Human Biology Practice Test For Final

72 Questions  I  By Funkytrunks22
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 Human Biology Practice Test For Final
This is the practice test (from last year? ) for the Final.

  
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Questions and Answers

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  • 1. 
    If the neutrons in a nucleus of an atom are more numerous than the number of protons in the nucleas, then:
    • A. 

      The atom is considered to be an ion.

    • B. 

      The nucleus is not possible.

    • C. 

      The atomic weight will always be the same as the number of electrons in the atom.

    • D. 

      The atom has extra electrons

    • E. 

      None of the above is true.


  • 2. 
    In the human body, the food we eat is ultimately stored in what form of energy?
    • A. 

      ATP

    • B. 

      Carbon Dioxide

    • C. 

      Fructose

    • D. 

      Heat

    • E. 

      Oxygen


  • 3. 
    What is a non-polar molecule?
    • A. 

      The atoms bond by neutrons instead of electrons.

    • B. 

      Only those which contain hydrogen.

    • C. 

      Water.

    • D. 

      The atoms share the electrons equally.

    • E. 

      Ions that become neutral from bonding.


  • 4. 
    Which organelle is the site of most ATP formation in the cell?
    • A. 

      Mitochondrion

    • B. 

      Nucleus

    • C. 

      Ribosomes

    • D. 

      Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 5. 

    The name of the process shown here is:
    • A. 

      Active Transport

    • B. 

      Condensation Reactions

    • C. 

      DNA Synthesis

    • D. 

      Facilitated Diffusion

    • E. 

      Osmosis


  • 6. 
    This is found in the membrane and forms ATP.
    • A. 

      ATP Synthase

    • B. 

      Glycolysis of cellular respiration

    • C. 

      Krebs cycle of cellular respiration

    • D. 

      Protein complexes which pass electrons

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 7. 
    Which of the following is a characteristic of living organisms?
    • A. 

      Living organisms respond to the environment.

    • B. 

      Living organisms are composed of one or more cells.

    • C. 

      Living organisms use energy.

    • D. 

      Living organisms reproduce.

    • E. 

      All of the above are characteristics of living things.


  • 8. 
    Which bond is the weakest?
    • A. 

      Covalent

    • B. 

      Hydrogen

    • C. 

      Ionic

    • D. 

      Peptide

    • E. 

      Both C and D are the least strong (weakest)


  • 9. 
    The last heart chamber to which blood flows before going to the body is the:
    • A. 

      Left atrium

    • B. 

      Left ventricle

    • C. 

      Aorta

    • D. 

      Right ventricle

    • E. 

      Right atrium


  • 10. 
    The ______ causes contractions of the ventricles of the heart.
    • A. 

      Vena cava

    • B. 

      AB Node

    • C. 

      AV Node

    • D. 

      Aorta

    • E. 

      Air pressure in the lungs


  • 11. 
    What is a characteristic of DNA?
    • A. 

      DNA can be replicated.

    • B. 

      DNA contains phosphate (P).

    • C. 

      DNA contains ribose as its sugar.

    • D. 

      A and B are correct, C is incorrect.

    • E. 

      B and C are correct, A is incorrect.


  • 12. 
    After an mRNA molecule has been produced:
    • A. 

      A complementary mRNA copy must be made so that the mRNA has two strands.

    • B. 

      It leaves the nucleus.

    • C. 

      It must be made into a circle by joining the ends.

    • D. 

      It digests a ribosome.

    • E. 

      None of the above is correct.


  • 13. 
    DNA replication occurs during:
    • A. 

      Interphase

    • B. 

      Prophase

    • C. 

      Metaphase

    • D. 

      Anaphase

    • E. 

      Telophase


  • 14. 
    If A is dominant to a, the offspring of the cross AA  x aa will:
    • A. 

      Be homozygous.

    • B. 

      Have the same genotype as the AA parent.

    • C. 

      Have the same genotype as the aa parent.

    • D. 

      Display the same phenotype as the AA parent.

    • E. 

      Display the same phenotype as the aa parent.


  • 15. 
    What is a codon?
    • A. 

      A codon is three amino acids in a row.

    • B. 

      A three amino acid portion of mRNA.

