitial fluid.


  • 10. 
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) trigger the release of ______ to attract white blood cells to the scene.
    • A. 

      Complement.

    • B. 

      Prostaglandins.

    • C. 

      Cytokines.

    • D. 

      Histamine.


  • 11. 
    The term blood islands refers to:
    • A. 

      Areas of the vascular system where blood does not circulate.

    • B. 

      The areas of the pancreas where insulin is produced.

    • C. 

      Embryonic masses of mesodermal cells that give rise to the endothelial lining of blood vessels.

    • D. 

      The regions of the liver where nutrients are extracted from visceral blood.


  • 12. 
    The system that recognizes foreign molecules and acts to immobilize, neutralize, or destroy them is the:
    • A. 

      Lymphatic system.

    • B. 

      Renal system.

    • C. 

      Immune system.

    • D. 

      Integumentary system.


  • 13. 
    Cardiac output is about _______ L/min.
    • A. 

      4.25

    • B. 

      7.27

    • C. 

      5.25

    • D. 

      6.26


  • 14. 
    Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called:
    • A. 

      Haptens.

    • B. 

      Reagins.

    • C. 

      Ions.

    • D. 

      Antibodies.


  • 15. 
    The ligamentum arteriosum connects the?
    • A. 

      The superior vena cava and the ascending aorta.

    • B. 

      Pulmonary trunk and the arch of the aorta.

    • C. 

      Pulmonary veins and the arch of the aorta.

    • D. 

      The ascending aorta and the right pulmonary artery.


  • 16. 
    Which of the following is not a blood vessel attached to the circle of Willis?
    • A. 

      Anterior cerebral artery.

    • B. 

      Posterior cerebral artery.

    • C. 

      Anterior communicating artery.

    • D. 

      Posterior communicating artery.


  • 17. 
    _______ predominate at the site of chronic infections.
    • A. 

      Basophils

    • B. 

      B cells

    • C. 

      Eosinophils

    • D. 

      Macrophages


  • 18. 
    Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?
    • A. 

      Inhibit production of antibodies.

    • B. 

      Small molecules.

    • C. 

      Reactivity with an antibody.

    • D. 

      Contain many repeating chemical units.


  • 19. 
    The form of circulatory shock known as hypovolemic shock is:
    • A. 

      Any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally.

    • B. 

      Only that form of shock caused by large-scale loss of blood.

    • C. 

      Always fatal.

    • D. 

      Shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume or after severe vomiting or diarrhea.


  • 20. 
    The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called:
    • A. 

      Pulmonary circulation.

    • B. 

      Coronary circulation.

    • C. 

      Cerebral circulation.

    • D. 

      Hepatic portal circulation.


  • 21. 
    Which of the following is likely during vigorous exercise?
    • A. 

      The skin will be cold and clammy.

    • B. 

      Blood will be diverted to the digestive organs.

    • C. 

      Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood.

    • D. 

      Blood flow to the kidneys increases.


  • 22. 
    The left coronary artery branches into the anterior interventricular and _____ arteries.
    • A. 

      Great cardiac arteries

    • B. 

      Circumflex

    • C. 

      Marginal

    • D. 

      Posterior interventricular


  • 23. 
    A rapid heart beat of over 100 beats per minute is called?
    • A. 

      Tachycardia.

    • B. 

      Flutter.

    • C. 

      Fibrillation.

    • D. 

      Bradycardia.


  • 24. 
    The primary immune response:
    • A. 

      Occurs more rapidly and is stronger than the secondary response.

    • B. 

      Occurs when memory cells are stimulated.

    • C. 

      Has a lag period whole B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells.

    • D. 

      Is another name for immunological memory.


  • 25. 
    Select the correct statement about phagocytic cells.
    • A. 

      Neutrophils may destroy themselves when they phagocytize large quantities of a foreign substance.

    • B. 

      Kupffer cells are a type of neutrophil.

    • C. 

      Macrophages release defensins during killing.

    • D. 

      The respiratory burst characterizes eosinophil phagocytosis.


  • 26. 
    The pulse pressure is:
    • A. 

      Systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure.

    • B. 

      Systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure.

    • C. 

