Physiology Quiz Questions

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  • 1. 
    The primary function of the kidneys involves regulating the ________ and the ________ of plasma and interstitial fluid.  
    • A. 

      Volume : temperature

    • B. 

      Volume : composition

    • C. 

      Temperature : composition

    • D. 

      Pressure : volume

    • E. 

      Temperature : osmolarity


  • 2. 
    If the plasma colloid osmotic pressure decreases while the glomerular capillary blood pressure and the Bowman’s capsule hydrostatic pressure stays the same the net filtration pressure will _____ leading to ______ fluid being filtered.  
    • A. 

      Increase : less

    • B. 

      Increase : more

    • C. 

      Decrease : less

    • D. 

      Decrease : more


  • 3. 
    Excretion: 
    • A. 

      Is the movement of a substance from glomerular capillary blood into the tubular lumen.

    • B. 

      Is the movement of a substance from the peritubular capillary blood into the tubular lumen.

    • C. 

      Is the movement of a substance from the tubular lumen into the peritubular capilliary blood.

    • D. 

      Is everything that is filtered or secreted and not subsequently absorbed.


  • 4. 
    Secretion: 
    • A. 

      Is the movement of a substance from glomerular capillary blood into the tubular lumen.

    • B. 

      Is the movement of a substance from the peritubular capillary blood into the tubular lumen.

    • C. 

      Is the movement of a substance from the tubular lumen into the peritubular capilliary blood.

    • D. 

      Is everything that is filtered or secreted and not subsequently absorbed.


  • 5. 
    Filtration: 
    • A. 

      Is the movement of a substance from glomerular capillary blood into the tubular lumen.

    • B. 

      Is the movement of a substance from the peritubular capillary blood into the tubular lumen.

    • C. 

      Is the movement of a substance from the tubular lumen into the peritubular capilliary blood.

    • D. 

      Is everything that is filtered or secreted and not subsequently absorbed.


  • 6. 
    Reabsorption:
    • A. 

      Is the movement of a substance from glomerular capillary blood into the tubular lumen.

    • B. 

      Is the movement of a substance from the peritubular capillary blood into the tubular lumen.

    • C. 

      Is the movement of a substance from the tubular lumen into the peritubular capilliary blood.

    • D. 

      Is everything that is filtered or secreted and not subsequently absorbed.


  • 7. 
    Which of the following is TRUE concerning glucose reabsorption from the proximal tubule?  
    • A. 

      Glucose is never 100% reabsorbed.

    • B. 

      Glucose is actively transported across the apical membrane by cotransport with sodium.

    • C. 

      Glucose is actively transported across the basolatereal membrane by a glucose pump.

    • D. 

      Glucose reabsorption is passive.

    • E. 

      All of the above are true of glucose reabsorption


  • 8. 
    The loop of Henle in juxtamedullary nephrons sets up the vertical osmotic gradient found in the medulla of the kidney by allowing reabsorption of ______ only in the descending limb and reabsorption of _____ only in the ascending limb.  
    • A. 

      Sodium : water

    • B. 

      Potassium : water

    • C. 

      Sodium : potassium

    • D. 

      Water : sodium

    • E. 

      Calcium : potassium


  • 9. 
    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) increases ______ reabsorption from the _____ .  
    • A. 

      Sodium : proximal tubules

    • B. 

      Water : proximal tubules

    • C. 

      Sodium : collecting duct

    • D. 

      Water : collecting duct

    • E. 

      Water : ascending limb of the loop of Henle


  • 10. 
    ______ is released from the adrenal cortex and causes and increase in _______ reabsorption and an increase in ______ secretion from the kidneys.  
    • A. 

      Rennin : sodium : potassium

    • B. 

      Aldosterone : potassium : calcium

    • C. 

      Antidiuretic hormone : water : sodium

    • D. 

      Rennin : potassium : calcium

    • E. 