    • C. 

      A three nucleotide base sequence in mRNA which codes for an amino acid.

    • D. 

      The sugar phosphate backbone.

    • E. 

      Three DNA bases which code for a tRNA molecule.


  • 16. 
    Air enters the human lung because of:
    • A. 

      Suction from the lung capillaries.

    • B. 

      Vacuum in the pharynx.

    • C. 

      Blood pressure.

    • D. 

      Squeezing of the trachea.

    • E. 

      Atmospheric air pressure.


  • 17. 
    This causes the membrane potential to rise (depolarize) all along the axon.
    • A. 

      K+

    • B. 

      Na+

    • C. 

      Ca++

    • D. 

      Neurotransmitter chemical

    • E. 

      Na+/K+ pump (Sodium/Potassium pump)


  • 18. 
    This changes shape to move actin.
    • A. 

      Actin

    • B. 

      ADP/ATP

    • C. 

      Myosin

    • D. 

      Tropomyosin

    • E. 

      Troponin


  • 19. 
    Glucose is removed from the nephron and reabsorbed into the blood from the:
    • A. 

      Bowman's capsule.

    • B. 

      Collecting tubule.

    • C. 

      Distal tubule.

    • D. 

      Loop of Henle.

    • E. 

      Proximal tubule.


  • 20. 
    The waste product urea is formed in the:
    • A. 

      Bowman's capsule.

    • B. 

      Collecting tubule.

    • C. 

      Gall bladder.

    • D. 

      Liver.

    • E. 

      Red blood cells.


  • 21. 
    A specific immune response means that:
    • A. 

      Antibodies are produced only by T cells rather than B cells.

    • B. 

      The response is towards a specific antigen.

    • C. 

      Activated B cells are produced but memory B cells are not produced.

    • D. 

      It occurs only during specific times of the day.

    • E. 

      Only specific cuts or wounds are protected.


  • 22. 
    One thing which helps make a vaccination work is:
    • A. 

      A mast cell.

    • B. 

      Platelets.

    • C. 

      Memory B cells.

    • D. 

      A slower response to a specific antigen the second time it invades the body.

    • E. 

      Non-specific defense mechanisms.


  • 23. 
    Cell membrane proteins called Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) serve to:
    • A. 

      Stimulate release of antibodies from helper T cells.

    • B. 

      Allow the attachment of a muscle to a bone.

    • C. 

      Prevent the backflow of blood in the arteries.

    • D. 

      Slow the clotting of blood to prevent a scar.

    • E. 

      None of the above is correct.


  • 24. 
    Which of the following type of bond is used when a peptide bond is formed?
    • A. 

      Covalent

    • B. 

      Ionic

    • C. 

      Both covalent and ionic bonds.

    • D. 

      Bond formed by removing CO2 (carbon dioxide).

    • E. 

      None of the above is used when a peptide bond is formed.


  • 25. 
    A common characteristic of the formation of polymers is that:
    • A. 

      All types of polymers are made only by plants.

    • B. 

      All types of polymers use peptide bonds.

    • C. 

      All types of polymers are produced using one or more dehydration(=condensation) reactions.

    • D. 

      All types of polymers form CO2 (carbon dioxide) as they form.

    • E. 

      All types of polymers use the same monomers, only arranged in different ways.


  • 26. 
    Which of the following statements is NOT true?
    • A. 

      Covalent bonds are strong bonds.

    • B. 

      Covalent bonds form during polymer formation

    • C. 

      The mitochondrion has as its function to produce lipids (= fats).

    • D. 

      A mitochondrion has two separate membranes.

    • E. 

      All membranes are made of a phospholipid bi-layer.


  • 27. 
    The tissue type that can be found covering organs and lining openings in the body is:
    • A. 

      Bone

    • B. 

      Epithelium

    • C. 

      Muscle

    • D. 

      Nervous

    • E. 

      Skull


  • 28. 
    Which of the following is a lipid (= fat) and is found in cell membranes?
    • A. 

      Amino Acid

    • B. 

      Cholesterol

    • C. 

      Cytoplasm

    • D. 

      Glucose

    • E. 

      Lysosome


  • 29. 
    The smallest unit of matter which cannot be broken down chemically is:
    • A. 