      Diastolic pressure plus 1/3 (systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure).

    • D. 

      Systolic pressure divided by diastolic pressure.


  • 27. 
    Which of the following would not be classified as a lymphatic structure?
    • A. 

      Spleen.

    • B. 

      Peyer's Patches of the intestine.

    • C. 

      Pancreas.

    • D. 

      Tonsils.


  • 28. 
    Graft rejection may be caused by:
    • A. 

      Total body irradiation.

    • B. 

      Using a xenograft.

    • C. 

      Use of immuno-suppressive drugs.

    • D. 

      Treatment with anti-lymphocyte serum.


  • 29. 
    Select the correct statement about the function of myocardial cells.
    • A. 

      The refractory period in skeletal muscle is much longer than that in cardiac muscle.

    • B. 

      The influx of potassium ions from extracellular sources is the initiating event in cardiac muscle contraction.

    • C. 

      The all-or-none law as applied to cardiac muscle means that the entire heart contracts as a unit or it doesn't contract at all.

    • D. 

      Cardiac muscle cells are each innervated by a sympathetic nerve ending so that the nervous system can increase heart rate.


  • 30. 
    Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of:
    • A. 

      Arteries.

    • B. 

      Arterioles.

    • C. 

      Veins.

    • D. 

      Capillaries.


  • 31. 
    B lymphocytes develop immuno-competence in the:
    • A. 

      Thymus.

    • B. 

      Bone marrow.

    • C. 

      Spleen.

    • D. 

      Lymph nodes.


  • 32. 
    Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes:
    • A. 

      A lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output.

    • B. 

      A rise in blood pressure due to change in cardiac output.

    • C. 

      No change in blood pressure but a slower heart rate.

    • D. 

      No change in blood pressure but a change in respiration.


  • 33. 
    This blood vessel becomes the dorsalis pedis:
    • A. 

      Fibular.

    • B. 

      Posterior tibial.

    • C. 

      Popliteal.

    • D. 

      Femural.

    • E. 

      Anterior tibial.


  • 34. 
    Blood flow to the skin:
    • A. 

      Increases when environmental temperature rises.

    • B. 

      Is not an important source of nutrients and oxygen for skin cells.

    • C. 

      Increases when body temperature drops so that the skin does not freeze.

    • D. 

      Is controlled mainly by decreasing pH.


  • 35. 
    Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed:
    • A. 

      Lymph nodes.

    • B. 

      Lymph follicles.

    • C. 

      Axillary nodes.

    • D. 

      Cisterna chyli.


  • 36. 
    Particularly large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the:
    • A. 

      Inguinal region.

    • B. 

      Lower extremities.

    • C. 

      Cervical region.

    • D. 

      Axillary region.


  • 37. 
    Which of the following is true about veins?
    • A. 

      Venous valves are formed from the tunica media.

    • B. 

      Veins have a small lumen in relation to the thickness of the vessel wall.

    • C. 

      Up to 35% of total body blood is in venous circulation at any given time.

    • D. 

      Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs.


  • 38. 
    The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates:
    • A. 

      Atrial repolarization.

    • B. 

      Atrial depolarization.

    • C. 

      Ventricular depolarization.

    • D. 

      Ventricular repolarization.


  • 39. 
    Which of the statements is true about T cells?
    • A. 

      They usually directly recognize antigens which then activates a sub population of killer cells.

    • B. 

      Once activated they cannot secrete cytokines.

    • C. 

      Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2.

    • D. 

      They will develop into cytotoxic T cells if antigen is complexed with class II MHC proteins.


  • 40. 
    ________ are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into area.
    • A. 

      Cytokines

    • B. 

      Interleukin 1 proteins

    • C. 

      Interleukin 2 proteins

    • D. 

      Perforins


  • 41. 
    Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium?
    • A. 

      Tunica interna (intima).

    • B. 

      Tunica adventitia.

    • C. 

      Tunica media.

    • D. 

      Tunica externa.


  • 42. 
    Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?
    • A. 

      Carbohydrate structure.

    • B. 

      Composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains.

    • C. 

      Incapable of being transferred from one person to another.

    • D. 

      Three binding sites per antibody monomer.


