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Equally permeable to blood capillaries.
Less permeable than blood capillaries.
More permeable than blood capillaries.
Systemic lupus erythematosus.
Type II diabetes.
Decreasing heart contractility.
Blocking the action of calcium.
Causing threshold to be reached more quickly.
Causing a decrease in stroke volume.
Decrease their activity as antigenic stimulus decreases.
May function in preventing autoimmune reactions.
Are the most thoroughly understood T cells.
Release cytokines that increase the activity of cytotoxic T cells and activated B cells.
Decrease sodium resorption.
Promote an increase in blood pressure.
Result in a larger output of urine.
Promote a decrease in blood volume.
If the osmotic pressure in the blood vessels is relatively higher than that in the tissues, tissue edema will result.
Chemical waste products follow the same general path as oxygen.
Oxygen diffuses up its concentration gradient.
Carbon dioxide moves from its production site into the interstitial fluid.
Areas of the vascular system where blood does not circulate.
The areas of the pancreas where insulin is produced.
Embryonic masses of mesodermal cells that give rise to the endothelial lining of blood vessels.
The regions of the liver where nutrients are extracted from visceral blood.
The superior vena cava and the ascending aorta.
Pulmonary trunk and the arch of the aorta.
Pulmonary veins and the arch of the aorta.
The ascending aorta and the right pulmonary artery.
Anterior cerebral artery.
Posterior cerebral artery.
Anterior communicating artery.
Posterior communicating artery.
Inhibit production of antibodies.
Reactivity with an antibody.
Contain many repeating chemical units.
Any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally.
Only that form of shock caused by large-scale loss of blood.
Shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume or after severe vomiting or diarrhea.
Hepatic portal circulation.
The skin will be cold and clammy.
Blood will be diverted to the digestive organs.
Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood.
Blood flow to the kidneys increases.
Great cardiac arteries
Occurs more rapidly and is stronger than the secondary response.
Occurs when memory cells are stimulated.
Has a lag period whole B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells.
Is another name for immunological memory.
Neutrophils may destroy themselves when they phagocytize large quantities of a foreign substance.
Kupffer cells are a type of neutrophil.
Macrophages release defensins during killing.
The respiratory burst characterizes eosinophil phagocytosis.
Systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure.
Systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure.
Diastolic pressure plus 1/3 (systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure).
Systolic pressure divided by diastolic pressure.
Peyer's Patches of the intestine.
Total body irradiation.
Using a xenograft.
Use of immuno-suppressive drugs.
Treatment with anti-lymphocyte serum.
The refractory period in skeletal muscle is much longer than that in cardiac muscle.
The influx of potassium ions from extracellular sources is the initiating event in cardiac muscle contraction.
The all-or-none law as applied to cardiac muscle means that the entire heart contracts as a unit or it doesn't contract at all.
Cardiac muscle cells are each innervated by a sympathetic nerve ending so that the nervous system can increase heart rate.
A lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output.
A rise in blood pressure due to change in cardiac output.
No change in blood pressure but a slower heart rate.
No change in blood pressure but a change in respiration.
Increases when environmental temperature rises.
Is not an important source of nutrients and oxygen for skin cells.
Increases when body temperature drops so that the skin does not freeze.
Is controlled mainly by decreasing pH.
Venous valves are formed from the tunica media.
Veins have a small lumen in relation to the thickness of the vessel wall.
Up to 35% of total body blood is in venous circulation at any given time.
Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs.
They usually directly recognize antigens which then activates a sub population of killer cells.
Once activated they cannot secrete cytokines.
Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2.
They will develop into cytotoxic T cells if antigen is complexed with class II MHC proteins.
Interleukin 1 proteins
Interleukin 2 proteins
Tunica interna (intima).
Composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains.
Incapable of being transferred from one person to another.
Three binding sites per antibody monomer.
It would be less than 1-2ms.
Contractions would last as long as the refractory period.
Tetanic contractions might occur which would stoop the heart's pumping action.
It would be much longer before cardiac cells could respond to a second stimulation.
Right lymphatic duct.
Can be determined by auscultation.
Is unrelated to health.
Can be improved by regular exercise.
Is determined by your genes and not subject to improvement.
Is in direct proportion to the total cross-sectional area of the blood vessels.
Is slower in the veins than in the capillaries since veins have a large diameter.
Is slower in the arteries than capillaries since they possess a relatively large diameter.
Is slowest in the capillaries since the total cross-sectional area is the greatest.
Is shorter than that in skeletal muscle.
Is the same as that in skeletal muscle.
Is longer than that in skeletal muscle.
Are routinely used in nasal sprays for common cold.
Interfere with viral replication within cells.
Are virus-specific so that an interferon produced against one virus could not protect cells against another virus.