      Atom

    • B. 

      Cell

    • C. 

      Molecule

    • D. 

      Organ

    • E. 

      Tissue


  • 30. 

    In the following diagram, water is entering the cell.  Which of the following is a true statement concerning that diagram, or is (e) the correct reply?
    • A. 

      Water is moving because of active transport.

    • B. 

      Water is moving from low concentration to high concentration.

    • C. 

      Water is moving through an aquaporin, a water pore.

    • D. 

      This water movement produces ATP.

    • E. 

      More than one of the above statements is correct.


  • 31. 
    If one sees the chromosomes of a cell aligned at the center of the cell in a straight line, this cell will be in:
    • A. 

      The G1 phase

    • B. 

      The G2 phase

    • C. 

      This occurs in both the G1 and G2 phases.

    • D. 

      Metaphase

    • E. 

      Prophase


  • 32. 

    Which of the following diagrams would accurately depict how water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other?  [The squiggle represents a hydrogen bond].
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      4


  • 33. 
    If a parent cell (assume 1 pair of chromosomes) is to undergo normal mitosis, then each of the daughter cells will have:
    • A. 

      1 pair of chromosomes

    • B. 

      1 chromosome

    • C. 

      4 DNA molecules

    • D. 

      2 chromatids

    • E. 

      1 DNA molecule


  • 34. 

    Which of the following regions which are indicated by letters, is a nitrogenous base of a DNA nucleotide?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D


  • 35. 

    A ribosome has 3 sites, An E, a P and an A site.  Into which site does tRNA enter in order to attach to mRNA?
    • A. 

      E

    • B. 

      P

    • C. 

      A

    • D. 

      TRNA may enter either the E or the A site, but usually the A.

    • E. 

      Except for the first tRNA, tRNA usually enters the A site.


  • 36. 

    Assume 2 pair of chromosomes in the parent cell, which have already undergone DNA replication. This diagram below illustrates the Mendel's Law of Segregation because:
    • A. 

      Both members of a pair are in the form of an X like structure,as shown in the diagram.

    • B. 

      One pair of chromosomes are found in one cell,the other pair in the other cell.

    • C. 

      One chromosome of each pair is found in each cell.

    • D. 

      All four chromatids in one of the above cells are identical,same with the other cell.

    • E. 

      Crossing over has occurred.


  • 37. 

    The following diagram is of 2 chromosomes of one pair, even though they are of different colors. A true statement concerning this diagram is that:
    • A. 

      The genes A and B, as pictured, will be never found in the same gamete after meiosis.

    • B. 

      The chromosomes can never undergo crossing over during meiosis.

    • C. 

      The chromosomes, as pictured, have been replicated already for mitosis.

    • D. 

      The genes A B and a b are linked.

    • E. 

      The genes A and b cannot ever be on the same chromosome.


  • 38. 

    In the following molecule of mRNA, the number underneath the start codon(s) is (are):
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      Both 2 and 3 are START codons.

    • E. 

      The first to start the chain (2 or 3) depending on the direction will be the START codon.


  • 39. 

    There is a mistake in the following DNA. Which numbered arrow points to this mistake?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      4

    • E. 

      None of the arrows points to a mistake.


  • 40. 
    Assume A is normal vision, a is colorblind vision. In the cross XAXa x XaY, one can say that:
    • A. 

      All possible boys will be colorblind.

    • B. 

      No possible boys will be colorblind.

    • C. 

      All possible girls will be colorblind.

    • D. 

      No possible girls will be colorblind.

    • E. 

      None of the above are true.


  • 41. 
    The epiglottis functions to prevent food from entering the trachea. It is necessary to do this because:
    • A. 

      The esophagus is behind the trachea and food must pass over the trachea to reach the esophagus.

    • B. 

      Otherwise blood enters the trachea.

    • C. 

      One cannot get air into the trachea unless it comes through the mouth. The epiglottis allows this to happen.

    • D. 

      It prevents breathing in (inhalation) while chewing.

    • E. 

      Oxygen cannot enter the trachea otherwise.


  • 42. 
    When an immune system cell ingests an antigen, it may become an antigen-presenting cell. This means that:
    • A. 