      Aldosterone : sodium : potassium


  • 11. 
    ______ increases blood calcium levels by increasing calcium reabsorption from the nephrons while _______ decreases blood calcium levels by decreasing calcium reabsorption from the nephrons.  
    • A. 

      Calcitriol : calcitonin

    • B. 

      Parathyroid hormone : calcitonin

    • C. 

      Calcitonin : parathyroid hormone

    • D. 

      Parathyroid hormone : calcitriol

    • E. 

      Calcitriol : parathyroid hormone


  • 12. 
    Which of the following is the body’s first line of defense against changes in pH?
    • A. 

      Chemical buffer systems

    • B. 

      Renal compensation

    • C. 

      Immune compensation

    • D. 

      Respiratory compensation

    • E. 

      Central nervous system depression


  • 13. 
    Excessive vomiting can cause metabolic _____ due to increased _________.  
    • A. 

      Alkalosis : production of bicarbonate ions

    • B. 

      Acidosis :production of hydrogen ions

    • C. 

      Alkalosis : loss of hydrogen ions

    • D. 

      Acidosis : loss of bicarbonate ions

    • E. 

      Alkalosis : loss of phosphate ions


  • 14. 
    Which of the following is NOT an appropriate target for the immune system?  
    • A. 

      Pathogenic bacteria

    • B. 

      Body cell infected by a virus

    • C. 

      Intestinal parasite

    • D. 

      Inhaled dust mite feces

    • E. 

      Body cell that has become cancerous


  • 15. 
    The symptoms of inflammation, redness and swelling, are due to:  
    • A. 

      Capillaries in the area of the infection rupturing and spilling blood into the tissue.

    • B. 

      Capillaries in the area of the infection becoming more permeable and allowing more fluid to leave and enter the tissue.

    • C. 

      Blockage of the lymph vessels by the infecting agent.

    • D. 

      Capillaries in the area of the infection becoming less permeable and allowing less fluid to enter from the tissues.

    • E. 

      None of the above.


  • 16. 
    Which of the following parts of the innate or nonspecific immune system causes cells to produce virus blocking enzymes?  
    • A. 

      Complement system

    • B. 

      Interferon

    • C. 

      NK cells

    • D. 

      Histamine

    • E. 

      Inflammation


  • 17. 
    Which of the following parts of the innate or nonspecific immune system is present in the blood in an inactive form until it comes in contact with a bacteria bound with antibodies or the carbohydrate chains on a bacteria.
    • A. 

      Complement system

    • B. 

      Interferon

    • C. 

      NK cells

    • D. 

      Histamine

    • E. 

      Inflammation


  • 18. 
    A large, complex molecule that triggers a specific immune response against itself when it gains entry into the body is known as:  
    • A. 

      An interferon

    • B. 

      A complement

    • C. 

      An antibody

    • D. 

      An antigen

    • E. 

      An opsonin


  • 19. 
    When virgin B cells come in contact with an antigen they have a receptor for, they proliferate and differentiate into ________, which secrete the antibodies that attack the antigen and _______, which remain in the body and provide a quick response upon re-exposure to the same antigen.  
    • A. 

      Cytotoxic cells : helper cells

    • B. 

      Helper cells : cytotoxic cells

    • C. 

      Plasma cells : memory cells

    • D. 

      Memory cells : plasma cells

    • E. 

      Plasma cells : helper cells


  • 20. 
    Which of the following is NOT accomplished by antibodies?  
    • A. 

      Neutralization of bacterial toxins.

    • B. 

      Activation of the complement system.

    • C. 

      Direct destruction of foreign cells.

    • D. 

      Enhancement of phagocytosis.

    • E. 

      Stimulation of killer cells.


  • 21. 
    A secondary response to an invading microorganism is:  
    • A. 

      Launched by memory cells.

    • B. 

      Slower and weaker than the primary response.

    • C. 

      Faster, stronger and longer-lasting than the primary response.

    • D. 