Act by increasing the rate of cell division.
Posterior tibial artery.
Deep femoral artery.
Infusion of weakened viruses.
Passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus.
Long-term immune protection.
Aorta and pulmonary arteries.
A specific immune mechanism is often involved in directing complement to its target.
The membrane attack complex consists of complement proteins C3a through C5.
Complement proteins C1 through C9 act exclusively in the classical pathway.
Complement can be activated through three pathways: classical, secondary and alternate.
Targeting foreign cells so that complement proteins can cause cellular lysis.
Linking soluble antigens together so that they fall out of solution.
Binding and inactivating chemical toxins released by bacteria or other microorganisms.
Cross-linked cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched.
It is antigen-specific.
It is specific for a given organ.
It has memory.
It is systemic.
Is a connection between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta in the fetus.
Is a condition in which the heart valves do not completely close.
Connects the two atria in the fetal heart.
Is a shallow depression in the inter-ventricular septum.
Pump blood through a smaller valve.
Expand the thoracic cage during diastole.
Pump blood with greater pressure.
Accommodate a greater volume of blood.
While the atrium is contracting.
By the movement of blood from atrium to ventricle.
While the ventricle is in diastole.
When the ventricle is in systole.
Increased pressure in the lymphatics proximal to the blockage.
Abnormally high lymph drainage from the distal region.
Severe localized edema distal to the blockage.
Shrinkage of tissues distal to the blockage due to inadequate delivery of lymph.
Is a space between the fibrous pericardium and the serous pericardium.
Contains a lubricating fluid called serous fluid.
Is the region of the thoracic cavity that contains the heart.
Is another name for the chambers of the heart.
The coronary sinus.
The fossa ovalis.
Natural killer cells.
Neutralization is the process by which antibodies cause invading cells to clump together.
The most potent agglutinating agent is IgG.
Antibodies may directly destroy "invaders".
Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection.
Tunica interna (intima).
Allergic contact dermatitis.
Immune complex hypersensitivity.
All carry blood away from the heart.
Only large arteries are lined with endothelium.
All carry oxygenated blood to the heart.
All contain valves to prevent the back-flow of blood.
A lack of nutrients to feed into metabolic pathways.
An inadequate supply of lactic acid.
A decrease in the number of available mitochondria for energy production.
Decreased delivery of oxygen.
Replaces injured tissues with connective tissue.
Prevents the spread of the injurious agent to nearby tissue.
Disposes of cellular debris and pathogens.
Sets the stage for repair process.
Left upper arm.
Right side of the head and neck and right upper arm.
Myocardium of the heart.
Left side of the head.
The pumping action of the heart.
Contraction of the vessels themselves.
Skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement.
The mitral vale separtates the right atrium from the right ventricle.
Semilunar valves control the flow of blood into the heart.
The AV valves are supported by chordae tendinae so that they do not blow back up into the atria during ventricular contraction.
The tricuspid valve divides the left atrium from the left ventricle.
Contraction of ventricular muscle.
Excitation of the SA node.
Closure of the heart valves.
Friction of blood against the chamber walls.
Isografts are between identical twins.
Autografts are between two genetically identical individuals.
Allografts are between different species.
Xenografts are between individuals of the same species.
Hypovolemic caused by increased blood volume.
Vascular due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone.
Cardiogenic which results from any defect in blood vessels.
Circulatory where blood volume is normal and constant.
Insignificant because vessel diameter does not vary.
Significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius.
The only factor that influences resistance.
Significant because resistance is directly proportional to the blood vessel diameter.
It is where T cells are destroyed.
It forms the blood-thymus barrier.
It assists in the production of lymphocytes.
It increases the surface area of the thymic cortex.
Occur only in the brain.
Often occlude causing death if located in a vital area.
Form more freely than arterial anastomoses.
Connect veins together along their entire length.
Right thoracic cavity.
The type of antigen.
Memory cell production.
Enzymes present at the time of the invasion.
Production of complement and interferon.
Increases as blood vessel diameter increases.
Decreases with increasing length of blood vessel.
Increases as blood viscosity increases.
Is not a major factor in blood pressure in healthy individuals.
Exposure of previously "hidden" self-antigens to the adaptive immune system.
Cross-reaction of antibodies formed against foreign antigens with self-antigens.
A second exposure to an allergen.
Mutation followed by the appearance of membrane proteins not previously.
Islets of Langerhans.
Reducing its size.
Forming of a large number of cells that are unlike the original B cell.
Immediately producing antigen-specific antibodies.
Producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells.
The use of positive imagery by cancer patients has yet to be studied.
Many immune cells have receptors for neurotransmitters.
The ability of one's state of mind to influence immune function is now accepted as proven by the medical community.
There is no evidence that the nervous system can influence the immune system.