  • 43. 
    If the length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells was the same as it is for skeletal muscle cells:
    • A. 

      It would be less than 1-2ms.

    • B. 

      Contractions would last as long as the refractory period.

    • C. 

      Tetanic contractions might occur which would stoop the heart's pumping action.

    • D. 

      It would be much longer before cardiac cells could respond to a second stimulation.


  • 44. 
    Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?
    • A. 

      Thoracic duct.

    • B. 

      Lumbar trunk.

    • C. 

      Right lymphatic duct.

    • D. 

      Cisterna chyli.


  • 45. 
    The term for pain associated with deficient blood delivery to the heart that may be caused by the transient spasm of coronary arteries is:
    • A. 

      Angina pectoris.

    • B. 

      Myocardial infarct.

    • C. 

      Pericarditis.

    • D. 

      Ischemia.


  • 46. 
    Cardiac reserve:
    • A. 

      Can be determined by auscultation.

    • B. 

      Is unrelated to health.

    • C. 

      Can be improved by regular exercise.

    • D. 

      Is determined by your genes and not subject to improvement.


  • 47. 
    The velocity of blood flow:
    • A. 

      Is in direct proportion to the total cross-sectional area of the blood vessels.

    • B. 

      Is slower in the veins than in the capillaries since veins have a large diameter.

    • C. 

      Is slower in the arteries than capillaries since they possess a relatively large diameter.

    • D. 

      Is slowest in the capillaries since the total cross-sectional area is the greatest.


  • 48. 
    The absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle:
    • A. 

      Is shorter than that in skeletal muscle.

    • B. 

      Varies dramatically.

    • C. 

      Is the same as that in skeletal muscle.

    • D. 

      Is longer than that in skeletal muscle.


  • 49. 
    Interferons:
    • A. 

      Are routinely used in nasal sprays for common cold.

    • B. 

      Interfere with viral replication within cells.

    • C. 

      Are virus-specific so that an interferon produced against one virus could not protect cells against another virus.

    • D. 

      Act by increasing the rate of cell division.


  • 50. 
    When the femoral artery passes behind the knee it becomes the?
    • A. 

      Posterior tibial artery.

    • B. 

      Fibular artery.

    • C. 

      Deep femoral artery.

    • D. 

      Popliteal artery.


  • 51. 
    Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?
    • A. 

      Infusion of weakened viruses.

    • B. 

      Passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus.

    • C. 

      Long-term immune protection.

    • D. 

      Booster shot.


  • 52. 
    Blood enters which of these vessels during ventricular systole?
    • A. 

      Pulmonary arteries.

    • B. 

      Aorta.

    • C. 

      Pulmonary vein.

    • D. 

      Aorta and pulmonary arteries.


  • 53. 
    Select the correct statement about complement.
    • A. 

      A specific immune mechanism is often involved in directing complement to its target.

    • B. 

      The membrane attack complex consists of complement proteins C3a through C5.

    • C. 

      Complement proteins C1 through C9 act exclusively in the classical pathway.

    • D. 

      Complement can be activated through three pathways: classical, secondary and alternate.


  • 54. 
    Antibody functions include all the following except:
    • A. 

      Targeting foreign cells so that complement proteins can cause cellular lysis.

    • B. 

      Linking soluble antigens together so that they fall out of solution.

    • C. 

      Binding and inactivating chemical toxins released by bacteria or other microorganisms.

    • D. 

      Cross-linked cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched.


  • 55. 
    A ring of lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a (n):
    • A. 

      Appendix.

    • B. 

      Thymus.

    • C. 

      Peyer's patch.

    • D. 

      Tonsil.


  • 56. 
    Which of the following is NOT an important inflammatory mediator?
    • A. 

      Prostaglandins.

    • B. 

      Amylase.

    • C. 

      Kinens.

    • D. 

      Complement.

    • E. 

      Histamine.


  • 57. 
    Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the adaptive immune system?
    • A. 

      It is antigen-specific.

    • B. 

      It is specific for a given organ.

    • C. 

      It has memory.

    • D. 

      It is systemic.


  • 58. 
    Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the:
    • A. 

      Right atrium.

    • B. 

      Left atrium.

    • C. 

      Left ventricle.