      Both (a) and (b)

    • E. 

      Both (a) and (c)


  • 22. 
    Receptors on every T cell detect foreign antigens on cells of the body by their association with the ________ on the surface of the infected cells of the body.  
    • A. 

      Membrane attack complex

    • B. 

      CD4

    • C. 

      CD8

    • D. 

      Major histocompatibility (MHC) molecule

    • E. 

      Antibodies


  • 23. 
    Hay fever that occurs when people are exposed to pollen involves an excess release of IgE, which binds to ________ and causes them to ________.
    • A. 

      Mast cells : degranulate, releasing histamine

    • B. 

      Pollen : stimulate the release of histamine

    • C. 

      Macrophages : destroy the pollen whose by-products stimulate histamine release

    • D. 

      T helper cells : stimulate the proliferation of cytotoxic T cells

    • E. 

      Mast cells : stimulate the proliferation of cytotoxic T cells


  • 24. 
    Digestive secretions include:  
    • A. 

      Enzymes

    • B. 

      Bile

    • C. 

      Mucous

    • D. 

      Bicarbonate ions

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 25. 
    Which of the following does NOT occur in the mouth?   
    • A. 

      Teeth tear and grind food.

    • B. 

      Saliva moistens and lubricates food.

    • C. 

      The tongue monitors the quality of the food.

    • D. 

      Protein digestion begins.

    • E. 

      The lips help procure and retain food.


  • 26. 
    Which of the following is the primary absorptive organ of the digestive system?   
    • A. 

      Salivary glands

    • B. 

      Oral cavity

    • C. 

      Stomach

    • D. 

      Small intestine

    • E. 

      Colon


  • 27. 
    The major chemical digestive activity occurring in the stomach is:   
    • A. 

      Digestion of starch

    • B. 

      Digestion of protein

    • C. 

      Digestion of fat

    • D. 

      Absorption of monosaccharides

    • E. 

      Digestion of vitamins


  • 28. 
    The chyme entering the intestine from the stomach is:   
    • A. 

      very basic and quickly buffered by hydrogen ions secreted by the enterocytes.

    • B. 

      Very basic and quickly buffered by digestive enzymes excreted from the pancreas.

    • C. 

      Very acidic and quickly buffered by hydrogen ions secreted by the enterocytes.

    • D. 

      Very acidic and quickly buffered by digestive enzymes excreted from the pancreas.

    • E. 

      Very acidic and quickly buffered by bicarbonate excreted from the pancreas.


  • 29. 
    Which of the descriptions of the absorption of nutrients from the small intestine is correct? 
    • A. 

      Glucose is absorbed by secondary active transport across the apical membrane and facilitated diffusion across the basolateral membrane of enterocytes.

    • B. 

      Fatty acids are absorbed by secondary active transport across the apical membrane and facilitated diffusion across the basolateral membrane of enterocytes.

    • C. 

      Amino acids simply diffuse across the apical and basolateral membrane of enterocytes.

    • D. 

      Water soluble vitamins are carried by micelles to facilitate their absorption.

    • E. 

      Amino acids are packaged into proteins within the enterocyte and released by exocytosis and enter the lymph system.


  • 30. 
    Dietary fat:   
    • A. 

      Is emulsified by bile.

    • B. 

      Is digested by lipases.

    • C. 

      Is packaged into chylomicrons in the epithelial cells lining the intestine.

    • D. 

      Enters the lymph system.

    • E. 

      All of the above.


  • 31. 
    The exocrine portion of the pancreas:   
    • A. 

      Secretes insulin into the bloodstream.

    • B. 

      Secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum.

    • C. 

      Secretes bicarbonate into the duodenum.

    • D. 

      All of the above.

    • E. 

      Both (b) and (c).


  • 32. 
    Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of the liver?   
    • A. 

      Secretion of bile

    • B. 

      Synthesis of albumin

    • C. 

      Removal of aged erythrocytes

    • D. 