      The cell will completely destroy the antigen and then stimulate other cells, kind of like giving them a present.

    • B. 

      A fragment of the antigen is moved into the MHC proteins of the membrane.

    • C. 

      A fragment of the antigen is given to each of two other cell types.

    • D. 

      It must be a macrophage.

    • E. 

      It must be a B cell.


  • 43. 
    Where would one find MHC proteins?
    • A. 

      On a bacterium which contains one or more antigens.

    • B. 

      Floating free in the plasma of the blood.

    • C. 

      In mast cells.

    • D. 

      Only associated with the immune system cells

    • E. 

      On all cells of the body, they denote "self".


  • 44. 
    Which of the following releases amylase?
    • A. 

      Esophagus

    • B. 

      Large Intestine

    • C. 

      Pancreas

    • D. 

      Small Intestine

    • E. 

      Stomach


  • 45. 
    The pharynx is:
    • A. 

      The same as the epiglottis.

    • B. 

      The same as a nostril.

    • C. 

      The storage site for feces (= poop).

    • D. 

      The area shared by both digestive and respiratory systems at the back of the mouth.

    • E. 

      A muscle which controls release of material from the gall bladder.


  • 46. 
    The material which acts upon pepsinogen to change it to pepsin is:
    • A. 

      Amylase

    • B. 

      Urea

    • C. 

      HCl (hydrochloric acid)

    • D. 

      Bicarbonate from the parietal cells.

    • E. 

      Proteins in the stomach


  • 47. 

    A tendon is indicated by arrow number _____?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      4

    • E. 

      5


  • 48. 

    One can say about the membrane protein in the following illustration:
    • A. 

      Only K+ is moved by this protein.

    • B. 

      Only Na+ is moved by this protein.

    • C. 

      It usually releases neurotransmitters at the end of the axon.

    • D. 

      It requires ATP to function properly.

    • E. 

      Both Na+ and K+ are moved by this protein, Na+ goes in, K+ goes out.


  • 49. 
    __________ hormones have receptors which bind the hormone and then the hormone/receptor complex attaches to DNA.
    • A. 

      All

    • B. 

      No

    • C. 

      Very Large

    • D. 

      Peptide

    • E. 

      Steroid


  • 50. 
    In the hormonal stimulation of cAMP formation, the molecule which is activates adenylyl cyclase to form cAMP is:
    • A. 

      A steroid

    • B. 

      A G protein

    • C. 

      ATP

    • D. 

      A receptor

    • E. 

      A cAMP molecule


  • 51. 
    The type of hormone which activates a pathway which is already present in the cell, but in an inactive state, is:
    • A. 

      A steroid hormone

    • B. 

      A peptide hormone

    • C. 

      ATP

    • D. 

      Found inside the target cell

    • E. 

      Both B and D are correct


  • 52. 
    CAMP is formed from:
    • A. 

      ADP

    • B. 

      ATP

    • C. 

      AMP

    • D. 

      Glucose

    • E. 

      Amino acids


  • 53. 
    This controls the level of glucose in the blood.
    • A. 

      Anterior Pituitary

    • B. 

      Pancreas

    • C. 

      Posterior Pituitary

    • D. 

      Ovary

    • E. 

      Testis


  • 54. 
    This is composed of one cell type, i.e. neurosecretory cells.
    • A. 

      Anterior Pituitary

    • B. 

      Pancreas

    • C. 

      Posterior Pituitary

    • D. 

      Ovary

    • E. 

      Testis


  • 55. 
    This releases about 10 different hormones, all of which are peptides.
    • A. 

      Anterior Pituitary

    • B. 

      Pancreas

    • C. 

      Posterior Pituitary

    • D. 

      Ovary

    • E. 

      Testis


  • 56. 
    This produces both progesterone and estrogen.
    • A. 

      Anterior Pituitary

    • B. 

      Pancreas

    • C. 

      Posterior Pituitary

    • D. 

      Ovary

    • E. 

      Testis


  • 57. 
    This is stimulated by LH (Luteinizing hormone) to produce testosterone.
    • A. 

      Anterior Pituitary

    • B. 

      Pancreas

    • C. 