    • D. 

      Right ventricle.


  • 59. 
    The thymus is most active during:
    • A. 

      Childhood.

    • B. 

      Middle age.

    • C. 

      Fetal development.

    • D. 

      Old age.


  • 60. 
    Which of the following factors does NOT influence heart rate?
    • A. 

      Gender.

    • B. 

      Body temperature.

    • C. 

      Skin color.

    • D. 

      Age.


  • 61. 
    Foramen ovale:
    • A. 

      Is a connection between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta in the fetus.

    • B. 

      Is a condition in which the heart valves do not completely close.

    • C. 

      Connects the two atria in the fetal heart.

    • D. 

      Is a shallow depression in the inter-ventricular septum.


  • 62. 
    The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to:
    • A. 

      Pump blood through a smaller valve.

    • B. 

      Expand the thoracic cage during diastole.

    • C. 

      Pump blood with greater pressure.

    • D. 

      Accommodate a greater volume of blood.


  • 63. 
    The tricuspid valve is closed:
    • A. 

      While the atrium is contracting.

    • B. 

      By the movement of blood from atrium to ventricle.

    • C. 

      While the ventricle is in diastole.

    • D. 

      When the ventricle is in systole.


  • 64. 
    The chief antibody-mediated mechanism used against cellular antigens such as bacteria is:
    • A. 

      Agglutination.

    • B. 

      Complement fixation.

    • C. 

      Interferon production.

    • D. 

      Neutralization.


  • 65. 
    Damage to the _____ is referred to as heart block.
    • A. 

      AV bundle

    • B. 

      AV vlaves

    • C. 

      AV node

    • D. 

      SA nodes


  • 66. 
    When the lymphatics are blocked due to tumors the result is:
    • A. 

      Increased pressure in the lymphatics proximal to the blockage.

    • B. 

      Abnormally high lymph drainage from the distal region.

    • C. 

      Severe localized edema distal to the blockage.

    • D. 

      Shrinkage of tissues distal to the blockage due to inadequate delivery of lymph.


  • 67. 
    The pericardial cavity:
    • A. 

      Is a space between the fibrous pericardium and the serous pericardium.

    • B. 

      Contains a lubricating fluid called serous fluid.

    • C. 

      Is the region of the thoracic cavity that contains the heart.

    • D. 

      Is another name for the chambers of the heart.


  • 68. 
    Blood is carried to capillaries in the myocardium by way of:
    • A. 

      The coronary sinus.

    • B. 

      The fossa ovalis.

    • C. 

      Coronary arteries.

    • D. 

      Coronary veins.


  • 69. 
    Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of the immune system by:
    • A. 

      Pinocytosis.

    • B. 

      Natural killer cells.

    • C. 

      T lymphocytes.

    • D. 

      B lymphocytes.


  • 70. 
    Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.
    • A. 

      Neutralization is the process by which antibodies cause invading cells to clump together.

    • B. 

      The most potent agglutinating agent is IgG.

    • C. 

      Antibodies may directly destroy "invaders".

    • D. 

      Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection.


  • 71. 
    Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation?
    • A. 

      Tunica media.

    • B. 

      Tunica adventitia.

    • C. 

      Tunica interna (intima).

    • D. 

      Tunica externa.


  • 72. 
    Which of the following would be classified a delayed hypersensitivity reaction?
    • A. 

      Allergic contact dermatitis.

    • B. 

      Cytotoxic hypersensitivity.

    • C. 

      Immune complex hypersensitivity.

    • D. 

      Anaphylaxis.


  • 73. 
    Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by:
    • A. 

      Lymph nodes.

    • B. 

      T lymphocytes.

    • C. 

      Plasma cells.

    • D. 

      Medullary cords.


  • 74. 
    Which statement best describes arteries?
    • A. 

      All carry blood away from the heart.

    • B. 

      Only large arteries are lined with endothelium.

    • C. 

      All carry oxygenated blood to the heart.

    • D. 

      All contain valves to prevent the back-flow of blood.


  • 75. 
    The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called:
    • A. 

      Margination.

    • B. 

      Phagocytosis.

    • C. 

      Chemotaxis.

    • D. 

      Diapedis.