      Secretion of H+

    • E. 

      Synthesis and modification of hormones


  • 33. 
    The bacteria in the large intestine:   
    • A. 

      Are beneficial

    • B. 

      Ferment fiber

    • C. 

      Produce vitamin K

    • D. 

      Enhance intestinal immunity by out competing pathogenic bacteria.

    • E. 

      All of the above.


  • 34. 
    Gametes like eggs and sperm are haploid containing ____ chromosomes, while somatic cells are diploid containing ___ chromosomes.   
    • A. 

      46,23

    • B. 

      46,92

    • C. 

      23,46

    • D. 

      92,46

    • E. 

      2,4


  • 35. 
    Which of the following statements concerning sex determination and sex differentiation is correct?   
    • A. 

      An XY combination of sex chromosomes is a genetic male.

    • B. 

      The secretion of testosterone by the fetal gonads induces the development of male external genitalia and reproductive tract.

    • C. 

      The secretion of estrogen by the fetal gonads induces the development of female external genitalia and reproductive tract.

    • D. 

      Both (a) and (b) above.

    • E. 

      All of the above.


  • 36. 
    Leydig or interstitial cells:   
    • A. 

      Secrete inhibin.

    • B. 

      Form blood-testis barrier.

    • C. 

      Provide nutrients for developing sperm.

    • D. 

      Secrete testosterone.

    • E. 

      Secrete fluid into lumen of seminiferous tubules to support sperm development and transport.


  • 37. 
    The penis becomes erect:   
    • A. 

      Due to sympathetic induced vasoconstriction of penile arterioles.

    • B. 

      Due to parasympathetic induced vasoconstriction of penile arterioles.

    • C. 

      Due to sympathetic induced vasodilation of penile arterioles.

    • D. 

      Due to parasympathetic induced vasodilation of penile arterioles.

    • E. 

      Due to sympathetic induced vasoconstriction of penile veins.


  • 38. 
    Spermatogenesis: 
    • A. 

      Occurs in the seminiferous tubules.

    • B. 

      Begins with haploid spermatogonia that undergo meiosis to form diploid sperm.

    • C. 

      Is controlled by prolactin.

    • D. 

      Occurs only prior to birth in males.

    • E. 

      All of the above.


  • 39. 
    Which of the following is an incorrect pairing of a structure in the female reproductive system and its function?   
    • A. 

      Ovary – produce eggs and sex hormones

    • B. 

      Oviduct – conducts egg from ovary to uterus

    • C. 

      Uterus - site of fertilization

    • D. 

      Cervix – opening of uterus that leads to the vagina

    • E. 

      Vagina – receptacle for penis and birth canal


  • 40. 
    The number of primary oocytes in a female: 
    • A. 

      Is fixed prior to birth.

    • B. 

      Is maintained constant during her reproductive life because those that are lost are continuously replaced by an equal number of new primary oocytes.

    • C. 

      Increases at the time of menopaouse.

    • D. 

      Is unlimited.

    • E. 

      None of the above.


  • 41. 
    During the ovarian cycle after the secondary oocyte has been ovulated the follicle cells become the _______ which secretes estrogen and progesterone.   
    • A. 

      Polar body

    • B. 

      Zona pellucida

    • C. 

      Corpus luteum

    • D. 

      Endometrium

    • E. 

      Placenta


  • 42. 
    Ovulation is triggered by the release of _______ from the anterior pituitary.   
    • A. 

      Prolactin

    • B. 

      Estrogen

    • C. 

      Progesterone

    • D. 

      Luteinizing hormone (LH)

    • E. 

      Oxytocin


  • 43. 
    If fertilization and subsequently implantation occur what hormone is produced by the embryo to prevent the corpus luteum from degenerating?   
    • A. 

      Prolactin

    • B. 

      Oxytocin

    • C. 

      Testosterone

    • D. 

      Human chorionic gonadotropin

    • E. 

      Growth hormone


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