      Posterior Pituitary

    • D. 

      Ovary

    • E. 

      Testis


  • 58. 
    Anti-diuretic hormone, (ADH) will cause less _________ to be released in the urine.
    • A. 

      Drugs

    • B. 

      Glucose

    • C. 

      Salt

    • D. 

      Water

    • E. 

      None of the above are correct.


  • 59. 
    In the nitrogen cycle, __________ are responsible for fixing nitrogen.
    • A. 

      Bacteria

    • B. 

      Plants

    • C. 

      Primary consumers

    • D. 

      Both A and B can fix nitrogen.

    • E. 

      None of the above can fix nitrogen.


  • 60. 
    In an ecosystem, _________ move(s) in a one way path, while ________ move(s) in a cycle.
    • A. 

      Carbon ; oxygen

    • B. 

      Nutrients ; carbon

    • C. 

      Energy ; nutrients

    • D. 

      Light ; heat

    • E. 

      Nutrients ; energy


  • 61. 
    Assume a cell normally has receptors for a hormone, then for some reason it no longer has those receptors. The loss of receptors will mean that the cell:
    • A. 

      Will move to a different part of the body.

    • B. 

      Will die.

    • C. 

      Will begin to divide.

    • D. 

      Will no longer respond to that hormone.

    • E. 

      Will no longer respond to any hormone.


  • 62. 
    __________ in an ecosystem.
    • A. 

      Energy cycles and material flows

    • B. 

      Energy and material flow

    • C. 

      Energy and material cycle

    • D. 

      Energy flows and material cycles

    • E. 

      Energy flows, material cycles except for carbon which flows


  • 63. 
    Steroid which helps to stimulate sperm maturation.
    • A. 

      Estrogen and/or Progesterone

    • B. 

      Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

    • C. 

      Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

    • D. 

      Testosterone

    • E. 

      None of the hormones listed are correct


  • 64. 
    Stimulates ovary to cause ovulation.
    • A. 

      Estrogen and/or Progesterone

    • B. 

      Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

    • C. 

      Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

    • D. 

      Testosterone

    • E. 

      None of the hormones listed are correct


  • 65. 
    Stimulates interstitial cells.
    • A. 

      Estrogen and/or Progesterone

    • B. 

      Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

    • C. 

      Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

    • D. 

      Testosterone

    • E. 

      None of the hormones listed are correct


  • 66. 
    Stimulates release of LH/FSH when in high concentration in blood.
    • A. 

      Estrogen and/or Progesterone

    • B. 

      Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

    • C. 

      Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

    • D. 

      Testosterone

    • E. 

      None of the hormones listed are correct


  • 67. 
    Hormone which maintains the corpus luteum.
    • A. 

      Estrogen and/or Progesterone

    • B. 

      Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

    • C. 

      Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

    • D. 

      Testosterone

    • E. 

      None of the hormones listed are correct


  • 68. 
    Produced by corpus luteum.
    • A. 

      Estrogen and/or Progesterone

    • B. 

      Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

    • C. 

      Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

    • D. 

      Testosterone

    • E. 

      None of the hormones listed are correct


  • 69. 
    The only peptide formed by the testis.
    • A. 

      Estrogen and/or Progesterone

    • B. 

      Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

    • C. 

      Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

    • D. 

      Testosterone

    • E. 

      None of the hormones listed are correct


  • 70. 
    Present in the female but not the male.
    • A. 

      Estrogen and/or Progesterone

    • B. 

      Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

    • C. 

      Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

    • D. 

      Testosterone

    • E. 

      None of the hormones listed are correct


  • 71. 
    Causes buildup of uterine lining.
    • A. 

      Estrogen and/or Progesterone

    • B. 

      Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

    • C. 

      Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

    • D. 

      Testosterone

    • E. 

      None of the hormones listed are correct


  • 72. 

    In the following negative feedback loop, a hormone controls the level of a material in the blood.  What will occur at the site marked with an X? [Start at the fat, open arrow.]
    • A. 

      Activation of a cell to produce more glucose.

    • B. 

      The release of the hormone will be stopped.

    • C. 

      Attachment of hormone to receptor.

    • D. 

      Increased the release of hormone.

    • E. 

      Destruction of the hormone.


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