  • 76. 
    If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply damage would primarily result from:
    • A. 

      A lack of nutrients to feed into metabolic pathways.

    • B. 

      An inadequate supply of lactic acid.

    • C. 

      A decrease in the number of available mitochondria for energy production.

    • D. 

      Decreased delivery of oxygen.


  • 77. 
    Which of the following i not a function of the inflammatory response?
    • A. 

      Replaces injured tissues with connective tissue.

    • B. 

      Prevents the spread of the injurious agent to nearby tissue.

    • C. 

      Disposes of cellular debris and pathogens.

    • D. 

      Sets the stage for repair process.


  • 78. 
    A thrombus (blood clot) in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the:
    • A. 

      Left upper arm.

    • B. 

      Right side of the head and neck and right upper arm.

    • C. 

      Myocardium of the heart.

    • D. 

      Left side of the head.


  • 79. 
    Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on:
    • A. 

      The pumping action of the heart.

    • B. 

      Contraction of the vessels themselves.

    • C. 

      Two-way valves.

    • D. 

      Skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement.


  • 80. 
    Where in the body would you find low oxygen levels causing vasoconstriction and high levels causing vasodilation?
    • A. 

      Heart

    • B. 

      Liver

    • C. 

      Lungs

    • D. 

      Kidney


  • 81. 
    Select the correct statement about the heart valves.
    • A. 

      The mitral vale separtates the right atrium from the right ventricle.

    • B. 

      Semilunar valves control the flow of blood into the heart.

    • C. 

      The AV valves are supported by chordae tendinae so that they do not blow back up into the atria during ventricular contraction.

    • D. 

      The tricuspid valve divides the left atrium from the left ventricle.


  • 82. 
    Normal heart sounds are caused by which of the following events?
    • A. 

      Contraction of ventricular muscle.

    • B. 

      Excitation of the SA node.

    • C. 

      Closure of the heart valves.

    • D. 

      Friction of blood against the chamber walls.


  • 83. 
    Select the correct definition about tissue grafts.
    • A. 

      Isografts are between identical twins.

    • B. 

      Autografts are between two genetically identical individuals.

    • C. 

      Allografts are between different species.

    • D. 

      Xenografts are between individuals of the same species.


  • 84. 
    Which of the following veins is often used in cardiac bipass operations?
    • A. 

      Lesser saphenous.

    • B. 

      Basilic vein.

    • C. 

      Femoral vein.

    • D. 

      Popliteal vein.

    • E. 

      Greater saphenous.


  • 85. 
    Which of the following is a type of circulatory shock?
    • A. 

      Hypovolemic caused by increased blood volume.

    • B. 

      Vascular due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone.

    • C. 

      Cardiogenic which results from any defect in blood vessels.

    • D. 

      Circulatory where blood volume is normal and constant.


  • 86. 
    The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is:
    • A. 

      Insignificant because vessel diameter does not vary.

    • B. 

      Significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius.

    • C. 

      The only factor that influences resistance.

    • D. 

      Significant because resistance is directly proportional to the blood vessel diameter.


  • 87. 
    What is the function of a Hassall's corpuscle?
    • A. 

      It is where T cells are destroyed.

    • B. 

      It forms the blood-thymus barrier.

    • C. 

      It assists in the production of lymphocytes.

    • D. 

      It increases the surface area of the thymic cortex.


  • 88. 
    In clonal selection of B cells which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?
    • A. 

      Antibody

    • B. 

      Antigen

    • C. 

      Macrophage

    • D. 

      Lymphocyte


  • 89. 
    Venous anastomoses:
    • A. 

      Occur only in the brain.

    • B. 

      Often occlude causing death if located in a vital area.

    • C. 

      Form more freely than arterial anastomoses.

    • D. 

      Connect veins together along their entire length.


  • 90. 
    Which of the following is not a midline vessel coming off the abdominal aorta?
    • A. 

      Inferior mesenteric.

    • B. 

      Median sacral.

    • C. 

      Celiac trunk.

    • D. 

      Superior mesenteric.

    • E. 

      Splenic artery.


  • 91. 
    The only t cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the:
    • A. 

      Plasma cells.

    • B. 

      Cytotoxic cells.

    • C. 

      Helper cells.

    • D. 

      Suppressor cells.


  • 92. 
    In what specific area of the chest is the heart found?
    • A. 

      Right thoracic cavity.

    • B. 

      Mediastinum.

    • C. 

      Thoracic cavity.

    • D. 

      Pleural cavity.


  • 93. 
    _______  determines what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist.
    • A. 

      The type of antigen.

    • B. 

      Memory cell production.

    • C. 

      Enzymes present at the time of the invasion.

    • D. 

      Our genes.


  • 94. 
    The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to local hyperemia caused by:
    • A. 

      Production of complement and interferon.

    • B. 

      Phagocyte mobilization.

    • C. 

      Vasodilation.

    • D. 

      Vasoconstriction.


  • 95. 
    Innate immune system defenses include:
    • A. 

      Phagocytosis.

    • B. 

      B cells.

    • C. 

      T cells.

    • D. 

      Plasma cells.


  • 96. 
    Peripheral resistance:
    • A. 

      Increases as blood vessel diameter increases.

    • B. 

      Decreases with increasing length of blood vessel.

    • C. 

      Increases as blood viscosity increases.

    • D. 

      Is not a major factor in blood pressure in healthy individuals.


  • 97. 
    Which of the following is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disorders?
    • A. 

      Exposure of previously "hidden" self-antigens to the adaptive immune system.

    • B. 

      Cross-reaction of antibodies formed against foreign antigens with self-antigens.

    • C. 

      A second exposure to an allergen.

    • D. 

      Mutation followed by the appearance of membrane proteins not previously.


  • 98. 
    The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called:
    • A. 

      Islets of Langerhans.

    • B. 

      Villi.

    • C. 

      Peyer's Patches.

    • D. 

      Rugae.


  • 99. 
    B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by:
    • A. 

      Reducing its size.

    • B. 

      Forming of a large number of cells that are unlike the original B cell.

    • C. 

      Immediately producing antigen-specific antibodies.

    • D. 

      Producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells.


  • 100. 
    Select the correct statement about the role of the nervous system in regulating the immune response.
    • A. 

      The use of positive imagery by cancer patients has yet to be studied.

    • B. 

      Many immune cells have receptors for neurotransmitters.

    • C. 

      The ability of one's state of mind to influence immune function is now accepted as proven by the medical community.

    • D. 

      There is no evidence that the nervous system can influence the immune system.


  • 101. 
    In the fetal heart there is a foramen ______ that allows blood to flow from the right atrium directly to the left atrium.

  • 102. 
    The _____ cells of the heart do not maintain stable resting membrane potentials; therefore they continually depolarize.

  • 103. 
    The _____ are the simplest lymphoid organs and are found at the entrance to the pharynx.

  • 104. 
    The thoracic duct of the lymphatic system empties into the ______.

  • 105. 
    Highly specialized lymph capillaries called ________ are present in the villi of the intestinal mucosa.

  • 106. 
    The ECG T wave interval represents _________.

  • 107. 
    The _______ valve of the heart has three valves with chordae tendineae.

  • 108. 
    CO = ______ x SV.

  • 109. 
    The first major branch of the aortic arch is the _____ branch.

  • 110. 
    Arterial ________ provide alternate pathways for blood to get to an organ.

  • 111. 
    Harmful or disease-causing microorganisms are called _____.

  • 112. 
    The ______ pulp of the spleen forms cuffs around the central arteries.

  • 113. 
    The ______ artery is a blood vessel on the arm used as a pressure point.

  • 114. 
    _____ cells can lyse and kill cancer cells and virus-infected body cells before the immune system is activated.

  • 115. 
    Which type of blood vessels contain valves and what is their function?

  • 116. 
    The lowest venous blood pressure is found in the ______.

  • 117. 
    ______ are grafts taken from another animal species.

  • 118. 
    What are the two most important antimicrobial proteins?

  • 119. 
    _______ becomes bound to mast cells and basophils and causes cells to release histamine and other chemicals.

  • 120. 
    _______ refers to a group of at least 20 plasma proteins that normally circulate in an inactive state and are a major mechanism for destroying foreign substances in the body.

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